Skip to main content

Full text of "Early British botanists and their gardens"

See other formats

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2014 







R. T. GUNTHER, M.A., F.L.S. 


With Nine Plates and Twenty-one other Illustrations 







Priatcd in England 


The following accounts of some Botanists of the 
Elizabethan and Jacobean age have gathered around the 
literary remains of one who, but twelve years ago, was 
introduced to us as 'A forgotten Botanist of the seven- 
teenth Century By a strange hazard we can now come 
closer to John Goodyer through his own writings than 
to any of the contemporaries whose names have been 
writ larger on the roll of the history of botany : and 
through him, other botanists of distinction have been 
made known, who otherwise would have remained in 
almost total oblivion ; for as a modern authority has 
recently discovered, ' Every writer of the period owned 
help from Goodyer in one way or another'.^ 

The Goodyer papers serve to illustrate missing chapters 
in the histories of Botany and Horticulture in that most 
interesting period of British Science, the hundred years 
which preceded the foundation of the Royal Society. 
Authors of standard histories of British Botany, largely 
based on German authority, have been apt to skim rapidly 
over this period, in which several of our countrymen were 
in some respects well abreast of Linnaeus. And these 
manuscripts with all the annotated books, which Goodyer 
bequeathed to Magdalen College in 1664, are probably 
the completest and most useful collection, for a study of 
English Botany that was not merely pre-Linnean, but was 
pre-Morisonian and pre-Raian as well. 

In his scientific attitude of mind Goodyer was superior 
to several of the first members of the Royal Society. 

^ White, Bristol Flora, p. 57. 



He had no use for the superstitions of Ashmole or 
Aubrey, nor would he, Hke Sir Kenelm Digby, have fed 
his wife on capons fattened with the flesh of vipers in 
order to preserve her beauty. Nor would he, like the 
credulous Sir R. Moray, have seen tiny geese, perfectly 
shaped, in little shells adhering to trees among the western 
islands of Scotland. 

His notes begin in 1616, show the period of his greatest 
activity to have been in 162J, and become fewer after 
1633. The material came into my hands in the form of 
thousands of scraps of paper in disorder and in various 
handwritings. These had first to be sorted and bound ; 
and then, although Goodyer could, and did generally 
write a remarkably clear hand, his jotted notes are 
scribbles, and exceedingly difficult to read. In some cases 
weeks elapsed before the meaning of the more difficult 
passages dawned upon me, and even with expert help, 
there are still unread words in our text. Our readers 
will kindly remember that many notes, that we have 
printed as indications of occupations and interests, were 
solely intended for the eye of the writer. 

Further biographical details have been gleaned from 
visits to various parts of the country, from ledgers 
relating to College estates, from the parish registers of 
several Hampshire towns, from the account books of the 
Weston Charity at Petersfield, from wills at Somerset 

As the work progressed new facts relating to Goodyer s 
botanical contemporaries emerged, which were scarcely 
less interesting than those relating to himself Except 
in the papers which we now describe, there is no other 
surviving record of their work for Botany or Horticulture. 
This is due in some measure to the disturbances of the 
Civil War, partly too to the death of such workers as 



How, Dale, and Johnson at an early age, and before the 
complete publication of their v^^ork, and partly to the 
absence at that early period of any School of English 
Botany or of any botanical journal. 

Thanks to Goodyer we are now able to print much new 
matter relating to the plant-records of Sir John Salusbury, 
William Mount, Richard Shanne, Walter Stonehouse, 
William How, Dr. John Dale, and others, to publish 
many ' first evidences ' of the plants of Kent, Hampshire, 
and other counties, and to list the garden plants grown 
by John Coys, John Parkinson, the elder Tradescant, 
and Morison ; and in some instances from their original 
writings. To many, our lists of pre-Linnean plant-names may 
appear uninteresting, but we believe that such publication 
is a necessary preliminary to the preparation of any com- 
prehensive monograph on the subject of the introduction 
of plants into English Gardens, whence a few, e. g. the 
Italian Ivy-leaved Toadflax, have run wild all over the 

If in this compilation I have disentangled a few of the 
knots in that ancient skein of names and dates, I rest 
satisfied. I know that the fabric is left with plenty of 
'ends' for other workers, and, like the Irishman's net, is 
full of holes. 

It remains for me to acknowledge my obligations to 
my College, not only for having given me the opportunity 
of finding and arranging the Goodyerian manuscripts, but 
also for having made a most substantial contribution 
towards the heavy cost of the printing. St. John's and 
Jesus Colleges have likewise assisted with grants in aid 
of the publication of the plant records of How and 
Salusbury, distinguished members of their respective 
Societies, and the Delegates of the Clarendon Press have 
assisted financially at a very difficult time and by the loan 



of their block of the Tradescant portrait. Mr. J. Murray 
has lent blocks of Lobel and Parkinson. Miss Lacell 
permitted me to look over Goodyer's house in Petersfield 
and Mr. C. Branfill Russell pointed out the vestiges of 
Coys's house and garden. The design of a partridge with 
a good ear of wheat in its bill, which is impressed on the 
binding of this volume, is the crest of Mr. Edward Goodyear, 
who has kindly lent the stamps with which all the books 
bequeathed to Magdalen College by his kinsman have been 

I have derived much advantage from the printed works 
of my predecessors, Canon Vaughan the 'discoverer', 
Miss Wotton the ' pioneer ', and Mr. Druce the ' producer ' 
of the forgotten Hampshire botanist of the Seventeenth 
Century. On certain doubtful points I have had the 
advantage of the experience of Dr. Church, and in the 
reading of difficult passages, of Messrs. Salter, Driver, 
Craster, and Gambier-Parry. 

My grateful acknowledgements are due to my friends 
Sir David Prain, Professor Keeble, the officers of the 
Botanical Department of the British Museum, Dr. Rendel 
and Mr. James Britten ; Dr. Stapf of the Kew Herbarium, 
and especially Dr. Day don Jackson, the biographer of 
Gerard and Turner. To all I must express my thanks for 
much valuable assistance. I have also to thank my wife 
for sacrificing much time in the labour of revising both 
manuscript and proofs. 


Magdalen College. 
February 1922. 



Life of John Goodver 


Descriptions of Plants by Goodyer 


The Goodyer's Botanical Library 


Notes on Contemporary Botanists 


Lists of Plants grown in English Gardens 


Lists of Exotic Plants 


Goodyer's Miscellaneous Papers . 


Goodyer's List of Plants (Index I) 

II. Index of Plants . . . . . 
III. Index of Persons, Places, and Things 



John Tradescant ...... Frontispiece 

Map of South-east Hampshire 4 

Mapledurham House . 7 

The Garden at Stubbers ..... facing 16 
Mill-mountain ......... 22 

Jerusalem Artichoke 23 

Sheet Mill facing a 8 

Goodyer's four Elms 39-4^ 

Goodyer's signature ........ 55 

Plan of Petersfield 64 

Goodyer's House in the Spain .... facing 64 

Goodyer's House in the Spain ...... 66 

Interlinear Translation of Dioscorides . . facing 84 
Drawings by Goodyer ....... 99 

Potamogeton 124-125 

Description of Yew . . . . . . . .169 

The Heath at Petersfield facing 188 

Notes in Ray's Catalogus . . . . . . -223 

Lobel 246 

j Old Testimonial to Lobel ..... facing 248 

( Sonnet dedicated to Lobel .... „ 249 

Signatures to Lobel's second Testimonial . . . 250 
John Parkinson ......... 266 

j Letter ..... facing 276 

( First Draft of a British Flora by How . . facing 276 
Yucca .......... 313 

Tradescant's Title-Page ....... 334 


John Goodyer was bom at Alton in Hampshire in 1592.^ 
Possibly he first saw the light in a house belonging to 
Magdalen College, Oxford, the College which both through 
its landed property in the Petersfield district, through 
Goodyer's relationship to its tenants and bailiffs, and 
through the scientific members of its foundation, was so 
fully to win his confidence and affection, that in his last will 
and testament he bequeathed to it his most cherished 
possession, his botanical library and manuscripts. These 
materials are now available for the reconstruction of his 
life and work. 

His father, Reginald Goodyer, appears several times 
in the College books.^ There is a copy of the terms on 
which the then President, William Langton, and the 
Fellows of the College leased to ' Reginald Goodyeare 
a yeoman of the parish of St. Laurence in Alton, the farm 
called Beeches Place and the wood called Priors Reade 
now or late in the tenure of Henry Mervyn, Esq., at an 
annual rent of /^4. 35. 4^. together with two quarters of 
' good, sweete, & marchantable wheate, and furthermore 
3 quarters of good sweete make to be delivered within 
the said College or their value in money according to the 
prices of the Oxford market. 

^ I have no knowledge of an entry in any Baptismal Register. The year has 
probably been calculated from his Marriage Licence which states his age as 
forty in 1632. 

2 The entry in Ledger K is dated 27 July 1614, and on f. 188 there is a further 
entry made in 161 9, when the name is spelt Reginald Goodier. According to 
information from Miss Wotton, Reginald Goodyer had previously paid taxes 
direct from Alton in 1600, and was described in a Star Chamber Case as 
a yeoman of Alton in 1605. Then {Star Chamber Proc. Ja7nes I, 204-13) he 
gave evidence for Sir Richard Pawlett, showing intimate acquaintance with the 
manor of Herriard, where his father was living in 1572, and with the hamlet of 
Southropp. It is possible that he was a sub-tenant of Beeches Place under 
Henry Mervyn, before he held it under a direct lease from the College. 




Concerning Reginald's family history we have no 
knowledge. His wife Ann, who predeceased him, bore 
him two sons and two daughters: Lewis, b. 1579, d. 1655, 
Rose, Ann, and John, b. 1592. Lewis had at least eight 
children and left numerous descendants ; Rose married 
William Yalden ; Ann married Richard Pratt and had 
three sons ; and John, the subject of this memoir, had an 
only daughter Elizabeth. 

The Yaldens were still more closely connected with 
Magdalen College. In i 593 William Yalden, perhaps the 
father of John's brother-in-law, leased from Magdalen 
farm-lands in Sheet, near Petersfield, known as Brooke- 
land, Skindre, Shirk leyes, and Pulyns. As early as 1587 
(30 Elizabeth) with * Dorothie his wyffe ' he rented Sheet 
mills, and in 1596 acting as the College bailiff, collected 
the College rents, ^171 55. 3^. from Selborne and 
;^i8 9^. 6d. from Petersfelde. In 1597, he was appointed 
steward for the holding of courts and leets within the 
borough of Petersfield, by Th. Hanbury of Buriton, who 
had recently purchased the property. The lease for the 
Sheet mills mentions ' water mills, a wheat mill and a malt 
mill, together with all the waters, watercourses, ponds, 
fishinge, banckes, baies, and fludgates thereunto belonging, 
with free libertie to digg turfe in the great moore '. Even 
the legal document is redolent of the natural amenities, 
for which the rent was £^ 65. Zd. and half a crown in 1618. 
William Yalden, described as of the diocese of Chichester, 
was the College Clerk of the Account from 1616 to 1643 J 
and among the other College tenants were Crusophilus 
Yalden at Roplie Farm (16 18) and Henrie Yalden in the 
Spaine in Petersfield. 

John Goodyers nephew and heir, the Rev. Edmund 
Yalden, son of William Yalden of Sheet, gen., became a 
Demy and Fellow of Magdalen, 1630 to 1642, when he 
resigned his fellowship on being presented to the Rectory 
of Compton in Surrey. Sheet was a botanical locality 
often mentioned by Goodyer. 



The Goodyer country is perhaps better known to, though 
less visited by the EngHsh reader, than any other inland 
area in England. Its natural features and attractions have 
been made widely known by the premier work on nature 
study in our language, the classic Natural History of 
Selborne, by Gilbert White. 

This country in which John Goodyer lived extends 
among the chalk hills at the junction of the North and 
South Downs, on and around one of the principal watersheds 
of south Britain. Born in the valley of the Wey, whose 
waters flow into the Thames, he passed his young manhood 
at Droxford on the Meon, which runs straight down to the 
Solent six miles west of Portsmouth ; while at Petersfield 
he lived by the sources of the Rother, whose waters, 
mingling with those of the Arun, enter the English Channel 
at Arundel. A cyclist could visit all his homes in an 

As Gilbert White said a century and a half later, in this 
district * so diversified with such a variety of hill and dale, 
aspects and soils, it is no wonder that great choice of 
plants should be found. Chalks, clays, sands, sheep-walks 
and downs, bogs, heaths, woodlands, and champaign fields 
cannot but furnish an ample Flora. The deep rocky lanes 
abound with filices, and the pastures and moist woods with 
fungi. If in any branch of botany we may seem to be 
wanting, it must be in the large aquatic plants, which are 
not to be expected on a spot far removed from rivers, and 
lying up amidst the hill country at the spring heads 
And yet perhaps it was just this upland character of his 
native country that caused Goodyer to pay especial attention 
to water plants whenever he came across them, an atten- 
tion of which the reward was several most remarkable 
discoveries. He added at least a dozen aquatics to the 
British flora. 

Nor are the literary associations of this favoured spot 
confined to the name of Gilbert White. Droxford is 
remembered as the village where Izaak Walton passed 

B 2 



the last years of his Hfe, Steventon was the cradle and 
Chawton the inspiration of the genius of Jane Austen, 
for if Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility were 
composed at the former, Emma, Ma^isfield Park, and 
Persuasion were produced at the latter ; while Buriton was 
the home of the childhood of Edward Gibbon, who always 

Sketch-Map of South-East Hampshire. 

cherished fond recollections of its natural beauties. ' The 
aspect of the adjacent grounds was various and cheerful : 
the Downs commanded the prospect of the sea, and the 
long hanging woods in sight of the house could not perhaps 
have been improved by art or expense/ Such is the 
appreciation of the place in the Autobiography of the great 



The localities most frequently mentioned in the Goodyer 
papers are Alton on the high road from London to 
Winchester and about half-way between Farnham and 
Alresford, three miles east of which is Ropley. To the 
north-east and south-west of Alton are Holybourne and 
Chawton respectively. Bramshott and Liphook lie to the 
east, Selborne to the west of Woolmer Forest. 

The Petersfield localities lie in a ring of about two miles 
radius from the town : Steep due north ; Sheet to north- 
east on the London- Portsmouth road, Durford Abbey due 
east, Buriton due south, overhung by Butser Hill on the 
west. The Forest of Bere is about eight miles south of 
Petersfield ; while in the south-west quarter lie Hambledon, 
seven miles, and Droxford and Soberton about eight miles 
distant. Petersfield is about twenty miles from Southampton 
and about sixteen miles from Winchester : Idsworth is 
about six miles south. Bursledon Ferry over the Hamble 
is about four miles from Southampton. 

In Goodyer's day, according to a survey of the manor 
of East Meon taken on 31 July 1647, 'The "bacon" 
(beacon-fire) on Butser Hill was usually supplied out of the 
coppices of Hyden woods both with timber and fuel. 
Stroud Common was overgrown with bushes which the 
tenants claim a right unto for making and mending their 
fences, but the great wood belonging to the lord was of late 
destroyed except some very little and young oaks all at 
present not worth above 305.' In the defining of the 
boundaries of the manor, several large trees are mentioned 
which must have been well-known landmarks to Goodyer. 
They included the yew-tree at Wheatham Green, ' a great 
oak standing in the midst of Chescombe, and so abutting 
upon the manor of Berriton and Mapledurham upon the 
south-east', and a great ash standing on the side of 
Butser Hill.^ 

We have no information as to Goodyer's schooling. 
We know that he was not educated either at Winchester 

^ Vict. County Hist. Hants, iii, p. 67. 



or at Oxford : it may be that he went to the local Grammar 
School at Alton. 

His translations of Theophrastus and Dioscorides show 
that, like many men of science, he appreciated the classics, 
and that he was a considerable Greek scholar for his time. 
His library included Latin, Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, 
and German books : his notes show that he was well able 
to find his way about them, even though he was not very 
familiar with ' Duch and the Teutonick*. 

As regards his walk in life we have evidence from many 
scraps of paper, often torn, upon which he scribbled botanical 
notes, drafted letters, kept accounts, wrote prescriptions, &c. 
The original writings upon these papers generally relate 
to legal proceedings, village affairs, the collection of tithe 
and taxes, while two or three documents definitely associate 
Goodyer with Sir Thomas Bilson, Knight, of West 
Mapledurham, as his steward or agent. 

Goodyer's service with the Bilsons is of some importance, 
because all who have hitherto written of him have followed 
Johnson in describing him as John Goodyer of Mapledurham, 
thereby suggesting that he was a landed proprietor in that 
place. Moreover, the name by confusion with the well-known 
Mapledurham on the Thames, has led to the concealment of 
John's identity, as, for instance, when the editor of the 
Flora of Hampshire Y^mdsks in 1883 that as Maple Durham 
is in Oxfordshire, Goodyer's Maple Durham was a possible 
misprint for Maple Durwell, near Basingstoke ! 

A clear account of the exact relations of the Hampshire 
Mapledurhams is given in the Victoria County History of 
Hampshire. They are situate in the parish of Buriton 
in the hundred of Finchdean. From an original manor 
of Mapledurham, dating from before the conquest, were 
divided a chief manor of Mapledurham, formerly held by 
the Gibbons, and now by the Bonham-Carter family, and 
the manor of West Mapledurham which Bishop Bilson 
purchased : it is now held by a member of the Legge 
family. Then there is Weston, a tithing in the parish of 



Buriton, which is believed to have been roughly co-extensive 
with the manor of West Mapledurham, and likewise belongs 
to Mr. Legge. The old manor-house of West Mapledurham 
was pulled down in 1829, and there is no tradition of any 
other old house in the district. The present Farm House 
of Weston was built in 1776.^ 

Sir Thomas Bilson s father, Thomas, Bishop of Winchester 
1597— 1616, purchased the manor of West Mapledurham in 

Mapledurham House. 

1605 from the widow and sons of the recusant Henry Shelley. 
On the death of the Bishop in 16 16, the manor descended 
to the eldest son Thomas ' aged twenty-four and more ' and 
on the latter s death in 1649 to the second son Leonard. 

The manor-house was a house with a history. During 
the occupation of the Shelleys it had been a centre where 
Papists foregathered during the latter part of the sixteenth 
century. There in 1586 the recusant Edward Jones used 
daily to ' consociate withal and heard mass every day 
There were ' priest's holes ' which must have been a great 
joy to the Bilson boys : ' there is a hollow place in the 
parlour by the livery cupboard where two men may well 

* Information from Capt. P. Seward. 



lie together, which has many times deceived the searchers ' ; 
and elsewhere ' under a little table is a vault, with a grate 
of iron for a light into the garden, as it were the window 
of a cellar, and against the grate groweth rosemarye 
It is said that sometimes as many as six or seven priests 
were in hiding at the same time. 

Goodyer may have entered the service j^f Sir Thomas in 
1616 or 1617; he was certainly working for him for the 
next seven or eight years, and he may actually have been 
dwelling in Mapledurham House at the time that he was 
corresponding with Johnson in 1632-3. Thus he would 
have been correctly designated as ' of Mapledurham*, though 
not as a landed proprietor there. 

Sir Thomas Bilson of Mapledurham, Knight, had married 
at Wickham, 6 August 161 2, Susanna the youngest daughter 
of Sir William Uvedale of Wickham, Kt. (a surname 
which occurs among Goodyer's notes), having issue Thomas 
Bilson of Buriton, born 1614, who married Edith Betisworth 
of Roegatt in 1640,^ and Leonard, baptized 5 December 1616, 
who was named by Goodyer as one of the executors of his 
will, and whose monument may be seen at the west end 
of Buriton Church. 

How long Goodyer remained with Sir Thomas we do 
not know. We deem it certain that he had periodically to 
visit the neighbouring towns and outlying farms, and even 
to ride up to London on his master's business. But botany 
was his hobby, and he probably endeavoured to combine 
so far as possible business with pleasure and visits to his 
friends' gardens with sittings in courts. 

It would be easy to interweave writings of contemporary 
local interest into the life of our hero. The lists of the 
villagers assessed for tithes and taxes, the picturesque 
roll-call of Armour-bearers and Spearmen and ' Peionors 
of Beritun ' {= Pioneers of Buriton), were probably all part 
of his daily life, but we feel bound to keep within limits, 
and have relegated most of the contemporary documents 

^ Bishop of London Marr. Lie. For other children, see p. 96 note. 



to the Appendix. At the same time these documents 
probably illustrate his varied avocations more definitely 
than anything else that has come down to us, and his 
biography would be incomplete without a mention of them. 
Of special interest are : 

I. A Deposition of Arthur Hyde of Weston in the parish of 
Buriton concerning Weston Farm in the possession of Sir Thomas 
Bilson, Knight (p. 375). 

%. A Petition from Fra. Waller ' most humbly intreating yo"^ 
good worship S'^ Thomas Bilson and to you and yo^ man Ma"". Good- 
yer greeting . . (p. 375). Written before 19 July 1621. 

3. Notes of acres held by Tho. (Bilson) and ten other persons 
in an unmentioned parish (p. 379). 

4. Receipt for £2^0 received by W. Inkferbie and Richard Bell 
from Sir Tho. Bilson, Knight, at his Mansion House called West 
Mapledurham in the county of Southampton (p. 374). Dated 
15 November, but unfortunately the year, possibly 1620 or 1622, 
is not mentioned. 

All these and other papers are endorsed with notes in 
Goodyer s hand ; and even more convincing evidence as to 
his occupation is supplied by the draft of a letter, which 
we provisionally assign to the year 161 8. 
Sep. 3-4 

5-6 hervest at my being w*^ you I spak of 

Oct. 11-12 moving cocks Canary Wine wcl^ my masters mother 

12-14 lay by Coppels 

15-16 mow gard. & M"^ Bilson was used to . . . for to 

^^"^^^^g^^s , you, you told Mr. Hall had not made 
No. 14 cover hartichokes j ' j ^ ^ r ^ - ^ 

payment for all that had fetch m her 

name, now he protesteth he hath. You then faithfully promised 

me if my master S'" Thomas Bilson did send for any, you would 

send him of your best, which you affirmed to be as good as any 

was in England. For my lord Bishoppe Bilson was wont to 

comend your tast. Nowe my master entreates you to send him 

by this bearer Robt Palmer who you comend for his honesty, 4 or 

5 gallons of such Canary Sack as you promised me to send in 

a sweet vessel. And the next weeke after we know what quantum 

you have sent you shall receave your money by the same bearer. 

And so 1 rest 

Your loving freind, 

John Goodier. 

[MS. f. 6. 



It is likely that Good}er found a distraction from 
thoughts on the grievous troubles of the times in his 
botanical studies. During his early years the bitter strife 
between Papists and Protestants reached an extreme in- 
tensity, as first one and then the other of the conflicting 
parties gained the ascendancy, but in all his multifarious 
writings there is no note as to the side to which he be- 
longed. It may be assumed that he shared the general 
tendency of scientific men to take a ' philosophic ' view of 
life, showing some disregard of the petty, transient events 
which chiefly absorb the attention of mean minds. He 
appears to have been a man who felt most at peace when 
his thoughts were reposing on the larger and more enduring 
aspects of the moral and material world. Yet all round 
him was turmoil. In his own county he would have known 
many who could have told lurid tales of the heavy blows 
of the ' Hammer of Heretics'. As a young man he might 
have seen one of the greatest Englishmen, the immortal 
Raleigh, undergo trial, imprisonment, and execution, and 
the Pilgrim Fathers driven abroad to seek that most 
elemental of all liberties, the liberty of worship : they 
sailed from Southampton in 1620. In the prime of life the 
Civil Wars robbed him both of his best years for scientific 
work, and of his great friend, Dr. T. Johnson, killed at 
Basing House, to the great loss of natural science. 

There is always a danger in reading into fragmentary 
documents more than was really meant, and yet there is 
a great temptation to a Magdalen man to recall an incident 
relating to a Magdalen College choir boy who became 
a Bishop of Winchester and Visitor of the College. The 
story gives one a vivid idea of the troubled state of 
Hampshire in the boyhood of John Goodyer, and greatly 
enhances the human interest attaching to his papers about 
'pioneers'^ and about Vachell ^ and Uvedale.^ Thomas 
Cooper, translated from Lincoln to Winchester in 1584, 
was sorely troubled by the number of Romish recusants 
* p. 380. 2 276. ' p. i6i. 



in Hampshire, and made it a matter of conscience in 1586 
to petition ' for certaine Orders to represse the bouldness 
and waiewardnes of the recusants in the Countie of 
Southampton *, and also that ' an hundred or two of 
obstinate recusants, lustie men well hable to labour, maie 
by some convenient Commission be taken up and sent 
into Flaunders as Pioners and labourers, whereby the 
Country shall be disburdened of a companie of dangerous 
persons, and the residue y* remaine be put in some feare 
y* theie maie not so safe revoke as now they doe 

The council turned a favourable ear to the bishop's 
appeal, and wrote to the sheriff and certain of the justices 
authorizing the suggested sudden searches and ordering 
them to follow the bishop's directions.^ That is why the 
occurrence among the Goodyer papers of a list of pioneers 
of Buriton carries with it ominous suggestions. 

Bishop Cooper died in 1594, when John Goodyer was 
two years old, and was succeeded by Thomas Bilson, with 
whose son, Sir Thomas Bilson, Goodyer was most closely 
associated. Recusancy was still being punished by im- 
prisonment in Winchester gaol, but the prisoners benefited 
by the general sympathy of the public and were frequently 
released. Indeed, Bishop Bilson found that the manor of 
Woodcot, Hants, given for the safe keeping of the gaol, 
had actually been inherited by a recusant, one Anthony 
Uvedale, lately deceased, and had passed to his seven- 
year old grandson, Anthony Brewning, whose parents were 
recusants. The penalty for the wealthier recusants, that 
was enforced about 1 590, was the seizure of two-thirds 
of their land ; and among those whose names appear 
in the Recusant Rolls at the Record Office are Anthony 
Uvedale (the hereditary keeper of Winchester gaol) of 
Woodcote, near Alresford, and, Stephen Vachell of Heath 
House, Buriton, both of whom are mentioned in the 
Goodyer papers. 

A few years later an evil system prevailed of farming 

* Acts of Privy Council, 1 586-7, p. 125 ; Vict. County Hist. Hants, ii, p. 82. 



out the recusancy fines for a fixed sum, and the payments 
by Henry Shelley of Petersfield, among others, were 
allotted to certain servants of James I.^ 

Goodyer was in the habit of jotting down lists of plants 
and odd notes on the backs and covers of letters, on 
petitions, or on any stray scrap of paper that came handy. 
In a way this is fortunate, for often the date of the 
document helps us to date the notes which he put upon 
it. Intermingled are the figures of calculations, shopping 
lists, series of days of the month with the Sundays ticked, 
names or plants and books, notes for excursions, medical 
prescriptions, names of litigants, taxpayers, and the like. 

The sums done on the papers show that his arithmetical 
practice did not include the 12 times table, but that he 
first multiplied by 2 and then by 10, and added the results 
as in long multiplication. 

It is through these papers that we infer Goodyer to have 
had a training corresponding to that obtained in a solicitor's 
office at the present day. 

The oldest document in the collection, a fragment, 
bearing the name Edward Cole, is dated when Goodyer 
was only sixteen years of age, but it would probably have 
come into his hands at a later date as part of an account 
with which Sir Thomas Bilson was concerned. Edward 
Cole may have been the Mayor of Winchester who in the 
year before the Armada contributed ;^50 to the war fund, 
and who is still remembered in Winchester as the founder 
of Christ's Hospital. On the back of this paper Goodyer 
jotted down a botanical note dated 1624. 

Then there is an Order from one of H.M. Justices of 
the Peace residing at New Alresford, but holding court at 
Bishops Waltham, to John Rowland of Ropley, requiring him 
to take his ' Corporall oth for the dewe Execution and per- 
formance of the office of Tithingman-shippe for the Tithinge 
of Roplie'. Dated 23 September 16 14. This document 
is written in a clerkly hand: whether John Goodyer's or 

^ Dotn. State Papers^ James /, xlix, pp. 54-80. 



not does not much matter. And there are several similar 
papers. The deduction we would make is that the training 
which he received at this period left its mark on all his 
botanical work. He acquired an exceptionally neat hand- 
writing, and learnt the value of methodical habits and the 
importance of dating every note and recorded circumstance 
relating to his observations. His descriptions of plants 
are most conscientiously dated. Many of his books are 
clearly marked with the day and year of purchase, the cost 
of binding, and the cost of carriage from London, even 
though this came, as in one case, to o^. od. 

Sometimes the exact hour of the day at which a piece 
of work was begun or finished is recorded with the 
precision that might have been expected of his astrologer 
contemporaries. But there is no evidence that Goodyer 
himself believed in horoscopes : his writings are severely 
scientific records of actual observation. 


From his practice of dating his books, we know for 
certain that Goodyer was contemplating the scientific study 
of botany in 1616. During the winter of this year he added 
some very important works to his library. In each case 
the date and price are neatly written inside the cover of the 

s. d. 

13 Novemb. 16 16 26 Clusius, Curae posterior es, 161 1. 

1 ^ ^ f Clusius. Rariorum plantarum, 1601. 
12 Decemb. 1616 16 o | p^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^g^^ 

15 ffeb. 161 6 15 o Clusius, Exoticarum, 1605. 

28 ffeb. 1 6 16 36 Bauhin, Phytopinax, 1596. 

10 Marcii 1616 4 o 2nd part \ x- 7 t u 1 

TVT z: ^ . ^ \ ^s. bd. Lobel, 

12 Mar. 1 61 6 40 ist part \ Plantarum 160 

17 Mar. 1 6 16 16 the bindinge them together ) an arum, 5. 

The conclusion is irresistible. Such books were not to 
be bought in Hampshire : Goodyer must have spent the 
winter in London, and have begun to make a serious study 
of the literature of botany. He was twent}'-four years of 
age ; and if, as we surmise, he were already in the service of 



Sir Thomas Bilson, whose father, the bishop, had recently 
been buried in Westminster Abbey, he might well have 
gone up to London on his master s business. A paper 
that throws much light on this visit to London is one on 
which he wrote out a list, dated the 24th and 25th 
of March, of the more remarkable plants in the garden of 
Mr. Coys of Stubbers, a place a few miles east of London 
in Essex. On the same sheet of paper are a list of drugs 
and two London addresses, ' de Laune in ye black friers ', 
and ' Mr. Cole y* married Mr. Lobel's daughter in Lyne 
Street'. This last is a most interesting note, because it 
gives the correct spelling of a name which from the time 
of Pulteney onwards has generally appeared in literature 
as * Coel James Cole was a London merchant, mentioned 
by Johnson as exceedingly well experienced in the know- 
ledge of simples. 

The fact of Goodyer's visiting James Cole at this time 
would have a special significance. The eminent botanist 
Mathias de L'Obel, Cole's distinguished father-in-law, who 
had been living with him, had just died, leaving his 
botanical writings to his son-in-law. Lobel, as he wrote 
his name in this country, was the youngest of the triumvirate 
of great Flemish botanists, Dodoens, Clusius, L'Obel. 
He had brought to this country the learning of his master 
Rondelet of Montpelier and the botanical illustrations of 
that prince of printers, patron of botanists, Christof Plantin 
of Antwerp ; he had made a special study of English 
plants and during his last years had been engaged on 
a new botanical work, the Illustrationes Stirpium. To 
Goodyer the name of Lobel, like that of Gerard, was 
probably a household word : he was known as the only 
botanist in Britain on whose scientific accuracy a student 
could rely. There is nothing more probable than that 
Goodyer, learning of his death on 3rd March, would lose 
no time in visiting Cole, and so get to hear of the 
manuscripts, which later, after the death of their editor How, 
did eventually come into his charge and were bequeathed 



by him to Magdalen College. In addition to the copy 
of the Plantartim Hisioria mentioned above, and purchased 
within a week of the death of Lobel, Goodyer owned five 
other editions by the same author : one of these, the edition 
of 1576, was a presentation copy from Lobel to Dr. Martin 
Ramerus or Rhamneirus, a Licentiate of the Royal College 
of Physicians. A copy of the hones Stirpium with notes 
by William Mount, and with some figures coloured, may 
have been among Goodyer's first botany books as a boy. 
We know that he could draw and that he painted in 

Goodyer's miscellaneous papers show that even while 
he was occupied with the business of estate management, 
or of the Courts, or in dealings with tithing officers, his 
mind would always be turning to the plants which he had 
seen in the gardens of his friends or had found on his 

The earlier notes are scrappy, but of great historical 
importance, for they place our knowledge of early English 
gardening on a far surer basis than heretofore. The 
notes become progressively more methodical until in 162 1 
their number and finish show that descriptive botany had 
become the principal object of the author's life. Whether 
Goodyer ever had any thoughts of publishing these 
descriptions under his own name we do not know, but 
of many he made both rough and fair copies : some of the 
latter he handed over to his friend Dr. Thomas Johnson 
for inclusion in the new edition of Gerard's Herbal to be 
mentioned in 1633. 

His first gardening friends included Parkinson, Coys, 
and Franqueville, who have often been mentioned in 
histories of early gardening, but now for the first time 
have we anything in the nature of lists of the plants 
actually growing in their gardens. Last year when editing 
the long list of plants grown by Walter Stonehouse in 1640 
at Darfield in Yorkshire, it was pointed oul that only three 
earlier garden lists were then known, those of the Holborn 



garden of Gerard (1596), of George Gibbes' garden at Bath 
(1634), and of the Lambeth garden of the elder Tradescant 
(1634). We are now able to add several other lists of 
intermediate date which comprised the more novel plants 
then being grown by horticulturists. 

The earliest of Goodyer's garden notes go back to the 
year 1616, when he first gathered seeds of Astragalus 
lusitanicus * in the garden of my good friend Mr. John 
Parkinson an Apothecarie of London Anno 1616' (f. 107), 
and about the same time he noticed in the same garden 
in Long Acre, Pisum arvense, which he called ' P. maculatum 
Boelii ' and ' Ervilia silvestris Dodonaei ' [Lathyrtts Ochrus). 
The two former were no doubt two of the many new 
plants introduced into English gardens by Guilhaume Boel 
from Portugal and Spain in 1608. Parkinson has put it on 
record that Boel ' gathered there about two hundred sorts 
of seeds ... of all which seeds I had my part, and by 
sowing them saw the faces of a great many excellent plants 
but many of them came not to maturitie with me, and most 
of the other whereof I gathered ripe seed one yeare, by 
unkindly yeares that fell afterwards, have perished likewise ' } 

Goodyer grew all three plants from seed in his own 
garden at Droxford and described them in 1621. 

The next garden of which we have his notes was that 
of Wm. Coys ^ at Stubbers, North Okington, in Essex. 
It was already old-established, and well known to Gerard 
in 1597 for its exotic plants, and was visited by Lobel 
during the early years of the seventeenth century. The 
latter botanist was moreover greatly impressed by Coys' 
methods of brewing beer and ales. 

We are glad to think that this garden is not only still 
in existence but is in the possession of the family which 
succeeded the Coyses at the end of the seventeenth century. 
Through the curtesy of the present owner, Mr. Champion 
Branfill Russell, I was privileged to make a pilgrimage 

* Parkinson, Theatruvi^ p. 1108. 

* See p. 312. 

The Lime Avenue 

Common Elm ' ]Vitc/L ' Elm 

Elms in Spring 

I " 





to Stubbers this spring, and there on the day of the eclipse 
of the sun to celebrate the tercentenary of Goodyer's visit. 
The gardens were much altered by Repton at the end of 
the eighteenth century, and the house has been practically 
rebuilt, but sufficient remains to indicate the general arrange- 
ment of the old sites. 

The flower garden of William Coys almost certainly 
coincided with what is now known as the Mulberry garden 
at the south-east corner of the house. The middle line 
of an old enclosed garden is indicated by a fine avenue 
of small but ancient limes, whose great age is hardly 
apparent at first sight. The trees were pollarded early, 
and their trunks being bark-bound have ceased to grow 
for many years. A very old-fashioned pink rose, a plant 
of which has been sent to Shakespeare's garden at 
Stratford-on-Avon, may also date from Coys' time. And 
to my great joy I found a more certain link with him in 
the pretty little Ivy-leaved Toadflax that is still growing 
on the older walls around this classic spot, where it was 
first grown as a garden plant in England and before it 
had become the common wall-weed that it now is. Another 
plant that may be directly descended from Coys' garden 
is the Yellow Fig-wort {S crop hit I aria ver7ialis L.), which 
comes up sporadically in the borders. 

But of even greater botanical interest are the elms on 
the west side of the garden. At the time of my visit, 
one differed in the most conspicuous manner from its 
neighbours by being later and quite leafless while they 
were almost in full leaf Had Goody er seen the elms 
between Romford and Stubbers under the same circum- 
stances, he could hardly have failed to remark on the 
matter to Coys, who would then have informed him of the 
local name ' Witch Elm ', and would have expounded the 
special qualities of its wood, which was more ' desired for 
naves of carts ' than common elm. 

The garden of William Coys has always been famous 
in the annals of horticulture because it was there in 1604 




that the Yucca first flowered in England. Now, thanks to 
Goodyer, we are able to print a list of 126 names of plants 
that were growing at Stubbers in March 16 16-17, ^i^^^ 
including plants given by Coys to Goodyer in 162 1 or 1622, 
and a longer list in which 324 plants are marked with the 
letter C ( = Coys).^ This last list was made by Goodyer 
between 1618 and 1625. 

The earlier of these lists of Coys' garden is the oldest 
known MS. list of an English garden, in which the plants 
are properly distinguished by their scientific names. I have 
no doubt but that the names, which are in Goodyer s hand- 
writing, were supplied by Coys, who may have determined 
many of them himself. In the history of English horti- 
culture it therefore comes between the printed Catalogue 
of the Trees, Fruits, and Plants grown by John Gerard in 
his garden at Holborn^ and the lists of George Gibbes and 
John Tradescant, both of which are printed below. It is 

Mr. Coys his garden 24 and 25 of March 1616, 161 7. 

Then follow ten names of plants distinguished with g 
(= Gerard), and then twenty-four others which may or 
may not have formed part of the same collection. The 
latter include the American novelties : 

Battata Virginiana. 

Prunus Virginianus. Pishimon. 

Cerastus Virginianus. 

Vitis Virginiana. 

Anonymos Sumas Virginianum. 

Solanum Virginianum. 

In after years Goodyer received many plants and seeds 
from Mr. Coys, which he grew in his Hampshire garden at 
Droxford, and described in detail when they flowered. 

^ See p. 387. 

^ Gerard's printed Catalogus arborum, &c., of 1596 is only represented by 
a single copy, which has been admirably edited by Dr. B. D. Jackson in 1876. 


It was inevitable at the outset that the medicinal interest 
of herbs should be much to the fore. Botanical lore was 
practically confined to physicians, apothecaries, and herbalists ; 
and perhaps this strong human interest supplied the motive 
power for the beginnings of the science of botany. All 
English botany books of early days were practically treatises 
on Materia Medica, and even Parkinson found a medicinal 
use for nearly every plant. 

Goodyer's development took the same course. The 

notes made during his early period show that a medicinal 

interest in herbs was certainly present to his mind, though 

it may not have provided the principal incentive to his 

studies. In 161 7 he abstracted the names of forty-six 

exotic medicinal plants and products from Lobel's writings, 

and added the following list of drugs : 

Terra sigillata Tartar 

Gum Elemni Ladanum 

Aurmi vulgar Castor 

Virga aurea Paeina ppi 

Mirrh Bac mirti 

Bolus armenic Acacia 

Caious Spodium 

Borax Bdellium 
Litliarg. auri 

And on 28 April 161 7 he added : 

2. Corall dissolved & swetned with Juyce of Granates 
Syrup of Rheubarbe made of ye extracte 
The Extracte of Rhubarbe 
Pearle dissolved 

Liquor solutionis Scamonii 1610 23 Marcij 

Scamonium corrected 1610 23 Marcij 

Hirae simpl. oiiij pro quat. viribus 

Manna 2 oz. 

Santali Citrini incisi oiij 


Epithimum 3ij 

Oximel simpl. 

Dia Codion simp. 

Dia moron. 

de Laune in y^ black friers. 

[MS. f. 24 

C 2 



The study of drugs was evidently going strong about 
this time, for in this very year, 1617, the Society of 
Apothecaries of London, the Societas Pharmaceutica 
Londmensis, severed its connexion with the Grocers 
Company, and received a new charter from James I, 
Goodyer appears to have obtained his Hst of drugs from 
one of the early masters of the Society, Mr. de Laune,^ 
an apothecary in Blackfriars, whose name and address he 
noted on the back of the paper, and who is known as 
having sent from Burgundy to Gerard plants of Gentiana 
maior, the Great Felw^oort or Bald money, now known as 
Gentiana httea L. 

The two Scammony preparations are dated 16 10, when 
he would have been eighteen years of age. And in the 
first list the figure 16 before five drugs may show that 
he became possessed of them in that year. The five are 
Hermodactyli no7i venenati offic. Lo. 146 ; Rha Ponticum 
antiquorttm Lo. 289; Aloe Lo. 374; Glans tmguentaria 
Lo. o. loi ; Araba lacca. 

Towards the close of his life he again revived his 
interest in medical matters. He bought medical books, he 
wrote out prescriptions, and he copied notes from medical 

^ By finding the will of William Delaune (P. C. C. Wood 23) at Somerset 
House I have obtained evidence that the de Laune visited by Goodyer is likely 
to have been the son, Paul de Laune. Wm. Uelaune, Preacher of the word 
of God and Physician, willed that he should be buried near his late wife. To 
Gedeon his eldest son he left his lands in Blackfryars near Ludgate which he 
had purchased of Sir Wm. More ; to poor of French church in London ; 
to poor of Blackfriars and of Church of Norwich and Deepe 20s. ; to kindred 
beyond the sea ^6 (to be administered by s. Nathaniel) ; to s.-in-law Mary 
Desloges, widow of Cornellis Tance, ^3 ; to s. Paul the newe house, greate Court 
& house of office, and the Apothecary stuffe and furniture. 

The relations mentioned include sons, Gideon, Peter, Nathaniel, and Paul ; 
grandsons Abraham s. of Gideon, and Henry s. and h. to Isaack Delaune dec. ; 
das. Sara, Ester, and Elizabeth ; sons-in-law Chambleyn and Nathaniel Mary. 
The will is dated 20 November 1610 ; proved 12 March 1610. Both William and 
Paul were on the Roll of the College of Physicians. Gideon de Laune made 
money as Apothecary to Mary, the Queen Mother, and died worth ;^8o,ooo. 
Shakespeare's friend, Sir W. Davenant, was his great acquaintance (Aubrey, 
Lives). Paul is believed to have died in Jamaica, c, 1654 : he was a relative of 
Dr. John Argent see p. 250. 



authors into the margins of his herbals ; all of which 
goes to show that he was turning his knowledge to 
practical use by attending to the medicinal needs of his 

But John Goodyer, though mindful of the medicinal and 
economic value of plants, clearly saw that the science of 
botany could not be advanced without detailed morpho- 
logical descriptions from living plants. His ideals were 
those of his great predecessors Fuchs and Brunfels : but 
whereas they put their observations into their drawings, 
Goodyer put his into descriptions. 

One of his local discoveries of 1617 was the Woolly 
Thistle, 'Corona fratrum quorundam' {Car dims eriophortcs 
L.), which he found ' wilde neare London highwaie on the 
East part of Haliborne in Hampshire'. 

Another was the Purging or Cathartic Flax, or Mill- 
mountaine, a plant of known medicinal virtue which used 
to grow plentifully in localities where ' Carduus acaulis 
septentrionalium L'obelii ' was also found, namely, ' in the 
unmanured inclosures of Hampshire on chalky downes and 
on Purfleet hils in Essex, and in many other places'. He 
owed his information concerning the properties of this plant 
to one of his apothecary acquaintances. 

* I came to know this herbe by the name of Mil-mountaine, and 
his vertue by this meanes. On the second of October 161 7 going 
by M^ Colsons shop an Apothecary of Winchester in Hampshire, 
I saw this herbe lying on his stall, which I had scene growing long 
before : I desired of him to know the name of it, he told me that 
it was called Mill-mountain, and he also told me that beeing at 
Doctour Lake his house at Saint Crosse a mile from Winchester, 
seeing a man of his have this hearbe in his hand, he desired the 
name ; hee told him as before, and also the use of it, which is 

Take a handful! of Mill-mountaine, the whole plant, leaves, seedes, 
flowers and all, bruise it and put it in a small tunne or pipkin of 
a pinte filled with white Wine, and set in on the embers to infuse 
all night, and drinke that wine in the morning fasting, and hee 
said it would give eight or tenne stooles. This Doctour Lake 



was afterward made Bishop of Bath and Wells, who alwaies used 
this hearbe for his purge, after the said manner, as his man 
affirmed.' ^ 

But the outstanding event of this year was the intro- 
duction of the Jerusalem Artichoke to English gardens 


and cookery, undoubtedly the result of a visit to the 
London garden of John Franqueville. Of this garden we 
are also able to give a list, but as Goodyer was there at 

^ Ger. emac. 560. For Goodyer's description of the plant, see p. 112. The 
use of Honewort, as Corn Parsley was locally called in Hampshire, steeped 
in beer to cure swellings of the cheek, was also duly recorded by him, and will 
be again referred to under 1625. 

We here quote his description of the circumstances of 
his success with the new ' wonderfull increasinge ' vegetable, 
leaving the account of the plant for a later chapter. 



* Where this plant groweth naturalh'e I knowe not. In Anno 1617 
I receaved two small rootes thereof from Master Franquevill of 
London, no bigger then hens eggs, the one I planted, the other 
I gave to a frend, mine brought me a peck of rootes, wherewith 
I stored Hampsheire.' — MS. it, f. 117 ; Ger, emac. 754. 

The friend is almost certainly William Coys, for whom 
he afterwards wrote out a very long list of plants 
(17 pages), with notes and references to the works of 
Lobel and Gerard, and to their occurrence in the gardens 
of Coys, Parkinson, and Franqueville. In this list after 
the entry relating to the Artichoke ' Heliotropium indicum 
vel virginianum ', he added the note, ' you had lately 
planted it when I was at your house 25 Martii 16 17'. 

Goodyer's quaint description of The Vertues of the 
Artichoke have often been quoted : but it is a story that 
does not lose in the repetition. 

' Theis rootes are dressed divers waies ; some boile them in 
water, and after stewe them with sack and butter, addinge a little 
Ginger : others bake them in pies, puttinge Marrow, Dates, Ginger, 
Reasons of the Sunne, Sack, &c. Others some other way, as they 
are led by their skill in Cookerie. But in my iudgement, which 
way soever the}^ be drest and eaten they stirre and cause a filthie 
loathsome stinking winde within the bodie, thereby causing the 
belly to bee pained and tormented, and are a meat more fit for 
swine, than men : yet some say they have usually eaten them, and 
have found no such windie qualitie in them.' — MS. 11, f. 117 ; Ger, 
emac. 754. 

But before making any attempt to account for the tastes 
of past generations, it is necessary to know precisely both 
how they prepared their food and how they arranged their 
dietary. The transition from the age of beer to that of tea 
and coffee must have profoundly modified the national 
palate. And this is well illustrated by a very striking 
instance of an acquired taste, quoted by Goodyer's con- 
temporary Parkinson. Chocolate, he described as a drink 
* well pleasing and accepted with the greatest among the 
Indians, who account nothing of more esteeme ; but to the 
Christians it seemeth a wash fitter for hogs, yet by use even 
accepted by them also in the want of better 



The cultivation of the other, the Globe Artichoke, 
appears to have spread through the southern counties of 
England some half a century earlier, and the vegetable that 
figured in legal documents in Goodyer's lifetime is more 
likely to have been the Globe than the Jerusalem Artichoke. 
For in one of the Bodleian charters relating to Kent there 
is a stipulation that the tenant of a garden in Wateringbury 
is not to have * the benefit of the Sparrow Grass beds and 
Hartichoaks in the Garden'. An Hartichoke Garden, 
44 perches in extent, was one of the features of Henrietta 
Maria's garden at Wimbledon, and at the time of the 
survey of 1649 contained plants and roots to the value of 
los} Her gardener probably grew both sorts. 

Every one who has hitherto written about Goodyer 
appears to have tacitly assumed that he spent his early 
manhood at Mapledurham, and that there his first experi- 
ments in horticulture were made. This, however, was not 
the case, for although he was no doubt often at Maple- 
durham, his home and, what interests us more particularly 
at present, his garden were at Droxford. It was Droxford, 
therefore, that must have the honour of having been the 
first village in England to produce the new Artichokes 
in quantity. How completely all recollection of this important 
horticultural event has disappeared, is proved by the fact 
that even the modern ' discoverer' of John Goodyer, Canon 
Vaughan, did not know that his botanical predecessor had 
ever dwelt in Droxford. Yet Canon Vaughan, while Rector 
of that parish, when engaged in researches into the forgotten 
details of Izaak Walton's life there, passed the history of 
Droxford through a hair sieve. But then Hampshire 
is a forgetful county. Do not the lives of Walton, of 
Goodyer, of Gibbon, and above all, of Jane Austen 
show it? 

The papers that have been reposing for the last two and 
a half centuries in the manuscript room of Magdalen are 
evidence that Goodyer lived and gardened at Droxford, 

^ Archaeologia^ vol. x. 



but unfortunately their information goes no further. There 
is no hint as to where his house may have stood, or where 
the first Artichokes increased so amazingly. The village, 
writes Canon Vaughan, is but little changed since the time 
when Izaak Walton spent the last days of his life resting 
in * the cool shade of the honeysuckle hedge ' and watching 
the moorhens ' on the gliding stream The old mill is still 
standing, on the bridge of which 'the aged angler must 
often have lingered, as he watched the rush of water 
making pleasant music beneath his feet ' and thought of his 
fishings in swift streams ' full of great stores of trout 
Nor would it have been very different in Goodyer's early 
manhood. Then, as now, the church was flanked on either 
side by the Manor House and the Rectory, with their 
gardens, orchards, and pastures sloping down to the clear 
running Meon. The underground tunnel from the Manor 
House below the Rectory garden to the house beyond, may 
or may not have existed: at present it is only a reality 
in local tradition. Of greater permanence are those details 
of uncultured nature, of the birds and flowers, which the 
Canon has described so well : his sketch of the wild life 
of ' Longmead ' bordering the Meon is for all time : that is 
Droxford as Goodyer knew it. He would have recognized 
the spot where the green Alkanet (Anchtcsa sempervirens) 
puts forth its rich blue flowers and he would have revelled 
in the rare beauty of the Yellow Meadow Rue in its season, 
but it is doubtful whether Coral Root would have escaped 
him, had it been growing near Church Mead, where Canon 
Vaughan tells us it grew within recent years. Certainly 
there is no evidence that Goodyer knew it in Droxford 
before he found it at Mayfield. Botanists tell us that 
Coral Root is only found in this one locality in the whole 
of Hampshire, and we may not unreasonably deduce that 
Goodyer will have followed his usual practice of lifting 
roots found away from home and planting them in his 
garden. The Hampshire colony may be descended from 
a garden-escape. Is it a clue to the site of his garden ? 



In after years Goodyer cultivated many other new fruits 
and vegetables, including the Virginian water-melon or 
Pompion, * no bigger nor larger than a great apple', but 
none are now so well known as the Artichoke, his first 
horticultural triumph, and one with which his name will 
always be connected. Indeed, it may be that this early 
success inspired those assiduous searchings for new and 
rare plants that characterized the whole of his active 


Several papers dated 1618 show Goodyer s connexion 
with the Bilson household, probably, as we have said, in 
the capacity of steward or agent. In the corner of a 
roughly scribbled letter, printed on page 9, is a fragment 
of a diary, with a reference to the fact that his ' hartichokes ' 
required protection in cold weather. 

At the same time his interest in field botany was steadily 
increasing. He made several journeys on horseback in his 
own and neighbouring counties and up to London, perhaps 
on his master's business, but certainly to his own profit and 
advancement as a botanist. 

On one of these visits he would almost certainly have 
again visited the well-known garden in Long Acre belonging 
to John Parkinson who, like Coys, had received many rare 
plants collected by William Boel in Spain in 1607, an 
acquisition all the more desirable since many of his own 
fine plants had perished during the * most violent frosty 
winter' that preceded. In 161 8 Parkinson was gloating 
over his various horticultural triumphs, including the 
Great Double Yellow Spanish Daffodil which he claimed 
to have been the first to grow.^ 

On the 9th of April Goodyer noted 'Cowslipps 2-in-a-hose' 
and ' Primrose 2-in-a-hose ' at Sheet, probably in the garden 
of William Yalden, who almost certainly lived in a new 
house by the mill on the upper waters of the Rother. The 

^ Parkinson, Paradise^ p. 103. 


house is still standing, and even though more than three 
hundred years old, is a comfortable home. A stone in the 
wall records the year 1606, when it was built, and the year 
1867, when it was repaired. The timber-framed walls 
of the upper story are partly filled in with wattle and dab, 
and partly with a warm red brick. The old kitchen chimney 
is so wide that it can only be swept by climbing inside ; 
and there is, it is said, but one man now living who is 
willing to strip to his trousers and bring down the soot. 
This was the home of Rose Yalden, Goodyer's sister : 
plants in the garden at Sheet are oft-times mentioned in 
his papers, the last being some Sweet Potatoes in 1637. 

To plants found near his own home at Droxford, he 
frequently refers. In a wood by Strugnells in the Thetcher, 
near Droxford, he found L^tnaria minor on 21st May, and 
again on i June. These are the first notices of Moonwort 
in Hampshire. He records plants collected (and incidentally 
his own movements) at Chawton^ (10 June), Sheet ^ 
(7 July), Chawlton^ (18 July), Tichfield^ (20 July), Houns- 
low Heath ^ ( 30 July). In August he w^as travelling in 
Wiltshire, visiting Warminster^ (21 August), and Venny 
Sutton,"^ now Sutton-Veny (27 August). And nearer home 
he visited Winchester, Southampton, and Emsworth. 

At Winchester he noted that * Willowe ' was the popular 
name for ' Chamaenerion Gesneri which is therefore the 
first evidence of the Willow herb {Epilobutm angitstifolimn 
L.) in Hampshire. It is a plant which has since been 

^ ' Herba Paris, some with five and six leaves.' The first notice for Hants of 
Paris qiiadrifolia : Gilbert White noted it again in 1778. 

^ ' Scabiosa minima hirsuta.' Probably the first record of Jasione moittana L. 

^ *Jacea flora albo.' Perhaps a white variety of the Greater Knapweed 
{Centmirea Scabiosa L.). 

* ' Eryngium marinum.' First evidence of the Sea Holly {Eryngium mari- 
timtun L) in Hants. Eryngo roots candied were a favourite delicacy in the 
days of James I, but they were then obtained from the East coast. Sir John 
Salusbury, c. 1580, knew their medicinal value. 

^ * Plantago aquatica stellata.' First record of Damasonium Alis7na Mill., 
the rarest of our Water Plantains. 

^ ' Colchicum flo. albo et purpureo.' 

' ' Ebulus ', ' called Scots Blood'. Sambucus Ebulus L. or Banewort. 



reported as abundant in the valley from Beech Farm, 
where he lived as a boy, to Meadstead. He may, there- 
fore, have known the plant near home, but may not have 
been familiar with its Winchester name. The Willow 
herb remained unrecorded in Hampshire until Gilbert 
White mentioned it again in his Garden Kalendar for 
September 1765. 

A more striking discovery was that of ' Lactuca sylvestris 
vera ingrato odore '. ' This wilde stinkinge lettice I found 
wild on the walls and dry bancks of earth at Southampton. 
Anno 16 1 8.' This is the first county record of Lactuca 
virosa L. He sent seeds to Parkinson, in whose garden 
Johnson saw it growing about 1630. A detailed descrip- 
tion was written on 13 September 162 1. 

By a mill at Emsworth he found ' Anagallis aquatica 
tercia', the Brook weed or Water Pimpernel [Samolus 
Valerandi L.), thus making his first contribution to the 
paludal flora of his county. It was not recorded in 
Hampshire again for more than two hundred years. 

During the last two weeks in August he was travelling 
in south Wiltshire and passed through Salisbury. The 
finds on this trip are mentioned in a draft letter dated 
7 November and written in London. The name of the 
person to whom it was written does not appear, but from 
the fact that the names of the plants mentioned are in- 
cluded in a long list which Goodyer sent to his friend Coys, 
I strongly suspect that it was addressed to him. 

S'" after my service remembered ... I wrote unto you a letter 
from Droxford y^ 8 of Sept. last, and therein enclosed certaine 
stalks & seeds of an herbe which I found in Wiltshere somethinge 
like to Lysimachia^ [I found it in Wiltshere {erased)\ also I sent 
you some of the leaves & stalks of Plantago aquatica stellata 
which I found in Hounslowe Heath. I therein wrote unto you 
that I found Colchictim fl. albo & purpureo in Wiltshere, in flower 
in August last, I have of this roots of them at Droxford, if you 
want I can furnish you with some of them. I doubt you re- 
ceaved not that letter, for that our foot-post died by the waie going 
towards London, since whose death we wanted a foot-post for 



a year, but now we have another who did lye at y^ King's armes 
in Shoe Lane, the place where the old foot-post lay, but nowe he 
is removed to another place which yet I doe not know. I have 
left at M*"^^ Capells (for Mr. Capell ^ they tell me is dedd since my 
last being with you) a small plant of our Wich Hasell which 
I take to be Vhmcs latifolia lobelii: it came from seed this last 
year. I have seen y^ leaves of them this somer twise as brode as 
I saw any of y® leaves of our Common Elm. This desiring that 
God do bless you with health and happiness to your great Comfort, 
I comitt you to Gods protection and rest 

to you my bounden 

From my Lodging at the Red Lyon 

in Fleet Street, London, the 7 of November 1618. 

Yf at any tyme you wright to me you may direct your letters to 
be left at Mr. Tho. Johnsons [a Tayler (ei^ased)\ at the signe of the 
Raynedeare without Temple Barre neare St. Clements Church, 
where our foot-post shall endever to have them. [MS. f. 2 

This letter is of great interest because it is the earliest 
evidence for the Willow herb, ' something like to Lysi- 
machia' (he found it on 27 August), and for the Autumn 
Crocus in Wiltshire. It settles the question of the priority 
of the discovery of the Water Plantain, Damasonitcm 
Alisma, as a British plant, in favour of our author rather 
than of Johnson. It also dates his first recognition of the 
Wych Elm [Ulmits montana Stokes) as a distinct species 
of English timber tree. Apparently it was growing at 
Droxford and was known to Goody er by its south-country 
name of Witch Hazel. Now this name has been generally 
superseded by the northern name of Wych Elm. I have 
no doubt that by this observation at an early period of his 
career, his eye became trained and apt to distinguish the 
two other elms which he was the first to describe. His 

^ At a later period Capel was quite one of the best-known names in connexion 
with English gardens. Sir Henry Capel began horticulture at Kew, his brother 
Lord Capel made one of the most beautiful gardens of the seventeenth century 
at Cassiobury, and Mary Somerset {jiee Capel) had a botanic garden at 
Badmington, but there is of course no evidence that Goodyer's friend was ' born 
in the Purple '. 



descriptions of the four species are reprinted on page 38, 
but the first draft of his description of the Broad-leaved 
Elm may appropriately appear here. It is written on the 
back of a document dated 16 14. 

The broad-leaved Elme or Witch Hasell groweth to be a very 
greate tree, and very high, especially when he groweth in woods 
amongst other trees, the tymber in y^ yonge trees is very white, 
his branches or boughes are grosse & bigge and doe spread them- 
selves broader [and hang more downewards than those of the first]. 
The leaves are rougher and much broader and longer than those of 
y^ Comon Elme, stript or cutt about y^ edges, of a dark greene 
colour, nearer resemblinge y^ leaves of y^ Hasell, which is y^ cause 
of y^ name. 

The one side of y^ leaves are allwaies longer and doe come 
nearer to y^ boughes whereon they were then the other, like unto 
y*" leaves of all y^ rest of y^ kind of elmes, as Lobell's figure of the 
Common Elm well expresseth ; the leaves of the older trees are 
very much narrower than those of y® younge ones, also on y^ leaves 
of this Elme doe growe blisters or bladders in which at y^ springe 
are little creatures about y^ bignes of Bed-fleas, which in y^ somer 
(as I take it) turn into flies growinge wings like those of the 
Comon Elme. The barke on y^ out side is blacker than that of 
y^ Comon Elme & is very tough. So that when y^ sappe is uppe, 
it will strippe & peele from the lower end of y^ boughes to y^ 
toppe, without breakinge, whereof are made cords & ropes. 

The roots spread far abroad in y^ earth & are very tough, which 
makes the tree with much difficultie to be grubbed uppe. 

Whereon doe growe y^ flowers nearly compacted together & like 
unto y^ pointells or chives growinge in midle of flowers, which 
afterwards turn into flatt seed, more long than broade, not much 
unlike to Arach seed ; and doe for the most parte fall away before 
or shortly after, the leaves springe forth, and some hang on 
a greate parte of the somer. They flower at the latter end of 
ffebr or beg of March. 

[MS. f. 4; Ger. emac, p. 1481 (much altered) 

The following lines are written on the cover of a letter 
addressed to ' Nicholas Everender at his brother's house in 
Sedlescombe in Sussex. This to M^* Samuell Shute at 
Mr. Thomas Caltherste at ye albus Lion in Dea(?)side '. 
On the other side is written the draft of the letter already 


quoted, dated by Goodyer from his lodging at the Red 
Lyon in Fleet Street, on the 7 of November 1618. 
* Even such is tyme, that takes in trust 

Our youth, our ioyes and all we have 

And paies us but with age and dust 

Who in the darke and silent grave 

When we have wanderd all our waies 

Shutts uppe the storie of our dales 

And from which earth and grave and dust 

The Lord shall raise me uppe I trust.' [MS. f. 2 
Being, regrettably, unfamiliar with the poem I consulted 
my friend Sir Walter Raleigh, our Professor of English 
Literature, in the confident expectation that he would 
identify it for me. The strange coincidence could hardly 
have been anticipated that the lines should be known as 
the * Last Poem of Sir Walter Raleigh ' of Elizabethan 
fame. There is a tradition that they were written in the 
Tower, shortly before the execution, but whether this be 
so or not, it is surely remarkable that Goodyer should have 
had a copy on the back of a letter written within a few 
days of the execution on 28 October 161 8. 

As a twelve-year old boy Goodyer must have heard of 
the infamous trial at Winchester, when the people first 
pelted Raleigh with tobacco pipes and later were won over 
by the eloquence of his defence and the dauntlessness of 
his bearing. He would assuredly have taken a sympathetic 
interest in his great contemporary not only for his heroic 
career, but as a pioneer familiar with the splendours of the 
tropical vegetation of the New World. Goodyers Arti- 
choke culture was perhaps modelled on that of the Potato. 
Whether he was a smoker, we do not know, but about 
1 618 he paid 4^. for 'tabaco', apparently at Alresford. 
It was only a few years before, that James I had stigmatized 
smoking as ' a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the 
nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs, and in 
the black stinking fume thereof nearest resembling the 
horrible Stygian smoke of the pit that is bottomless 



In 1 619 Goodyer took to growing two kinds of tobacco 
at Droxford. 

There are several lists of garden plants among the 
Goodyer papers, but unfortunately they have no localities 
or dates attached to them, with the exception of a short 
list of plants, without date, and not in Goodyer's hand (see 
p. 347). It is headed To have from Mr, Gibbes. Of the 
plants enumerated only six are noted by Johnson as occurring 
in the garden of Mr. George Gibbes of Bath in 1634. 

Another list in his own autograph may refer to plants 
growing at Droxford (p. 327). 


Of the year 16 19 there is but little to record except the 
discovery and description of two plants, one of which was 
new to the British flora. He also wrote the description of the 
Linum catharticitm, part of which has already been quoted. 

On the 3rd of August he found the Small Woodruff or 
Squinancy-wort (Aspertcla Cynanchica L.), and thus he inde- 
pendently discovered one of the denizens of the chalk hills 
which had been previously, though probably unknown to 
him, noticed by Lobel in the Isle of Wight: ' cretaceis 
gaudet montosis prope Drayton e regione Vectis Insulae '. 
Goodyer's observation of 1619 was printed by his friend 
Johnson in 1633, and LobeFs earlier note was printed by 
his admirer, Dr. How, in 1655. The Procumbent Marsh- 
wort (Apiiim nodijloricm) is recorded on the authority of 
Goodyer^ by How: we are now able to print the original 
description (p. 1 14). 

A further success was the addition of a new Hedge- 
Parsley to our flora (Caitcalis nodosa Scop. 2). Later on 
Goodyer discovered the Field Hedge- Parsley 'amongst 
wheat plentifully near Petersfield '.^ 

His well-known description of the Dewberry [Rtcbus 
caeshcs L.), distinguishing it from other Brambles under 

^ How, Phytologia. ^ Druce, Goodyer^ p. I. ' Merret, Pinax, 24. 




the name of ' Rubus repens fructu caesio \ was written in 
September of this year, but the original MS., from which 
Johnson's account was printed, is not now extant. It was 
almost certainly taken from a Hampshire plant, but since 
Goodyer omitted to mention the locality, he is not quoted as 
a first recorder in Townsend's local Flora, in which seventy 
species of brambles are now distinguished : truly a thorny 
subject ! Hampshire, perhaps with one exception, is stated 
to be richest in brambles of all the counties in England. 

In his garden he raised some specimens of the forbidden 
plant, tobacco. ' In anno 1619 I receaved the seedes hereof 
from Mr. Anthony Uvedale ^ who that yere intended to 
plante greate store thereof, and was hindered of his purpose 
by a proclamation sett forth by Authoritie.' 


The next two years were perhaps the most eventful in 
his career as a botanist. His excursions were rewarded 
by the discovery of several other plants new to the British 
flora, and many new plants imported from the south of 
Europe throve so well at Droxford, that he was able to 
give the first English description of them. 

On the 28th of April we find him making observations 
on the Oak, Walnut, and Chestnut, being especially in- 

^ Anthony Uvedale, the Governor of Winchester Gaol, has already been 
mentioned. The Uvedales were a Hampshire family who lived at Wickham, 
and intermarried with the May family, living at Mayfield in Sussex. 

The name of Uvedale is well known in the annals of early horticulture. 
Robert Uvedale (1642-1722) became master of the grammar school at Enfield, 
Middlesex, about the year of Goodyer's death. He was ' a great lover of plants, 
and, having an extraordinary art in managing them, is become master of the 
greatest and choicest collection of exotic greens that is perhaps anywhere in this 
land. His greens take up six or seven houses or roomsteads. His orange trees 
and largest myrtles fill up his biggest house, and . . . those more nice and 
curious plants that need closer keeping are in warmer rooms, and some of them 
stoved when he thinks fit' {G'lhson, A ccoimt of several Gardens near Lotidon, 
1691, Archaeologia^ ^794, xii. i88). He was thus one of the earliest possessors 
of hothouses in England. One of his former pupils is said to have brought him 
from Mount Lebanon a cedar which was recently flourishing at Enfield. 

The copy of Turner's Herball, 1568, in the Oxford Physic Garden, which 
belonged to W. Clowes in 157 1, bears the signature of ^ Rob. Udall.^ 



terested in their flowers, buds, and galls. He added to these 
notes and wrote them out afresh on 9 May 1622 : they are 
printed under that date in Johnson's Gerard. 

Business at this time brought him into touch with the lands 
and villagers of Soberton, a hamlet about a mile and a half 
south of Droxford. It was there that he gathered the 
'Oenanthe Angustifolia'. This has been identified by Druce 
as the first record of the Marsh Parsley Oenanthe in Britain, 
but Townsend (Fiord) considers that it was the Sulphur-wort 
Dropwort (Oenanthe silaifolia Bieb.) that was found. 

'This 19 of May 1620 I found this wild in East Hoo in ye 
parish of Subberton about 7 miles from Petersfield in Hampshire 
in a hedgerowe about a flightshott from ye then dwelling-house 
of Mr. William Browne on ye south part of ye said house and ye 
18 of June 1620 I saw it there in flower.'^ 

Merrett^ gives the locality as East How. William Browne 
of Hoe had purchased the manor of Soberton in 1619.^ 

A few days later an excursion to the New Forest yielded 
another new plant, the Narrow-leaved Lungwort (Pul- 
monaria angustifolia), whose fine blue flowers attracted 
his attention on 25 May 'in a Wood by Holbury House'. 
It is a rarity in Britain ; Hampshire and the Isle of Wight 
being the only stations where it grows wild. The Forest 
children call it 'Joseph and Mary'.^ 

In the summer he described the following plants : 

20 June 

Antirrhinum minus. 

Linaria minor Desf. 

2 July 

Pastinaca aquatica minor. 

Slum erectum Huds. 


Rapunculum silvestre Tragi. 

Phyieuma orbiculare L. 

5 )5 

Eufrasia altera Dod. 

Bartsia Odo7ttites L. 

5 3> 

Anthyllis montana. 

Thesium humifusum DC. 

8 „ 

Carduus acaulis septentrionalium L'Ob. 

Carduus acaulis L. 

22 „ 

Melampium luteum. 

Melampyrum sylvaticum L. 

26 „ 

Herba Doria altera. 

Senecio sarracenicus L. 

10 Aug. Panicum. 

Echinochloa Crus-galli L. 

12 „ 


Ocimuni Basilicum L. 

18 „ 

(Aster conyzoides). 

Jasonia tuber osa DC. 

Sium siifoliis. 

Carum segetum, Benth. 

^ Goodyer quoted by How. MS. note to Phytologia, p. 81. 
^ Pinax^ p. 84. ' Vict, Coimty Hist. Hants, iii. 263. ■* J. Vaughan. 

D 2 



He found both the Water. Parsnip {Siiim erectitm Huds.) 
and the Bastard Toadflax (Tliesium hcndfiLSum DC), near 
Droxford, the former growing in the River Meon, the 
latter ' wild on the side of a chalkie hill in an inclosure 
on the right hand by the way, as you goe from Droxford 
to Poppie Hiir. Both these references are the earliest 
we have to these plants in Britain, as also is his excellent 
description of the Hone wort or Corn Parsley (Carum 
segetuvi)^ which he again wrote out for the new Herbal in 

Further detailed descriptions were written of plants as 
they flowered in his own garden or in those of his friends, 
for instance Acinos odoratissimum : ' I first found growing 
in the garden of Mr. William Yalden in Sheete near 
Petersfield in Hampshire, Anno 1620, amongst sweet 
Marjerom, and which by chance they bought with the 
seedes thereof. It is to be considered whether the seedes 
of sweete Marjerom degenerate and send forth this herbe 
or not, nth October 1621, John Goodyer ' {Ger, emac. 677). 

But the outstanding event of the year v/as a visit to the 
garden of his 'worthy friend and excellent Herbarist of 
happy memorie Mr. William Coys of Stubbers in the 
parish of North Okington in Essex Goodyer came away 
with the seeds of many rare and little known plants, in- 
cluding several that had been collected by Boelius in Spain 
and had been brought over by him to England. Among 
other novelties which were thus introduced into the 
Droxford garden in 1620 were : 

Acarna flore rubro. Carlina lanata L. 

Aracus maior Baeticus Boelii. Vicia sativa h linearis Lange. ? 

Cattaria tuberosa radice Baetica Nepeta tuherosa L. 


Ervilia silvestris Dodonaei. 
Faba veterum serratis foliis Boelii. 
Geranium Baeticum Boelii. 
Gramen cristatum Baeticum Boelii. 
Gramen tremulum maximum. 
Herba Doria altera 26 July 1620. 
Hieracium stellatum Boelii. 

Lathy rus Ochrus L. 
Vicia Faba L. var. 
Erodium griiiniivi Willd. ? 
Cynosw'us echinatus L. 
Briza maxima L. 
Senecio sarracenicus L. 
Rhagadiolus edulis Gaertn. 
Tolpis harhata Gaertn. 

medio nigrum fl. maior B. 


Hieracium medio nigrum fl. minore B. Tolpis umbellata /3 minor Lange. 

„ lanosum. Hieracium andryatoides Vill. 

Horminum silvestre tertium Cliisii. Salvia verticillata L. 
Jacea capitulis hiisutis Boelii. ? 

Lagopus trifolius maior Baeticus. Trifolium ligusticum Balb. ? 

Legumen pallidum Vlissiponense. Vicia luiea ^ laevigata Boiss. 

IMalva flore amplo Baetica aestiva. Malva moschata L. 

Petum indicam folio pene obtuse. Nicotiana Tabacum v. brasiliensis. 

Scabiosa flore rubro. Scabiosa sexta Scabwsa airopiirpurea L. 
Indica Clusii. 

Silibum minus fl. nutante Boelii. Notobasis syriaca Cass. 

Valeriana mexicana. Valeriana cornucopiae L. 

Most of the plants raised from Coys' seed did so well 
with him that he was able to describe them as they flowered 
in the following summer. 

It has been suggested^ that on his way home Goodyer 
passed Rickmansworth, and there * in the ponds about 
Moore Park ' found ' Sium alterum Olusatii facie There 
is, however, no ground for this supposition ; Goodyer himself 
wrote that he visited Moore Park in 1625. 

We owe our first description of a new kind of English 
Elm to this same journey into Essex. 

When we consider that many of our contemporaries are 
so deficient in powers of observation as to be unable to 
tell one tree from another, it is remarkable that Goodyer 
should have been so quick in distinguishing the various 
species of Elm. Two of these had already been recog- 
nized by Gerard in 1597, and were redescribed by Goodyer 
for the second edition in 1633 : to these he now added 
a third, on his way to visit Mr. Coys : 

' I observed it growing very plentifully as I rode betweene 
Rumford and . . . Stubbers in the year 1620, intermixed with the 
first kinde (the Common Elm), but easily to be discerned apart, and 
is in those parts usually called Witch Elme.' 

The name of this Elm has caused considerable confusion 
in the minds of those who have not attentively read the 
words ' in those parts ' . The Elm is certainly not the 
Wych Elm ordinarily so called, which Goodyer knew 
as the Witch Hasell or Broadest-leaved Elm ; but, as 

^ Druce, Goodyer , p. 2. 



Mr. Russell told me on my recent visit to Stubbers, it is 
the tree which is still locally known in that part of Essex 
as the ' Witch Elm a name which is thus proved to have 
survived locally since Elizabethan times. Goodyer named 
it ' Vlmus folio glabro ' or Smooth-leaved Elm, a name that 
has been adopted by Miller in the form of Ulmus glabra, 
the name by which it is still widely known, although Elwes 
prefers the name U. nitens Moench. for it. 

Systematists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 
have brought the species of Elms into such a state of 
confusion that it is a relief once more to get back to the 
simpler system of Goodyer, whose accounts of the four 
species of Elms were doubtless redrafted in 1632, but the 
original observations were much earlier. Johnson prefaces 
the descriptions with a short introduction : 

* Our Author [Gerard] only described two Elms, and those not so 
accurately but that I thinke I shall give the Reader content, in 
exchanging them for better received from M'". Goodyer ; which are 
these.' — T. Johnson. 

Ulmus campestris Sm. 
Vlmus vulgatissima folio lato scabro. The common Elme. 

This Elme is a very great high tree, the barke of the young 
trees, and boughes of the Elder, which are usually lopped or shred, 
is smooth and very tough, and wil strip or pil from the wood 
a great length without breaking : the bark of the body of the old 
trees as the trees grow in bignesse, teares or rents, w^hich makes it 
very rough. The innermost wood of the tree is of reddish yellow 
or brownish colour, and curled, and after it is drie, very tough, hard 
to cleave or rent, whereof naves of Carts are most commonly made : 
the wood next the barke, which is called the sap, is white. Before 
the leaves come forth the flowers appeare, about the end of March, 
which grow on the twigs or branches, closely compacted or thrust 
together, and are like to the chives growing in the middle of most 
flowers, of a reddish colour : after which come flat seed, more long 
than broad, not much unlike the garden Arach seed in forme and 
bignesse, and doc for the most part fall away before or shortly 
after the leaves spring forth, and some hang on a great part of the 
Sommer : the leaves grow on the twigges, of a darke greene colour ; 
the middle size whereof are two inches broad, and three inches 



long, some are longer and broader, some narrower and shorter, 
rough or harsh in handling on both sides, nickt or indented about 
the edges, and many times crumpled, having a nerve in the middle, 
and many smaller nerves growing from him : the leafe on one side 
of the nerve is alvvaies longer than on the other. On these leaves 
oftentimes grow blisters or small bladders, in which at the spring 

The Common Elm.^ 

are little wormes, about the bignesse of Bed-fleas. This Elme is 
common in all parts of England, where I have travelled. 

Ulmus minor Miller. 
Vlmus minor folio angusto scabro. The Narrow leaved Elme. 

This tree is like the other, but much lesser and lower, the leaves 
are usually about two inches and a halfe long, and an inch or an 

^ This figure originally appeared in Mathiolus, 144; was copied in Lobel^ 
Obs. 607. I ; reproduced in Ger. emac. 1480. I, and reappeared in Parkinson, 
1404. I. 6. It shows blisters on the leaves. 



inch and a quarter broad, nickt or indented about the edges, and 
hath one side longer than the other, as the first hath, and are also 
harsh or rough on both sides, the barke or rinde will also strip as 
the first doth : hitherto I have not observed either the flowers or 
seed, or blisters on the leaves, nor have I had any sight of the 
timber, or heard of any use thereof. This kinde I have seene 
growing but once, and that in the hedges by the high way as I rode, 

The Narrow-leaved Elm.^ 

betweene Christ Church and Limmington in the New Forrest in 
Hampshire, about the middle of September 1624, from whence 
I brought some small plants of it, not a foot in length, which now, 
1633, are risen up ten or twelve foot high, and grow with me by 
the first kinde, but are easily to be discerned apart, by any that 
will looke on both. 

^ Dodoens, 837 ; reproduced in Ger. emac. 1480. 2 ; copied in Parkinson^ 
1404. 4. The leaves have been attacked by insects. 



Wych Elm. Ulinus montana Stokes. 
Vlmus folio latissimo scabro. Witch Hasell, or the broadest 
leaved Elme. 

This grovveth to be a very great tree, and also very high, 
especially when he groweth in woods amongst other trees : the 
barke on the outside is blacker than that of the first, and is also 
very rough, so that when there is plenty of sap it will strip or 

The Wych Elm.^ 

peele from the v/ood of the boughes from the one end to the 
other, a dozen foot in length or more, without breaking, whereof 
are often made cords or ropes : the timber hereof is in colour 
neere like the first ; it is nothing so firme or strong for naves of 
Carts as the first is, but will more easily cleave ; this timber is also 
covered with a white sappe next the barke : the branches or young . 

^ Ger. emac, 1481. 3 ; copied in Parkinson, 1404.2. (Stokes' edit, of Wither^ 
ing, 1787.) 



boughes are grosser and bigger, and do spread themselves broader 
and hang more downewards than those of the first ; the flowers are 
nothing but chives, very like those of the first kind: the seed is 
also like, but something bigger : the leaves are much broader and 
longer than any of the kindes of Elme, usually three or foure 
inches broad, and five or six inches long, also rough or harsh in 
handling on both sides, snipt or indented about the edges, neere 

The Smooth-leaved Elm.^ 

resembling the leaves of the Hasell : the one side of the leaves are 
also most commonly longer than the other, also on the leaves of 
this Elme are sometimes blisters or bladders like those on the first 
kinde. This prospereth and naturally groweth in any soile moist 
or dry, on high hills, and in low vallies in good plenty in most 
places in Hampshire, wher it is commonly called Witch Hasell. 

^ Gerard, 1297. 2 ; copied in Ger. euiac. 148 1. 4 ; recopied in Parkinson, 
1403- 3* Stokes considered this figure as ' rather a variety of U. campestris '. 



Old men affirme, that when long boughes were in great use, there 
were very many made of the wood of this tree, for which purpose 
it is mentioned in the statutes of England by the name of Witch 
Hasell, as 8. EL lo. This hath little affinitie with Carpinus^ which 
in Essex is called Witch Hasell. 

Smooth Leaved Elm. Ulmtis glabi a Miller. 
Vlmus folio glabro. Witch Elme, or smooth leaven Elme. 

This kinde is in bignesse and height like the first, the boughes 
grow as those of the Witch Hasell doe, that is hanged more downe- 
wards than those of the common Elme, the barke is blacker than 
that of the first kinde, it will also peele from the boughes : the 
flowers are like the first, and so are the seeds : the leaves in forme 
are like those of the first kinde, but are smooth in handling on 
both sides. My worthy friend and excellent Herbarist of happy 
memorie M^ William Coys of Stubbers in the parish of North- 
okington in Essex told me, that the wood of this kinde was more 
desired for naves of Carts than the wood of the first. I observed 
it growing very plentifully as I rode between Rumford and the said 
Stubbers, in the yeere 1620 intermixed with the first kinde, but 
easily to be discerned apart, and is in those parts usually called 
Witch Elme. — Ger. emac. 1479-82. 

A copy of a Memorandum, dated 15 November, in 
Goodyer's handv^riting is printed on p. 374. 

Part of the winter was spent in working through 
Gerard's Herbal and in extracting lists of plants, one of 
which (MS. f. 83) was dated 16 Januarii 1620. 


Goodyer signalized his twenty-ninth year by turning out 
more descriptions of new or rare plants in the three months 
of July, August, and September than in all the rest of his 
life. There must have been some special reason for this 
great output. It is reasonable to think that he found an 
incentive in the large number of novelties he had seen 
in the gardens of Coys and Parkinson. There was also 
the added interest of possession, of the triumph of the 
horticulturist : seeds given to him by Coys in the preceding 
year were coming up well. What would they become.^ 



What new benefits to mankind might they not be made to 
yield ? Many of them growing at Droxford under his own 
eye were either not described or were imperfectly described 
in Gerard's Herbal \ there was room for a new edition, 
or at any rate for a Supplement. The new plants might 
not be hardy enough to survive the next winter, and Boel 
might never be able to procure the same seed again. 
Whatever the reasons may have been, Goodyer s enthusiasm 
certainly reached a red-heat this summer. 

It was the enthusiasm that every true naturalist feels 
when he is conscious of being the first to obtain an insight 
into unknown processes and phenomena. What plans for 
publication he may have had we know not, nor do we know 
what hindrances arose, but there followed a hiatus and 
these notes of Goodyer's were laid aside for twelve years, 
and then a selection of them were freely placed at the 
disposal of Dr. Johnson for the new edition of Gerard. 

The descriptions conform rigidly to the style in vogue 
at the period. The habit of the plant, its stalks, branches, 
leaves, flowers, seed, root, duration are all considered in 
order, and in many cases notes are added on the season, 
hardiness, and locality. The technical words such as 
' footstalk ' in the sense of petiole, * knee ' = node, 'bosome' = 
axil (of a leaf), ' pointell ' = pistil, ' cheives ' = stamens, and 
umbell in the modern sense are in the language of Gerard. 
Occasionally the descriptions are brightened by refreshing 
comparisons. The flower of Monotropa ' resembleth ye 
suck-bottle which children use to suck their drinke out of ; 
' seed no bigger than a flea ' ; ' clammie as Bird-lime ' ; 
' woollie like Spiders webbs ' ; a colour is ' orange tawnie 
velvett'; a herb ' heateth and burneth the mouth'; the 
distribution of the pollen of the Yew is thus described, 
* if you shall beate on them stones into this tree about the 
end of February, there will proceed and fly from the 
flowers an aboundance of dustie smoke '. 

Moreover, at this period of his scientific life he might 
have written as Ray did in June 1667 that he had been 



at work ' in gathering up into a catalogue all such plants 
as I had found at any time growing wild in England, 
not in order to the present publishing of them, but for 
my own use, possibly one day they may see the light'. 

It must be remembered that at this period there was 
no English botany book worthy of the name in existence. 
The standard works used in this country were the Herbal 
of Dr. William Turner, printed in 1568 at Cologne, and 
illustrated, 7iot with drawings of British plants, but with 
reduced copies of some 400 figures drawn from continental 
plants and previously used at Basel to illustrate the 1545 
edition of Fuchs' great work. That Fuchs' original draw- 
ings were of considerable beauty, and that nothing to equal 
them could have been engraved in England, is admitted ;. 
but as illustrations to an English Flora they were 

In 1574 a further impetus was given to the study of 
English botany by the publication of Henry Lyte's edition 
of Dodoens Herbal, which, as the preface shows, has con- 
siderable claims to originality rather than to being a mere 
translation, but for this again the small, inferior copies of 
Fuchs' figures were requisitioned. 

The next and best known of English Herbals, that of 
Gerard, appeared in 1597, but again it was a compilation 
from foreign works, so imperfectly ' accomodated unto our 
English nation ' that Lobel was requested by the printer to 
correct the- blunders, and still Goodyer was able to discover 
many others. 

Consequently, like many other botanists, Goodyer must 
have been eternally plagued with the attempt to make 
English plants fit the descriptions and figures of continental 
writers — a labour that has been aptly compared with the 
endeavour to fit square pegs in round holes. He was, 
however, sufficiently gifted to perceive the futility of the 
attempt, and to recognize at an early period the need for 
accurate descriptions made from the living, flowering plant, 
beside him. 



Among foreign authors he would have relied largely 
on Matthiolus, Bauhin, and on Lobel. One of the most 
important works that appeared during his working life was 
the Pinax of Kaspar Bauhin, the result of forty years of 
toil, published in 1623, and acquired by Goodyer in the 
same year. This work carried still further Lobel's idea 
that natural affinity must be the foundation of a truly 
natural system : it went far to clear up the confusion in the 
nomenclature of the day, which had resulted from the fact 
that different names had often been given to the same 
plant by different authors. The Pinax, as Reynolds Green 
has well put it, ' not only got rid of much confusion by 
setting forth the different synonyms in use, but it introduced 
greater terseness of description, and helped to restrict the 
inordinate length of names'. Green did not think that 
Bauhin's work had exerted any great influence in England : ^ 
but we have noted a profound influence upon Goodyer's 
work, who prepared and, had times been favourable, would 
assuredly have published a Pinax of the British flora on 
the lines of Bauhin, whose works he had read, marked, 
and inwardly digested from cover to cover. 

Goodyer's excursions in search of plants were rewarded 
by the finding on 2 June of two species of Pondweeds new 
to the British aquatic flora. Both were growing quite near 
home, the one actually in Droxford, the other just over the 
Sussex border at Durford on the upper waters of the 
Rother. A paper, MS. f. 6, suggests that either Goodyer, 
or more probably Sir T. Bilson, was interested in land that 
once belonged to the old Priory at Durford. 

On 29 June, about a mile from his native town of 
Alton, he found a plant which he described as ' Nidus avis 
flore et caule violaceo purpureo colore This he ' found 
wilde in the border of a field called Marborne, neere 
H abridge in Haliborne . . . being the land of one 

^ On this point Dr. Church notes that in Oxford ' Bauhin's Pinax prompted 
Sherard's Pinax of Dillenius, and hence was responsible in England for the 
Sherardian Professor of Botany '. 



- William BaldenJ In this place also groweth wild the 
thistle called Corona fratriwi \ The identity of the species 
has been the subject of speculation. The most recent 
review of the position is that of Mr. Druce, who follows 
Sir J. E. Smith in considering that the plant was probably 
the Purple Broomrape [Orobancke purpui^ed) growing 
parasiticaHy upon the roots of the common Yarrow which 
is now abundant in a locality, which Mr. Druce believes 
that he has correctly identified with the ' field called 
Marborne Townsend, on the other hand, suggests that 
the plant was the rare Violet Helleborine, Epipactis violacea 
Dur., which he found near Alton ; a view with which 
Dr. Stapf agrees. In his annotated copy of Tabernaemon- 
tanus' Icones, Goodyer has added a note and a reference to 
the picture of Orobanche i to the effect that it is Nidus 
Avis Lob. o. 356 or ' 86 (b. 2)', which is evidentl}^ a refer- 
ence to Orchis abortiva violacea in Bauhin's Pinax,^ 

Although closely tied to his work and his garden during 
the early part of the summer, Goodyer appears to have 
paid short visits to the coast, at Haylinge on 20 August, 
where he found Sea Heath {Frankenia laevis L.), and 
Diotis maritima, which was formerly much more widely 
distributed than it is now ; to Southsea on the 30th ; and 
to Bursledon Ferry on 3 September. Here he saw the 
Sea Heath in flower and described it a second time. 
At Bellmere Pond he found a white-flowered Eyebright 
in flower on 24 August, and at Southsea Castle he saw 
Climbing Fumitory in flower on 30 August. 

Altogether he described at least ninety species of plants 
during the summer, and when October brought him a 
respite from his labours it was but natural that he should 

^ Parish Records might possibly show whether ' Balden ' is an old error for 
Yalden, the name of Goodyer's kinsfolk. 

^ Yet another view is printed by the editors of the catalogue of the Morisonian 
Herbarium. The entry is ' Orobanche radice compacta major flore violaceo, 
nobis. No specimen. In agro Ha?itonie7tsi prope Alton oppidit7n i7ivenit 
D. Goodyer. This is usually referred to Lunodorum abortivum Sw., but 
Goodyer's plant (of which no specimen is known to exist) was probably 
Helleborine purpurata Druce'. Vines and Druce, p. 173. 


wish to compare notes with his friend Coys. His descrip- 
tion of 'Jacea capituHs hirsutis Boehi' certainly impHes 
that it was taken on lo October 162 1 in Coys' own garden. 
And a letter from his friend, Laurence Davis, about gold 
weights addressed to him at Droxford on 9 November, 
implies that he was home again then. 

To my very loving freind Mr. John Goodier at 
Droxford give this. 

Mr. Goodyer I have sent you by Maye yo'^ gould waights w*^ 
those other that you desired extraordinary, only the Elz. Angell 
serves both for the Edward & Elzabeth waight, theye cost 6^ 
And yo"" peice I could gett but 8^ 10'^ for ; the Remaynder I have 
returnd by Maye. And I am gladd to have this occasion to expresse 
my desire to bee esteemed. 

Yo'' ever loving freind 

Laurence Davis. 

I praye remind mee kindly to yo^ fellows 

Patience, Mr. Parker, and Henry Henly. [MS. f. 9 

This letter was endorsed by Goodyer ' Rec. 9 November 1621 ' 

and annotated ' rec. 3^ againe • 

His last work this winter was to distinguish between ' the 
Yew bearing Acorns and berryes ' and ' the Yew with only 
flowers '. 

A number of the papers in which Sir Thomas Bilson's 
affairs are mentioned belong to 1621 and 1622. Shopping 
notes occur on MS. f. 46. ' Morgan is to doe the fan of 
a pinke color '. ' The fans handell is to be doble gilt '. 
Among the things to be purchased are ' 20 yards of galome 
lace buttons, fustian, cambic, oyle skins, 50 needles, and 
other such feminine gear, p. 382. The addresses 'Little 
Minories ' and ' Barbican ' on the same paper indicate that 
business had again taken him to London. 


The principal journey of 1622 was to Oxford. It is not 
difficult to find good reasons for the visit The relations 
that existed between Magdalen College and Goodyer's 


own county, with William Yalden the College Clerk of the 
Account, his brother-in-law, and in addition his scientific 
interests may rather make us wonder that he should not 
have visited Oxford more frequently. It was but the 
)ear before, that Magdalen had granted to the University 
five acres of land, then in process of being laid out as a 
Botanic Garden, and Goodyer may have contributed some 
of the first plants. Among the then fellows of the College 
was Walter Stonehouse whose garden-lists subsequently 
came into Goodyer s possession, and among the new Demies 
was Sampson Johnson, the friend of Thomas Johnson and 
an early authority on the purgative action of various kinds 
of rhubarb.^ 

In May Goodyer completed his notes on the flowers and 
galls of the oak, and on the cachryes ^ of the walnut, 
chestnut, alder, and birch. Oak-galls had long had a 
peculiar interest, because a gardener by ' looking whether 
there be in them eyther Flyes, Wormes, or Spiders ' could 
presage battle, dearth, and scarcity or plague.^ 

On 2 July ' in the high waie neare Abington leadinge 
towards Oxford ' he saw the fine Woolly Thistle (Cnicus 
eriophorits), which he had already found by a Hampshire 
roadside in 1617 (f 107). On the 5th while exploring 'by 
the Rivers side aild in the water diches about Oxford ' he 
saw the Great Water Parsnip (Sium latifolmm L.) before 
the flowers were fully formed, and continuing his walk on 
the west part of Gloster Hall, now Worcester College, 
he there noted for the first time the Wood Club Rush 
[Scirpus sylvaticus L.) (f. 7 v.). . 

^ Thomas Johnson wrote ' My friend Mr. Sampson Johnson, Fellow of Magdalen 
College in Oxford, assures me, that the Physitions of Vienna in Austria use 
scarce any other [medicine] at this day than the Rubarb of the Antients which 
grows in Hungary not far from thence : and they prefer it before the dried 
Rubarb brought out of Persia and the East Indies, because it hath not so strong 
a binding facultie as it, neither doth it heate so much ; onely it must be used 
in somewhat a larger quantitie' {Ge7\ emac, 396). S. Johnson had no 
doubt opportunity of testing this statement during his year's leave of absence 
from College, beginning on 14 March 163C-1. 

^ See p. 174. ' Thomas Hill, The profitable Arte of Gardenings 1574. 





In the autumn he paid his customary visit to Coys,^ 
who on 29 September was able to show him ' Scabiosa 
flore rubro' in flower (cf. 8 October 1621). 

During the winter months he was evidently occupied 
with a literary labour that will be referred to in the 
following year when it w^as finished. 

In February a stray note on the Curled Parsley (Apiiim 
crispum) growing at Idsworth suggests an excursion down 
the steep wooded hills beyond the South Downs in the 
midst of very beautiful country, then part of the Forest 
of Bere. And in March he received seeds of twenty-two 
garden plants from Coys, including two kinds of ' aples of 
love' or tomatoes, p. 325. 


His botanical descriptions now cease for a while. We 
have only one note, on a species of Acorus dated July 
1623. It may be that he was unable to pursue his hobby 
with the same activity as heretofore : perhaps he had to 
leave Droxford — for we find no mention of his garden 
there after this date. But the advancement of botanical 
learning still remained the prevailing occupation of his 
leisure, only from henceforth we find it taking another form, 
a desire to make the plant lore of antiquity available for 
English readers, and to this he devoted the winter months. 

By this time he had collected a considerable number of 
botanical works both of his contemporaries and of the 
great Masters of the past. A beautifully bound copy in 
Italian binding of the Aldine folio edition of Theophrastus 
(1497) was among them. The margins of this book he 
inscribed with the numbers of the chapters, and translated 
the whole into English. The ten books De Plantis fill 
238 pages of his neat small script, and the six books De 
CaiLsis PlantariLm take 256 m.ore. We do not know when 

^ This is proved by a marginal note on p. 130 of his copy of Parkinson's 
Theatrum. There he renames Parkinson's No. 8, Aster Virgineus, as ' Helian- 
themum radice repente Virginianum. Mr. William Coys of Stubbers in Essex 
was wont to call it so. 26 Sept. 1622 I sawe it in his garden. John Goodyer'. 



he bepfan the translation, but he noted the dates on which 


he completed the chapters De Causis PlantariLm. 
Chap. 1 finis 25 Febr. 1622 
„ 3 „ 8 Marcii 1622 
„ 4 18 Marcii 1622 

5 „ 28 Jan. 1623 
At the end is written 

'Finis 6*° die Februarij 1623. 
This booke was sent from bindinge the six and twentieth day of 
September 1661. 

The bindinge — the cleane paper — the claspes 4^' 

This, so far as we know, was the only English translation 
of the De Plaiitis until 1919, when Sir Arthur Hort 
published his translation ; but Goodyer's still remains the 
only version of the De Causis in the English language. 


We find him resuming his botanical excursions in 1624. 
He made a second trip into Wiltshire, and noted the 
occurrence of Sanfoin {Onobrychis saliva Lam.) at Lang- 
ford and Stapleford on 24. July. A carefully prepared 
itinerary for a tour in the New Forest in September of the 
same year shows his route : 

From hyve to Lymington Fr. hampto to Redbridg 4 

from Lymington to Christchurch fro Redbridge to Ringw 16 

from Christchurch to Poole 8 myle fro Ringwood to Langham 6 

from Poole to Wareham 7 myles fr Langham to Poole 4 

to Wimboine 6 
to Brainford 10 
to lichett 3 
from Wareham to Wooll & Briden 4 myle 
fro woU to Waymouth 9 myle 
to Dorchester 9 myle 
to Woodbury hill 4 myle 
to Winfruite 2 to Osmunton 4 
to bean 3 
fro Waymouth to Woobury 14 

to Wimborne 8 fro 
Wimborne to Christchurch 
from Christchurch to Lemington 9 
fro Lemington to Bewly 4 
fro Bewly to Hyve 2 




horse hire 




Lymington pass 

Hyve pass 


ichen pass 

. . c* Church 

]\Ir. laden of Wimborne. 

E 2 

16 , 
[MS. f 




In preparation for this journey he made copies of LobeFs 
descriptions of four species of plants which were already- 
recorded as living at Portland. A7ithyllis prior lentifolia 
peplios effigie maritima^ Sedum Portlandicum,^ Hederatmm 
thlaspi^ and Papaver cornuhtm flore phoeniceo} We 
do not know whether he found them all, but we do 
know that he noticed as a new species a fourth kind 
of English Elm, the Narrow-leaved Elm, already described 
on p. 40. 

Eight years later he wrote, ' This kinde I have seene 
growing but once, and that in the hedges by the high way 
as I rode betweene Christ Church and Limmington in the 
New Forest, about the middle of September 1624, from 
whence I brought some small plants of it, not a foot in 
length, which now, 1633, are risen up ten or twelve foot 
high, and grow with me by the first kinde [the common 
Elme], but are easily to be discerned apart, by any that 
will looke on both/ 

It has been suggested, by Druce, that Goodyer s Narrow- 
leaved Elm was the Cornish Elm, but Elwes and Henry 
both refer it to Ulmus minor Miller, which they call 
Goodyer's Elm, and with which they merge Druces U, 
Ploiii. Elwes states that Goodyer's Elm has been lately 
found near Christchurch by Dr. Moss. 

On 10 September he wrote a description of the Shrubby 
Suaeda (Suaeda friUicosa Forsk.) under the name of 
' Chamaepytis vermiculata '. 

Johnson quotes him on the subject of the great abun- 
dance of the Common Spleenwort in Woolmer Forest. 
'Mr. Goodyer saith that in January 1624 he saw enough 
to lade an horse growing on the bancks in a lane, as he 
rode betweene Rake and Headly in Hampshire, neere 
Wollmer Forrest' {Ger. ernac. 1146). 

^ Are7iaria pefloides L. ^ EiipJiorbia portlandica L. ^ Cochlearia 

danica'L. * Glaiiciwn phoeniceum Cx2LVi\.z, The ' Sedum ' is usually quoted 
as ' Tithymalus and the following plant as ' Thlaspi hederaceum '. These 
records are about a century earlier than those given by Mansell-Pleydell, Flora 
of Dorset. 




It was about this time that he learnt the local name 
(Honewort) and vertues of Corn Parsley, a plant with 
which he had been long familiar, and to which he had 
already given the name ' Selinum Siifoliis ' : but he had no 
English name for it, until one day he saw Miss Ursula 
Leigh, servant to Mistress Bilson of Mapledurham, gather- 
ing it in the ' wheate ershes ' about Mapledurham (where 
it still grew in 1632, especially in clay grounds). She told 
him that it was called Honewort, and that her mother 

' late of Brading in the Isle of Wight deceased, taught her to use it 
after the manner heere expressed, for a swelling which she had in 
her left cheeke, which for many yeeres would once a yere at the 
least arise there, and swell with great heat, rednesse, and itching, 
until by the use of this herbe it was perfectly cured, and rose no 
more nor swelled, being now (5 Martij 1632) about twenty yeeres 
since, only the scar remaineth to this day. This swelling her 
mother called by the name of a Hone, but asking whether such 
tumors were in the said Isle usually called Hones she could not 
tell, by reason shee was brought from Brading aforesaid young, 
and not being above twelve yeeres old when shee used this 
medicine \ 

The Verities. 

* Take one handfull of the greene leaves of this Honewort, and 
stampe them, put to it about halfe a pinte or more of beere, straine 
it, and drinke it, and so continue to drinke the, like quantity every 
morning fasting till the swelling doth abate, which with or in her 
was performed in the space of two weekes at the most.' ^ 

Next we have the discovery of the compact little 
Knotted Pearl wort {Sagina nodosa), described as ' Alsine 
palustris foliis tenuissimis : sive Saxifraga palustris alsine- 
folia on the boggy ground below the Red Well of Welling- 
borough in Northamptonshire. ' This hath not been de- 
scribed that I finde. I observed it at the place aforesaid 
II August 1625.' 

And in the following month he was the first to record 
the poisonous Cowbane or Water Hemlock (CiczUa virosa), 

1 Ger. emac. 1017-18. See p. 121. 


which he named ' Sium alterum olusatri facie', on 
1 6 September 1625. The locality was 'by Moreparke, 
and at Denham in Hertfordsheire in standinge water sine 
cmile' (f. 58). 

It has been suggested that Goodyer, as a staunch Royalist, 
visited the Red Well because King Charles and Henrietta 
were residing there. But surely the evidence is of the 
flimsiest. The legend repeated by Morton, and supported 
by a misquotation from Laud's Diary,^ of the King and 
Queen living for weeks in a tent beside the habitat of 
Sagina nodosa, supplies but a sorry explanation for 
Goodyer s visit to a popular watering-place. 

The Northamptonshire flora owes the first notice of the 
Grass of Parnassus to the same visit. 


Of his proceedings during the next few years there 
are but few notes. On 9 February 1627 he ' Rec. of 
Christopher Potecary of Stockton, 5 myles from Venny 
Sutton Clother'. It is not clear what he did receive, for 
after this note follows, though written another way up, a 
list of fruit trees and plants, days of Assizes, and (upside 
down) the recipe for an ointment.^ 

Two entries, dated 23 June 1628, show that he visited 
the garden of one ' Millaine ' in London, and saw there 
' Sophia latifolia in horto millaine prope le pest house ' and 
' Triticum spica multiplici, in horto Millaine '. 

The former may have been Sisymbrium Sophia and 
Millen's grass may have been a variety of Triticitm tur- 
gidtcm L. 

The owner of the garden was the ' Master John Millen, 
dwelling in Old Street, in whose nursery are to be found 

^ The statement in a well-known County History that Laud visited the 
sovereigns at Wellinghorou^h, is based on a misreading of his own entry that 
the King appointed him Bishop of Bath and Wells, ' Rex Carolus me nominavit 
in Episcopum Bathon. et Welleft.' 

^ MS. f. 129 V, see p. 384. 


the choisest fruits this kingdom yields ' ^ and *who from John 
Tradescant and all others that have good fruit hath stored 
himself with the best only, and he can sufficiently furnish 
any 'J Parkinson mentions the ' Great bearing cherry of 
Master Millen in 1629 His name and address also occur 
on the back of a letter of 1631.^ 

^^^^ Qr^^^i^ Mi' 


Goodyer's handwriting 
163 1 

In 1631 Goodyer was living at Mapledurham. When 
he moved, we do not know, but both his letters and notes 
show that his thoughts were in the planting of a new 
garden. He journeyed to London and possibly to Oxford, 
and on 27 May appears to have been at ' Godlemen in 
Surrey ' (Godalming). He would have had a good reason 
for visiting Oxford, for his favourite nephew Edmund 
Yalden had gone up to Magdalen College as a Demy in 
1 630. A note of a botanical station near Oxford was supplied 
him by Leonard Buckner,^ a London apothecary, and one 

^ Johnson, 1633, and Parkinson, 1629, p. 575. MS. f. 133. 

^ Leonard Buckner's discoveries are printed by Johnson. ' In a field joyning 
Witney Parke' in 1632 he found S tacky s gerjnatiica L., and 'in a bog upon 
a common by the Beacon hill neere Cumner-wood in the end of August 1632', 
three miles beyond Oxford, a little on this side of Eynsham ferry, he found the 
Horse-taile Coralline. Ger. emac. 1115. This last plant has been variously 
regarded as Equisetum sylvaticum L., Druce, Flora Oxford^ p. 356, and as 
Chara hispida L., Druce, Flora Berks, xcix. In the case of the Stachys, 
Goodyer's note antedates the date printed, and generally quoted from Johnson, 
by a year and a month. 

Leonard's excursions near Oxford suggest kinship with Dr. Thomas Buckner, 
Fellow of Magdalen, 161 8-3 1. 



of the * loving friends and Fellow travellers ' who accom- 
panied Johnson in searching for plants over a great part 
of Kent. 

' Stachys : by windy parke wall on ye west of it, 8 myles from 
Oxford — July 1631. Leo. Buckner.' [MS. f. 133 

Another correspondent, Griffith Hinton, who shows as 
much familiarity with the movement of Bishops as with 
the stock-in-trade of nurserymen, addressed two letters to 
Goodyer in this year. 
To his very loving frend 

M'" John Goodyear at Maple Derham neare Peeterfyeld in Hampshier 
geeve theis. 

Mr. Goodyer I rec. the Acquittances, and as sone as I have 
the Rents togeather you shall heer from mee. My Lo. Byshop of 
Wynchester^ is this day com out of the town for Farnham and 
how long he wyll stay ther I know not, but as I heard by on of 
my Lords men hee wyll stay at Farnham 10 dayes. Thus wyth 
my duety and kynd Remembrance this 13*^ of July 1631 I rest, 

Yors ever loving 

Griffith Hinton. 

[MS. f. 14 

In November 1631 Goodyer was again in London. The 
notes of this visit are not very easy to read, but there is 
sufficient to show that he paid 13^. Sd. for ' Diett at 
Gilford' and that supper at the King's Head cost los. 
The paper is undated, but the year is settled by the days 
of the month on which he purchased certain books, 
Dioscorides and Thevett among others, which are still in 
existence, and are clearly inscribed with a date and price 
exactly corresponding with the note on the paper and 
the year 1631. The further entry * Nov. 8 wyne w^^ 
Johnson 6^' has a special significance, for about this time 
the two friends would have been discussing their great 
scheme of producing a second edition of Gerard's HerbaL 
In spite of its great popularity, this Herbal had been an 
unsatisfactory book from the start. Indeed, when we 
remember its history, it would have been strange had it 

' In 1 63 1 Walter Curie succeeded Rich^ Neile as Bishop of Winchester. 



been otherwise. The printer, John Norton, had com- 
missioned Dr. Priest to translate Dodoens' Peiiiptades 
(1583) into EngHsh. Priest died, and Gerard continued 
the work. But to mask the fact of his Herbal being 
Httle else than a mere translation, he altered the arrange- 
ment from that of Dodoens to that of Lobel ; and 
flippantly remarking that he had heard of Dr. Priest's 
labours, but the man being dead his work had perished 
with him, he had the effrontery to declare that his own 
researches had produced the work. Wood-blocks used by 
Tabernaemontanus in his Eicones (1590), with some others, 
were procured from Frankfort by Norton, but Gerard soon 
showed his slender knowledge, by misapplying many of 
the figures, and caused so much confusion in the early 
chapters of the Herbal, that the attention of the printer 
was directed to it by James Garret, the London apothe- 
cary. Lobel was therefore invited to correct the work, 
and by his own account he actually corrected it in a 
thousand places, but further emendation was stopped by 
the author, w^ho contended that the Herbal was already 
.sufficiently accurate, and that his censor had forgotten the 
English language.^ 

Gerard's book gave a very real impetus to the study 
of our English flora, but it was avowedly a popular 
work, ' being principally intended for gentlewomen ' - ; 
and in this connexion Mrs. Gerard, who assisted her 
barber-surgeon husband in his practice, would have been 
most helpful ; for her professional assistance was similar to 
that which Mrs. Gamp was in the habit of rendering at 

^ An excellent account of the Herbal is contained in B. J. Jackson, Gerard's 
Catalogue of Plants, 1876. 

Americans of ' royal descent ' may be interested to learn that the copy of 
Gerard's Herbal now in the library of the Botanic Garden at Oxford, originally 
belonged to a gentlewoman, Dorathie Redmayne (1565-1645) whom I believe 
to have been identical with the mother of John Rolfe of Heacham, ancestress of 
all who trace their descent to the Indian Princess Pocahontas. Dorothy Rolfe's 
second husband was Robert Redmayne, Chancellor of Norwich. She was 
buried 'at the feet of her two husbands' in Heacham Church. Rolfe Fafnily 
Records, p. 11. 



certain periods to her lady clients. The scientific botanist, 
however, judges a book from another standpoint. Even 
the genuineness of the Catalogue of plants in Gerard's own 
garden has been denied by the 'attestor' Lobel himself 
In one copy of the work in the British Museum the 
certificate has been crossed out, and the words, in Lobel's 
handwriting, ' haec esse falsissima, Matthias de Lobel 
are written at the end of it. 

Goodyer made the fullest use of the Herbal, and in 1 6 20-1 
he may have been contemplating a new and improved edition. 
When or how the same thought came to Dr. Johnson we 
do not know, but in the next year Goodyer was sending 
Johnson twenty-seven sheets of manuscript. 

The name of the inn, where he put up, is given in a 
second letter from his loving friend Hinton, addressed : 

To his very Loving frend 

Mr. John Goodyear at the sygne of the 
Angell neere Denma^'k Hous in Strand. 

Mr. Goodyer I wrote unto my frend for the trees and this day 
I spake with him and hee telleth mee that ther is no sure trees 
growying about Barn Elmes ^ wher hee dvvelleth, but hee hath 
enquired and found that ther is Malacaton trees at Twycknam in 
Mydd. and they wyll not be sold under 3^ 6^ a tree, but hee may 
have an apricok tree for i^^ I shall speake with him agayn eyther 

^ The Earl of Essex had a garden at Barne Elmes, Ge7\ emac. 1396, and so 
had Sir Francis Walsingham (d. 1590), Ger. 501. 

^ The Twickenham fruit garden must have been that of Mr. Vincent 
Pointer, who had the greatest variety of plums in England {Gerard), and is 
quoted by Sir Hugh Piatt, Floraes Paradise, 1608, pp. 117-18, as an authority on 
grafting. His nurseries are mentioned by Ben Jonson, who states that he was 
better known 'by Poynter's name than by his owne'. His real name was 
Corbet, and he was the father of Dr. Richard Corbet (b. 1582), Dean of Christ 
Church (Aubrey, Lives), and was also connected with a garden at Ewell in Surrey. 

That though they did possesse each limbe, So of uncleannesse, or offence, 
Yet he broke them, e're they could him, That never came ill odour thence: 


A7i Epitaph on Master Vincent Corbet. 

Deare Vincent Corbet who so long 
Had wrestled with Diseases strong 

His Mind was pure, and neatly kept, 
As were his Nourceries ; and swept 

With the just Canon of his life, 

A life that knew nor noise nor strife : 

And adde his Actions unto these 
They were as specious as his Trees- 
Ben Jonson, Underwoods, 1640. 



tomorrow or Thursday that I may geve him an answer, therfore 
I pray you send mee word by this bearer or yf you Gooe to have 
them about this town bethink yo"" self. I spake with on Crawley 
who was my Lord Byshopp Androse ^ his gardner after I had 
written to Barn elmes and Crawley promysed me to help mee to 
som but at what pryce I know not yf you please to speake with 
him send mee word and appoynt the tyme and I will speak 
with him tomorrow or yf you wyll have them out of the contry 
send me word that they may bee reddy to bee sent down by the 
carrier tomorrow, serving this with my duety this 15 of november 
I rest Yo" ever 

Griffith Hinton. 

[MS. f. 133 

On the same letter is wTitten in Goodver's hand : 




II 10 
16 7 

- 10 

- 12 

May cherry 
Duke cherry 
Bon crittian 


II 10 

16 7 
4 10 

32 7 

Mr. Withovvbie Hamshere 
Draba ger. 

Gramen alopecuroides spica 
02 64 aspera is Gramen crista- 

tum Baeticum by y® adia- 
4 cent pts of Shepey. 

4 Stachys. by windy parke wall on ye west of 

o it 8 myles from Oxford in July 1631. 

~8 Leo. Buckner. 

at Mr. John Harrison in pater noster Rowe 
at the Golden Unicorne — a stationer. 

[MS. {. 133 

Both the letter and Goodyer's notes written upon it show 
that he was stockinof his earden. ' Millain of old Street ' is 
again mentioned, as is ' Hugobert at Ratcliffe '.^ The 
prices paid for some fruit trees are noted on the back of 
this letter. 

In January he was trying to get into touch with foreign 
herborists with a view to obtaining the seeds of foreiorn 
plants in exchange for English seeds. Drafts of two 
letters are extant. 


I have made a short Catalogue of some plants which growe 
for the most p[ar]te wild in Fraunce ; you may acquaint anie 
herborists there that you please yf they will [be pleased] helpe me 
to seeds of them, or any other, I will by your directions furnish 
^ Lancelot Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester, 1618-26. 

^ The name Hugobert recalls an apothecary, Abraham Hugobert, who was 
fined by the Apothecaries Company for not presenting an apprentice in 1650. 



them with such as they shall desire which growe wild with us in 
England or in our gardens ; those in my Catalogue are all con- 
tayned in Pena his Adversaria, I have quoted the page that there 
may be no mistakinge. And I entreate you to desire so much of 
those that send me any seeds to name the Author and the page 
of his booke that wrightes of them for every seed — all sort he 
sends, if not written of, to say so. This way is the triall of an 
herborist, and will save me a greate deale of paines ; by gods helpe 
I will doe the like to them for those seeds I shall send. Thus 
making bold to trouble you uppon your kind promise, wishing you 
a prosperous journey, — I rest ^ 

Yours to my power — 

[MS. f. 132 

[The catalogue contains the names of fifty-one plants with 
references to Lobel and Pena, Adversaria.^ 

16 January 1 63 1. 

Mr. Wray, I have made bold to send this inclosed letter to 
you, I entreate you to convey him to Mr. Langrish if he be yet in 
England, if gone over to send him after him if it may be done 
with convenience, if not pray send him back to me againe. It was 
his desire when he was with us in the contrey that I should send 
this letter to you for him. Thus remayning ready to doe as much 
and more for you as it be in my power, I rest 

Your loving friend 

[MS. f. 13a 

Both of these letters are in Goodyer's handwriting. 
The identity of Mr. Wray is a matter of doubt. In the 
N. B. are mentioned two members of a Yorkshire 
family of the name, of v^hom Sir J. Wray {i 586-1655) is 
known to have spent 1603-6 in foreign travel, which is 
rather early for our present purpose, and the Captain Wray, 
who with John Evelyn in 1646 found rare simples growing 
on the Euganean Hills, is rather too late. 


The doctrine of the fixity of species so tenaciously held 
in after years by Linnaeus and his school formed no part 
of the science of Goodyer and his contemporaries, or of the 
ancients. The artificial production of new varieties was 



already known to Shakespeare before 16 10, at any rate as 
far as gillyflowers are concerned. Perdita, having been 
told the cause of their streakiness, cared not to get slips of 
them for her rustic garden : they had the reputation of 
beine ' nature's bastards and she was also aware that it 
was possible to produce similar piedness by art (inocula- 
tion). Polixenes tried to argue with her that as all arts 
that add to nature are made by nature, the crossing of 
different races is but natural after all, and that she should 
therefore make her garden ' rich in gilliflowers '.^ 

In Shakespeare's day people were familiar with the idea 
of two sexes among plants, although the function of pollen 
was still unrecognized. But it was a remarkable prevision 
of genius, which we can only describe as Shakespearean, to 
explain the production of varieties among plants as the 
result of cross-breeding, at a time when botanists knew 
nothing about the function of the flower.^ The Art to 
which Perdita refers must be the art of Inoculation, of 
inserting the buds of one plant into or upon another.^ 
And Shakespeare's al^er ego, Bacon, reflects the same 
thought. 'It is a Curiosity to make Flowers Double. . . . 
Enquire also, whether Inoculating of Flowers (as Stock 

^ Winter's Tale, iv. 3. 

^ Dr. Church points out that at the time of which we are speaking, the idea 
of crossing by grafting was accepted, and the methods of grafting fruit trees were 
fully set forth in many books. As far as the ' Secretes ' of the ordering and 
care of Gillyflowers are concerned, Th. Hill, Arte of Gardening, 1574, divulged 
the following : ' you may make one stalke to bring forth floures of many colours, 
if you take the seeds of every colour of the Gilifloure, and put them altogether 
into a thinne small rede or Terdill of a sheepe or goate, or else tied up in 
a thinne worne linnen cloth, setting the same in the earth well mixed with dung : 
which after the watering will cause a plant to come uppe, bearing the like 
number of colours in one stalke, as there were seedes sowen. 

And there be some which write, that if you myxe the Basill seedes with the 
Gilifloure seedes, and use them (as above sayde) that they will spring togither 
on one stalke '. 

It must also be remembered that Hill had many contemporaries, who, had 
they been acquainted with the method of the production of new varieties by 
hybridization, would not have imparted their secret to others, so long as they 
thought that there might be money in it. 

^ Fleming's Virgil, Georgics, ii. 21. 1589. 



GilLy-flowers, Roses, Musk- Roses, &c.), doth not make 
them Double ' } 

The idea of the sudden appearance of a new species as 
a Mutation would have been quite familiar to Goodyer. 
We have already quoted a passage ^ (under 1620) in which 
he put forward a theory, as worthy of consideration, that 
the seed of Sweet Marjoram might degenerate and send 
forth Acmos odoratissimum. 

Francis Bacon, seven years later, accepted the possibility 
of such a change, and suggested an experiment for the 
Transmutation of Flowers. ' The second rule shall be 
to bury some few seeds of the herb you would change, 
amongst other Seeds ; And then you shall see whether the 
juyce of those other seeds doe not so qualify the Earth, as 
it will alter the seed, whereupon you worke. As for 
Example . . . put Basill-seed amongst Thyme-seed, and see 
the change of taste, or otherwise.' ^ The effect of a change 
of environment was illustrated by the classical instance of 
Lobel,^ who sowed ' Papaver nigrum ' in Somersetshire 
and found it to come up changed ' by the sport of Nature 
and metamorphosis' into ' Papaver album '.^ And in 1632 
Goodyer found what was believed to be an instance of the 
partial change of an ear of wheat into oats. Our modern 
knowledge of the possibilities of plant-breeding will of 
course not permit us to believe in his explanation of the 
phenomenon : he was probably misled by some monstrosity 
in the ear, but the record is of value as showing the frame 
of mind in which these early botanists tried to describe 
honestly what they saw. A later generation would have 
cast the thing aside as being 'against nature' and not 
worth a serious thought. Johnson records it as 'a rare 

' Bacon, Nat. Hist. § 513. 1627. Here the word ' flower' is used in different 
senses, first as a bloom, secondly as a plant. Bacon's science was occasionally 

- Ger. emac. 65. ^ Bacon, I. c. § 527. 

* Lobel, Offi,ci7ia Phartnaceutices Rondellet, 1605, p. 37. 

^ A change of colour from blue or yellow to white in the case of Wild Succory 
and Moth Mullein was attributed by Merrett to a change to a poor soil. Ptnax, 
Epistle to reader, i6th page. 1667. 



observation, of the transmutation of one species into 
another, in plants; which' though it have beene observed 
of ancient times, as by TheopJirastus, de caus. plant, lib. ^. 
cap, 6, whereas amongst others hee mentioneth the change 
of Z^ia 7rpb9 TOP ^pofiov. Spelt into oates : and by Virgill in 
these verses ; 

Grandia saepe qitibtcs mandavimus Hordea stdcis, 
Infoelix Lo litem, & steriles dominantur avenae. 
That is ; 

In furrowes where great Barley we did sow. 
Nothing but Darnel and poore Oats do grow ; 
yet none that I have read have observed, that two severall 
graines, perfect in each respect, did grow at any time in 
one eare : the which I saw this yeare 1632, in an eare of 
white Wheat, which was found by my very good Friend 
Master lohn Goodyer, a man second to none in his in- 
dustrie and searching of plants, nor in his iudgement or 
knowledge of them. This eare of wheat was as large and 
faire as most are, and about the middle thereof grew three 
or foure perfect Oats in all respects : which being hard to 
be found, I held very worthy of setting downe, for some 
reasons not to be insisted upon in this place ' } 

The Goodyer crest, a partridge with a good eai^ of wheat 
in its beak, is said to have been suggested by this excep- 
tional find. 

Various lists of exotic plants and of foreign floras which 
passed between correspondents abroad and their agents in 
this country, show how eager botanists w^ere at this period 
to obtain accounts of the floras of foreign countries. Few 
of these documents are dated, but one, a list of Russian 
plants, was written in June of this year. At the end of 
the list the writer adds : ' and many other which I know 
not and are not to be found in my herball. I will have 
their effigies drawne, and will hereafter send them you 
with their leaves and Russe names and vertues. 

Mosco, 12 Junij 1632 Robert Tewe.' 

^ Ger. euiac. 65. 


The note which follows may or may not refer to Tewe's 

' 150I p. ann. 12^^ io» a moneth.' ^ 

It is clear that Tewe must have been a member of, or have 
been helped by, the Muscovia Company, then engaged in 
active trade with Russia. 

The important domestic event of his marriage occurred 
in this year. The Licence issued by the Faculty Office of 
the Archbishop of Canterbury bears date 15 November 

* John Goodyer of Beryton co. Southampton, gentleman, 
bachelor, 40, and Patience Crumpe, spinster, about 30, daughter 
of Walter Crumpe, late of St. Giles in the Fields, Middlesex, tailor 
at St. Giles in the Fields or St. Gregory's London.' 

There is evidence that John and Miss Crump were 
friends of long standing. In a letter dated 9 November 
1 62 1 Laurence Davis ends with a postcript : 'I praye 
remind me kindly to yo^' fellows Patience, Mr. Parker, and 
Henry Henly At that time Goodyer and presumably 

Patience also, were living at or 
near Droxford. Soon after the 
wedding he moved from Maple- 
durham to a house in the Spain 
in Petersfield. The Spain is a 

^ ^ picturesque open place or square 

^^^^^^^^^^ which is said to have received 

Petersfield. name from the Spanish mer- 

chants who resorted there for 
wool-dealing.^ The street of approach from the market- 
place is still named Sheep Street. In the eighteenth 
century a horse-market was held there. 

John Goodyer s house Ms still standing to-day, and is 
one of the most interesting in the whole of Hampshire. 
The half of it which I had the privilege of inspecting has 
been burdened with the ridiculous name of St. Aubyns, 
but until 1907 it bore legally the title which it bore in 

^ J. Williams, History of Petersfield^ p. 34, 



John Goodyer's time, ''The Great House". The word 
"great" was not synonymous with "big"; it simply meant 
of chief importance'.^ In April 191 7 a tablet was im- 
bedded in the brickwork of the front of the house : 
Botanist and Royalist 
lived here. 

In August last I made a pilgrimage to Petersfield to see 
the house. The two-gabelled front facing the Spain was 
a disappointment : it has been altered out of recognition 
by the substitution of sash windows for the old casements : 
Goodyer would not know it. To south and west there are 
still a few of the original features. On the south an old 
doorway, with stone jambs and flat-pointed arch-stone dated 
' '755*' leading out into the garden, is almost certainly 
the original front door to the house. The old mullioned 
windows, with splayed jambs of red brick, have mostly 
been covered with wall-tiling, though several, now walled 
up, are an architectural feature in the small yard at the 
back of the house. Perhaps the window-tax may have 
been the cause of the blocking of the windows, and the 
utility of their embrasures inside, when fitted as cupboards, 
may have led to some hesitation in reopening them. 

Within the house there is much to delight the antiquary. 
The heavy oak beams crossing the ceilings, the uneven 
floors of thick and broad oak planks, the broad slanting 
corbels close under the ceilings, which support the hearth- 
stones above, and many other details, all help him to 
reopen in his mind the old windows whose splays and 
mullions he sees in the walls, and to think away the thin 
partitions that now subdivide the rooms in which Goodyer 
had his library, and where he worked and wrote. 

Of unusual interest is the old stairway, a square brick 
and stone built structure at the back of the house, formerly 
lit on two sides by small windows, now blocked up, placed 

^ M. E. Wotton, John Goodyer in Hants and Sussex News, 11 April 1917- 




in a spiral to follow the stairs. The window-openings can 
be seen from the inside, but on the outside they have been 
concealed by more modern buildings raised against them. 
The conjectural arrangement of the original windows is 
shown in the sketch. 

Goodyer's House in the Spain. 

{The blocked windows of the Stairway have heeji reconstructed 
hy Mr. A. E. Gunther from photographs taken for the purpose 
by Mr. Llewellyn Bradley.) 

And then there is a long four-light muUioned window up 
in the wall of the present kitchen, so high above the floor 
that to one architect it has suggested a chapel, but perhaps 
the original builder knew the advantage of a top light to 
his kitchen, as well as of a window through which the 
neighbours could not peep. Many constructional details. 



including an upstairs fire-place in a massive pier, facing 
a window, and within four feet of it, still need explanation : 
the well in the cellar and a possible underground passage 
need exploration. It is greatly to be desired that the 
house may find an owner who will undertake the intelligent 
and sympathetic restoration of what is perhaps the most 
interesting house in Petersfield. 

The papers of the next two years bear evidence of his 
change of abode and change of state. Memoranda and 
accounts show that he was occasionally commissioned to do 
shopping for his wife. Notes of one and a half yards of 
white cotton, of hooks and eyes, of silk and buttons, tell 
a story as clear as it is brief, while on the other hand we 
read of the employment of certain labourers on 24 June 
1634 for 'digging my grounds'.^ This evidently refers to 
a new garden in Petersfield. 

On 5 March 1632 he noted the beneficial result of the 
application of Honewort {Cartcm segetum Benth.) to a 
swelling or 'Hone' in the cheek of Mrs. Mooring, when 
a young girl. 


The summer after his marriage he found on 2 July the 
local Starry-headed Small Water Plantain {Damasonium 
stellatiim Pers.) between Sandie Chappell and Kingston, 
having previously found it on Hounslow Heath. Johnson 
found it a little beyond Ilford in the way to Rumford.^ 
But Goodyer had observed it in 16 18. 

On 4 July he was busy with the Ferns of the neighbour- 
hood of Petersfield. ' I have observed ' he wrote * fower 
sorts of Ferne, by most wrighters esteemed to be the male 
Fern of Dioscorides : by Anguillara, Gesner, Caesalpinus, 
and Clusius accounted to be the Female, and so indeed 
doe I thinke them to be, though I call them the Male with 

1 Theophilus Hasted) ^, 

V> u ' T •• Tho. Bowyier ^ 

Tho. Crowcher ' t.,^,, j 

Andrew Ansell 

[MS. f. 14 

Tho. Crowcher j 24 Junij gyj^^g^^j.! digging my grounds. 

Ger. emac. 418. 

F 2 



the multitude. If you looke on these Femes accordinge 
to their seuerall growthes and ages, you may make many 
more sorts of them than I have done ; which I am afraid 
hath beene the occasion of describinge more sorts than 
indeed there are in nature. These descriptions I made by 
them when they were in their perfect growthes ' (cf 
P- i8i). 

His No. I ' FiHx mas ramosa pinnulis dentatis' is the 
earliest reference to the Broad Shield-fern (Aspiditcm dila- 

'This groweth plentifully in the boggie shadowie moores neare 
Durford Abbey in Sussex, and also on the moist shadowie rocks 
by Mapledurham in Hampsheire . . . and I have found it often on 
the dead putrified bodies and stemms of old rotten okes, in the said 
moores, neare the old plants I have observed verie manie small 
yonge plants growinge, which came by the fallinge of the seed 
from those dusty scales : for I believe all herbes have seeds in 
themselves to produce their kindes, Gen. i. ii and 12.' 

His second species was the Male Shield-fern [Aspiduim 
Filix mas). ' This grows plentifully in most places in 
shadowie woods and copses.' It had not been previously 
recorded for Hampshire. The variety Aspidium Filix 
mas var, affinis, w^as noted ' in many places in the shade 
The Prickly Shield-fern {Polystichuin lobatuin) or the allied 
Angular Shield-fern (/^. angular e) was also abundant ' on 
the shadowie moist rockes by Mapledurham neare Peters- 
feld in Hampsheire'. 

The Marsh Shield-fern [Aspidium Thelypteins Sw.) is 
probably the species described under the name ' Dryo- 
pteris Penae et Lobelii ' on 6 July; if so, Good3'er's is the 
earliest British record of it. 

' Manie yeres past I found this ferne in a verie wett more or 
bogge beinge the land of Richard Austen called Whitrowe inoore, 
where Peate is now digged, a mile from Petersfeld in Hampsheire, 
and this sixt of July 1633 I digged there manie plants, and by 
them made this description. I never found it growinge in anie 
other place.' 

The descriptions of these Ferns were almost certainly 



prepared for his friend Johnsons new edition of Gerard's 
Herbal, which appeared in the winter of 1633, and has 
hitherto been the principal source of information about 
Goodyer s plants, many of which are acknowledged in the 
most exemplary manner. On the other hand many species 
are just referred to him without further notice of the date or 
place of discovery, and doubtless other species of Goodyer s, 
having come to Johnsons knowledge independently, are 
not acknowledged as his at all. Among the Goodyer MSS. 
there is a list of descriptions of 113 plants sent by him on 
5 March 1632, of five more sent on 12 March, and of two 
more sent on 19 March, to Johnson for incorporation in 
the book, and with the exception of seven,^ all these 
descriptions are extant. 

In the preface to the edition, dated from his house 
on Snow-hill 22 October 1633, Johnson acquaints the 
reader with what he has performed, ' either by mending 
what was amisse or by adding such as formerly were 
wanting', or by putting out descriptions and words that 
were not very necessary. Moreover, he conscientiously 
marked all new figures and text with signs J, by which the 
new work can be readily distinguished from the old. In 
all this Johnson's work shows much careful thought ; and 
it is here that we would desire to quote from his concluding 

' I must not in silence passe over those from whom I have 
received any favour or incouragement, whereby I might be the 
better enabled to performe this Taske. In the first place let me 
remember the onely Assistant I had in this Worke, which was 
lohn Goodyer of Maple-Durham in Hampshire, from whom 
I received many accurate descriptions, and some other observations 
concerning plants ; the which (desirous to give every man his due) 
I have caused to be so printed, as they may be distinguished from 
the rest : and thus you shall know them ; in the beginning is the 

^ The seven descriptions which we have not been able to trace are: Sonchus 
Africanus Boelii, Alsine major repens Clusio, A. palustris foliis tenuissimis, 
Ranunculus flammeus aquatilis angustifolius hirsutus flore magno, Anagallis 
erecta floribus albis, Radix cava minima viridi flore, Draba lutea siliquis 
longissimis, v. strictissimis C. Bau. [MS. f. 134. 



name of the plant in Latine in a line by it selfe, and at the end 
his name is inserted; so that the Reader may easily finde those 
things that I had from him, and I hope together with me will be 
thankfuU to him, that he would so readily impart them for the 
further increase of this knowledge.' 

Dr. Reynolds Green has estimated that the new book 
contained about 2,850 descriptions of plants, so far the 
largest number included in any herbal. This made the 
work the most important and influential of its time, but 
we cannot agree with Dr. Green in attributing the name 
by which it is widely quoted, ' Gerard Emaculatus to Ray, 
for How in 1650, and John Goodyer still earlier, had already 
made a practice of referring to it by that name. Nor can 
we agree that Johnson was the first to depart from the 
practice of the older botanists in relying on their gardens 
for the plants they described. Goodyer had long paid 
special attention to wild plants. 

Green remarks, as have some others, on the ' rapidity 
with which Johnson worked' and that 'he had but little 
assistance But this is a wrong view. He had the 
assistance of the best English botanist of the day. 

The work of the two men was essentially on different 
lines. Johnson was an M.D., he had translated the surgical 
works of Ambrose Parey ; he discussed the medicinal pro- 
perties or vertues of plants with greater gusto than he 
displayed for their morphology. Goodyer was a scientific 
botanist, ' second to none in his industrie and searching of 
plants, nor in his judgement or knowledge of them '. 

Johnson freely availed himself of the archaeological 
knowledge of Goodyer, as in the case of the figure that was 
supposed to be the oldest drawing of Saxifraga, taken from 
an illustrated manuscript of Apuleius Platonicus. 

In the case of the confusion between Solidago sarra- 
cenica and Arabis quorundam, Johnson notes ' My very 
good friend Mr. lohn Goodyer was the first, I thinke, 
that observed this mistake in our Author ; for which his 
observation, together with some others formerly and here- 
after to be remembered, I acknowledge myself beholden 


to him ' {Gcr. emac. 275). Nor did Goodyer's criticisms 
cease when the ' emaculated ' Gerard appeared. Among 
his notes are four pages of suggested emendations to the 
first twenty-two chapters of the book, which are character- 
istic of the accuracy and carefulness of his work. 

Goodyer's Coi^rectio?is to JoJinson's Gerard's Herbal. 

The first booke. Ca. i. 
Description of Comon Meadovve Grasse. 

p. I, 1. 2 from bottom. For\\'g\\'i read smooth. 

p. 2. Tymc. I have seene it flovvringe in the beginninge of March A*^. 161 9. 
Names. After aypaxns read, And this particular meadowe grasse is 
called of Theophrastus noa, as Bauhinus hath it in his Phytopinax, 
pag. 4. 

Nature. Number that which is spoken for the nature amongest the 
vertues for indeed Pena affirmeth that the seed of hay beinge 
beaten forth, many Physicians doe use for the stopping of the 
inward parts, beinge druncke : and applied to the dissolvinge of 
hard tumors and wind, 
p. 3. Vertues. Theis vertues doe properlie and trewlie belonge to Gra77te?i 
caninuin pag. 22. 

D. It is apparent that Fernelius, li. 4, ca. 4 de methodo medendi, 
meaneth the roots of Gi-amen caninum to have theis vertues. 
Ca. 2. Najnes. L'obell calls the first of theis grasses, Gramen minimum 
Xerampetinum, and Xerampelinus color is a color somewhat ruddie, and 
therefore this name cannott belonge to White dwarfe grasse. 
Ca. 3. Names. He mistaketh, for that which L'obell calleth Agroritm venti 
spica, and Grame7i agrorum, is this 2 kind called here called Gramen 

He mistaketh the 2 grasse also for it is not L'obell but Tabernaemontanus 
that calleth it Gramen harundinaceum. 
The titles over the figures I would amend thus : 

1. Gramen pratensc vidgatius. Common Meddow Grasse. 

2. Graineji minus vidgatius. Small Common grasse. For the description 
sheweth it not to grow in Meddowes. 

The figures are better in L'obell's Icones, p. i, which are the same with 
Dodoneus in Latyne of the laste edition, to which you may refer them. 

Description. Dodoneus describeth not the particular Meddow grasses but in 
generall only, therfore you shall doo well to examyn the descripcon both of the 
first and second, by the Advs. & the Observ. unlesseyou cann add any notorious 
difference in them from other grasses, out of your own observation. 
Ca. 4. Both their descriptions are in Dutch & in no Author that I have, and 
quere for what grasse the figure under the title of Gramen maius aquaticum 
must serve. 

Ca. 5. The description of Grameti Sorghinum is also in Duch. Somethinge 
may be added to the description of the root of Calamogrostis, if the worth 
of the grasse deserve it, & you thinke it pertinent. 



Ca. 6. The grasse under the title of Gramen Panniculatum^ p. 8, seemes to be 
Gra7nen amourettes Clicszi, p. ccxviii. If it be so ? howe came it to be 
Gra7nen tomentosiim &^ acerostun Lobell : in Ico7i, pag. 6. I have two 
editions of Lobell's Icons printed at severall tymes, the first mdlxxxi, 
printed at Anwerpe, and hath but one table, viz. the lattin, french, duch all 
together ; the other was printed at Anwerpe A^. MDXCI and hath severall 
tables, everie language by itself. The first it seems was one WiUm. Mounts, 
a Physician dwellinge at Mallinge (in what Sheere I knovve not) who hath 
added to some herbes certaine noates, and thus he hath noted of G7'anien 
paTiiculosufTi , phalarioides Lobel, Icoti. p. 7, ' Grasse called in Surrey 
braunched grasse, in Come : and in orchards, or shadowie places usuallie 
mowen. They seeth it in water with Purslaine and small Reysons for 
wormes, in the somer tyme, and geve it comonly to very younge children '. 
I must leave this Grasse (which Gerard hath confusedlie written ofj to be 
sett dulie, and in his true place by you. 

Gra77ie7i sylvaticiwi, I knowe not where it is written of, in Tabermont 
I thinke. 

Ca. 7. Their descriptions are all in dutch. 

Ca. 8. The i is described I knovve not where, the 2 you shall find in the 

Obs. p. 10, the eares are not described. 
Ca. 9. The i is in the Obs. p. 10 the 2 I knowe not where, belike in Tabermont. 
Ca. 10-16, 18, 19. Their descriptions are in the Teutonick or Duch. 
Ca. 16. The 2), the description saith the knobs or buttons growe on both sides 

of the stalk, the figure hath them but on one side, query whether this be not 

G7-a77ie7i 7)io7ita7iu7}i spicatii7)i Chisii, p. ccxix. 
Ca. 17. The l) I can observe no such cuttinge qualitie in the edges of the 

leaves of this grasse. — Vertues. Many more vertues are spoken of in 

Advers. p. 468, and if you please you may add the best of them. 
Ca. 21. I see nothing that 1 can amend. 

Ca. 22. Cyperus TyphiTitis I know not where to find the descriptions. 

' Venarum spiracula laxat Cyperus.' Only Turner hath taken notice of 
theis words which I have added. I take it the meaninge of it is that it 
openeth the small branches of vena porta, called mesentericae venae. If 
it be so ?, it is a speciall vertue not to be omitted. [MS. ff. 149-52 

Goodyer also made several corrections in the text of his copy of the 1633 
edition of the Herbal, e. g. on p. 567 he notes that the figure given for Saxifraga 
anglica7ta alsiTtefolia is really the picture of Sy7ia7tchica, and should be placed 
on p. 1120. Also that the adjoining figure named S. palitstris is really an 
Arenaria. This mistake explains Johnson's confused account of Saxifraga 
anglica7ia on p. 568. 

His other additions consist of a few medical notes on the virtues of certain 
herbs, e. g. Tithyinalus ciipressi7ius^ p. 499, Elaierm77t, p. 913, and Vicia 7fiaior 
sylvestris, p. 1229. 


After Johnson had sent his Gerard emaciilatus to the 
printers, we are left with next to no published news of 
Goodyer's doings for the next twenty years. Fortunately 



many papers among his manuscripts help to bridge the 
gap. He still does shopping for his wife (p. 381) ; there 
is a letter of 24 June showing that he was interested in the 
date of the Surrey Assizes. 

' Mr. Worlidge you were intreated to wright me word, when 
Surrey Assizes were kept, at what place and what Judge was to 
sitt on the Nisi prius ; which hetherto you have not done. If you 
can be at Surrey .'Assizes & our triall goe forward I must goe to the 
Bp. of Wint ^ & expound his letter to that Judge, which will aske 
some time to doe, & I must also goe before hand to London to 
prepare our witnesses. In regard whereof I pray you this weeke 
wright me word all those things I have spoken of, & if any other 
things you knowe to be therein necessarie, And so I rest 

Your assuredly 

24 June 1634. [MS. f. 14 

In August he was away in Sussex on one of the summer 
excursions, which he generally performed on horseback, 
having previously, as was his way, made careful notes for 
the intended journey. 

From London to Lewsam 3 fro London to Croydon 7 

to Brumley 4 to Godstone 7 

to Farnborowe 3 to Lingfield 6 wch is 

to Rethered 5 4 miles from East Grinstead. 

to Sen oak rSevenoaksl i , -t). 
to Tunbridge 8"" 
to Ffant [Frant] 5 

to Mayfield 5 

to Black boyes 6 
to Ringmer 4 
to Lewis 2 

INIayfield Carrier John Manser lyeth at the White Hart in Southwark : comes 

in Thursday out Friday. 
Lewis Abell Tabrett lodgeth at the Tabott, comes in Wed., out Thurs. 

Wi^ Barham of Mallinge halfe a mile from Lewis but goes to Borne 

10 myles from Lewis. Mountaine Neppe. 
Mr White of West Tarringe. 

IM^ Ric Relf of Tenterden 4 miles from Rumney mersh. 
Putt in the L.T. 8 li. lod. 4 Aug. 

[MS. f. 62 

Goodyer visited Mayneld at the time of the greatest 

^ Walter Curie. 



prosperity of the iron industry in Sussex, and although the 
connexion between iron smelting or forging and the county 
flora may not appear very intimate, yet it is far closer than 
might be supposed. In 1607 there were, or had lately 
been, nearly 140 hammers and furnaces for iron in Sussex 
alone, and each of them spent ' in every twenty-four hours 
two, three, or foure loades of charcoal, which in a yeare 
amounteth to an infinit quantitie '.^ About the year 1640 
some 1,300 cords of w^ood were being used at one works 
alone, and the woodlands were in danger of being lost. 

Jove's oak, the warlike ash, vein'd elm, the softer beech, 
Short hazel, maple plain, light asp, the bending wych, 
Tough holly, and smooth birch, must altogether burn, 
What should the builder serve, supplies the forger's turn. 

Drayton, Polyolbion (16 12). 

The botanical results of the journey are noted on the 
same page. 

Dentaria baccifera. [Coral-root. Dentaria bidbifera L.] 

At Mayfield in a wood of Mr. Stephen Penckhurst, called High- 
wood, and in another wood of his called Foxholes. 

Oxyacantha in Rumney Mersh neare the house of Mr. John 
Snave the place called Whey street, flours at about Xmas 1605 in 

[MS. f. 62 

Elsewhere he noted ' Dentaria bulbifera Lo. 687, G. 833, 
in Foxholes wood in Mayfeilde parish 6 Aug. 1634', 
which fixes the date of his tour.- 

On 9 August at Buttersworth Hill he collected ' Ferrum 
equinum Germanicum siliquis in summitate ' with ripe seed. 
{Hippocrepzs comosa L.) For the year 1636 we have only 
a List of ' Virginia seeds reed, from Mr. Morrice 18 March ' 
(P- 370)5 but in the case of this document, which is in the 
handwriting of John Parkinson, we cannot be sure that it 
came into Goodyer's possession at so early a date. 

^ Norden, Surveyor's Dialogue^ Suss. Arch. Coll. ii. 192. 
^ 1 have suggested elsewhere that the little colony of Coral-root near the 
Church Meadow at Droxford may have sprung from roots of his planting. 




On 21 August 1637, when visiting his brother-in-law 
William Yalden at Sheet, he saw ' Batata Hispanorum, 
or Common Potatoes They were the Sweet Potatoes, 
Ipomaea Batatas, such as could be purchased at the 
Exchange in London, and were liable to be killed by the 
first frosts. The tubers ' howsoever they be dressed, they 
comfort, nourish, and strengthen the body, procuring bodily 
lust, and that with greedinesse 

Goodyer was acquainted with 'Potatoes of Virginia', 
but we do not know that he cultivated them himself. 

There is no evidence that he ever accompanied Johnson 
and his ' socii itinerantes ' upon their herborizing excursions, 
but he certainly took the greatest interest in their dis- 
coveries and helped them with their reports. He possessed 
the accounts of their Kentish tours in 1629 and 1632, and 
added to the list of plants in the former from his own 
knowledge. His presentation copy of the Mercurius 
botanictcs inscribed ' 28 Octob. 1634 — Ex dono Thomae 
Johnson', containing the account of the tour in Wales in 
which Stonehouse of Magdalen College also took part, is 
similarly annotated, and has many plant names picked out 
by yellow paint marks — a favourite method of his. The 
Appendix to this work, a treatise on the Waters of Bath 
(1634), as well as the lure of new plants, may have deter- 
mined him to visit Bath in 1638. 

Johnson (Mermrius, pars altera 1641) is our authority 
for believing that Goodyer found a new Speedwell on 
St. Vincent's Rocks near Bristol, and as the statement 
is left unaltered in Goodyer's own copy of the book we may 
take it that he did botanize there. 

And nothing is more natural, for the grand and precipi- 
tous cliffs of St. Vincent's Rocks have always been classic 
ground to the botanist. Their vegetation is luxuriant : 
their ledges, crowded with an abundance of good plants 
in a small area, are comparable only to the similar floral 



wealth of Cheddar Gorge. This towering Hmestone mass 
and the adjoining Downs, rising to a height of over 
300 feet, overlook the tidal Avon in so picturesque a 
fashion that Clifton's river scenery will ever be famous.^ 

And if they are a Nature reserve now, what a paradise 
these rocks must have been in the days of Lobel and 
Goodyer when they were clothed with ' millions ' of ferns. 

The father of English botany, William Turner, dis- 
covered Trinia or Honewort here. It is one of the 
choicest indigenous plants in England and of great local 
interest. In 1562 he recorded 'Petccedaimm ... I found 
a root of it at Saynt Vincentis rock a little from Bristow 

The next visitor, L'Obel, found the ' Mules Fern ' about- 
1569. Gerard 'spent two daies upon the Rocks to seeke 
for Meum \ which had been reported to him as growing 
there, probably in mistake for Trinia. In 1634 Johnson 
and his ' socii itinerantes ' guided by John Price, a jovial 
apothecary of Bristol, directed their steps to the famous 
Rocks and the precipitous cliffs commanding the banks 
of the Avon. It is no wonder that Coodyer was drawn 
thither also. 

And he was rewarded by finding a species new to the 
British flora, the Welsh Spiked Speedwell ( Veronica hybrida 
L.), which he called 'Veronica recta mas. Lob. Ger., vulgaris 
recta Clus.' It is the same as the ' Great Speed-well or 
Fluellin. Found at Saint Vincents Rocke by Master 
Goodyer'.- White ^ states that it is still abundant on the 
more inaccessible ledges of the rocks, and occasionally 
strays on to the riverside masonry below. It is the most 
beautiful of our native Veronicas, and in the Avon gorge 
often grows twice as large as on the Great Orme's Head in 
North Wales. 

He verified the occurrence of the Tutsan {Hypericum 
Androsaemum L.), already recorded by Lobel (1570), Lyte 
(1578), and Johnson (1634), Dropwort, and Trinia, and 

^ White, Flora, 191 2. 

2 Johnson, Mercurms, pais altera^ 1641. ^ Flora, p. 463 (1912). 



added the Horseshoe Vetch to the County flora.^ His 
records were : 

Androsaemum magnum, the Great Saint John's-wort in a wood 
over the ... St. Vincents rocks nigh Bristow. 

FiHpendula vulgaris, Oenanthe Fuch. Lob. Dropvvort. ^ On St. 
Vincents rock 30 Aug.' (= Spiraea filipcndttla L., previously 
noted by Lobel.) 

Ferrum equinum siliquis in summitate. ' On St. Vincent's Rock 
30 Aug. T638.' (= Horseshoe Vetch, Hippocrepis comosa L.) 

Peucedanie facie pusilla planta Lob. = Selinum montanum 
pumilum Clus. = Peucedanum pumilum, Petroselinum = 
Dwarfe Rock Parsley, i63(S. (= Trinia or Apinella glaiica 

0. Kuntze.) 

Rock Stonecrop {Seditm Rupestre L.), ' Sedum Divi Vincentii 
Non Descriptum is also said to have been first recorded 
by him. 2 

The manuscript notes in Goodyer's hand in the John- 
son's Mei^cicidus^ 1634, have unfortunately been cut off 
by some wretched bookbinder, but one about ' Saxifraga 
palustris alsinefoh'a ^ Ger, emac! confirms 1638 as the year 
of his visit to the west of England. He found it ' In the 
springs about Smocombe wood neare Bath, on the north- 
east parts of the wood, j. Sept. 1638'. In modern language 
it is the White Sandwort {Sagina nodosa) that he had been 
the first to add to science in 1626. 

Probably at the same time he became acquainted with 
the Wood Vetch (Vicia sylvatica L.), which he called 'Vicia 
Bathoniensia vel maxima sylvatica' and found ' In Smoak- 
hall Wood by the Bathe, and at the Devizes in Wiltshire'.* 

A list of the names of useful Willows bears date 1640. 

Salix aquatica lo. o. 137 g. 1203. I have scene 8 kinds of osyars 
thus called by the baskett makers 

1. gelderlander 5. redd willowe 

2. goldstone or hornead 6. privett 

3. white withe 7. black | , . t 

4. yealowe osier 8. white ^ 
^ Not noted by White, Flora Bristol, 1912, p. 256. 

^ Merrett, p. iii (1666). ^ Sagina nodosa Meyer. 

* Merrett, Pinax, 1666, p. 125. The same plant is mentioned in How, 
Pkytologia, p. 129. 



A similar list, on a small scrap of paper, is dated * i8 
Marcii 1640 of Edw. Greene (? Gawne) And two rather 
longer and later lists enumerate thirteen varieties. 

1. White gorerod 

2. Black gore rod 

3. Gelderlander 

4. Yealowest yelster 

5. Hard yelster — the best 

6. Erlie leavinge redd osier 13. Oxford or Dutch golston 

8. Gilford redd osier 

9. Erlie ta rod [lesser browne rod 

10. Backward ta rod, or Privett, 

11. White osier 

12. Horneyead or golston. 


7. Backward Leavinge redd osier-skragged. 

[MS. f, 16 V. 


The disturbed state of the country during the next few 
years made peaceful pursuits impossible. Hampshire men 
were soon in the thick of the Civil War. Lucky were 
those who were not driven from their homes when the 
* wrong ' side obtained the ascendancy. 

During one of the many phases of the struggle Peters- 
field was garrisoned for King Charles under the then 
General in Command, Ralph, Lord Hopton. Goodyer, 
like all his family, was a strong 'King's man', and his 
loyalty was acknowledged by a ' Protection Order' which 
was granted him by Hopton. This document of great 
interest was accidentally found in 1907, concealed under 
a floor-board in a dwelling-room of Goodyer's house in 
the Spain in Petersfield. It runs as follows : 

To all Colonells & Lewetennt-Colonells, Serjant-Maijors, 
Captains & Commanders, Officers & Soldyers of his Ma*^ 
^ ^ army both of horse & foot And to all other his Ma*^ officers 
and loving Subjects whom these may concerne. 

These are in his Ma*^ name to will & command you & every and 
either of you not to fayle upon all occasions to defend and protect 
John Goodyer of Petersfield in the County of Southton Gent : his 
house horses servants family goods chattels and estates of all sortes 
from all damages disturbances & oppressions whatsoevere to the 
uttermost of yo'' abillitys And that you and every of you forbeare 
to grieve or molest him the sayd John Goodyer or any of his as 



aforesayd requiring hereunto yo"" due obedience as you will answere 
the contrary at yo"" uttermost peril 1 Given under my hand & scale 
the 9th December, 1643 

Ralph Hopton.^ 

Of Goodyer's movements we know nothing for certain, 
but it is quite likely that a State Paper in the Record Office 
may refer to him. About 1649 Daniel Cusick stated 
that John Goodyer was a malignant and recusant, and was 
constantly resident in Oxford during the war. Having 
adventured his own life in the service of the State, and 
being now in the Lord General's regiment, the informer 
begged his arrears out of Goodyer's estate.^ 

If it be true that Goodyer was 'constantly resident' in 
Oxford during this troubled period, he would have found 
many botanical friends with tastes congenial to his own. 

Walter Stonehouse, now no longer a Fellow of Magdalen, 
would not have been in residence, but he may have joined 
his Oxford friends in 1648 when ejected from his Darfield 
living. And there were other botanists at Magdalen to 
whom the botanical uncle of Edmund Yalden, Fellow until 
1642, would have needed no further introduction. 

The senior of them, William Hooper, the arboriculturist, 
became a Fellow in 1643. He had been ' outed ' from his 
Fellowship, but was allowed a pension of ^30 per annum 
and lived in one of the College houses in the Gravel Walk. 
' After he had left the College he went without a gown, 
and wore constantly a very long coat, like your frocks 
worn by wagoners ; and applied himself to gardening with 
wonderful success, digging himself with a man that he 
constantly hired. He would carry his spade upon his 
shoulders, and work hard every working day. He would 
likewise prune, engraft, and do other things of that kind 
himself. He raised several nurseries, and planted many 
orchards ; but he did all for nothing, for he would never 

^ Mabel E. Wotton, Hants and Sussex News, 11 April 1917. 
- Calendar of Commission for Advancement of Money, p. 11 78, State Papers 
Domestic^ 1 649. 



take anything of anybody soever. It was his constant 
practice to give away trees, &c. ; but then he took care it 
should only be to the poor and such as were in want, not 
to others. He was near fourscore years of age, a comely, 
neat, proper, upright man, and beloved and respected by 
all sorts of people.' He planted (c. 1660) elms in the 
Gravel Walk by Magdalen College ; ^ and elms on this 
site are well known all over the world as an essential 
feature in what was formerly one of the most popular 
views in Oxford. 

In his old age he was one of the characters of Oxford, 
but when Goodyer might have known him he had just 
been recommended by Charles I for election to a Fellow- 
ship on the ground that he had ' given ample proof of his 
sober carriage, conformableness, and commendable abilities 
in the way of his studies '. 

Among the younger men then up at Magdalen College 
were the three contemporaries Browne, Stonehouse, and 
Drope. William Browne, Demy 1644, was a native of 
Oxford, who became ' one of the best botanists of his time, 
and had a chief hand in the composure of a book entitled, 
Catalog2LS Horti Botanici Oxoiiieiisis\ 8vo. Oxon. 1658; 
Walter Stonehouse, Demy 1645, was the son of Goodyer s 
friend the Rev. Walter Stonehouse of Darfield, whose 
garden lists are preserved among the Goodyer papers ; 
and Francis Drope, Demy 1645, was a most enthusiastic 
lover of trees and author of A short and sure Guide in the 
practice of raising and ordering Fruit-trees. 8vo. Oxford, 
1672. And, in any account of the botanists of Magdalen 
of this early period, should also be mentioned the unknown 
writer of marginal notes in the Bodleian copy of Lyte's 
Herbal. This book was successively in the possession of 

^ Hearne, Diary. According to one account Hooper's Elms were replaced 
by others in 1680, but, be that as it may, the Gravel Walk elms, after forming 
for more than two hundred years an incomparably beautiful setting to the grey 
stone architecture of the Great Tower of Magdalen, were wantonly felled before 
their time in 1916, when many who would have advocated their retention were 
away at the War. 



a Thomas Gill and of a John Herbert, 1619. The writer 
of the notes was almost certainly a Magdalen man who 
had studied at Padua. 

At this time Goodyer may have made the acquaintance 
of Dr. Philip Stephens, Principal of Magdalen Hall and 
collaborator with Browne, and of William How who came 
up as a Commoner to St. John's College in 1637, and took 
his Master's degree in 1645. 

Goodyer's other friend Dr. Merrett, the author of the 
Pinax rerum Naturalium Britanniatm, had been a student 
both of Gloucester Hall (1631) and of Oriel College 
(1633-4). He was created a Doctor of Physic in 1642, 
and afterwards became one of the original Fellows of the 
Royal Society. At New College was William Cole, the 
future author of Adam in Eden ; and Jacob Bobart was 
gradually forming the first University collection of plants 
in the new Physic Garden, the catalogue of which he 
published in 1648. 

And yet Oxford was in the very midst of troubles. 
At the end of 1642 the Royalists gathered round the King 
at Oxford, students and citizens alike worked together on 
the fortifications and barricades : the College plate was 
being surrendered to the minters : fighting in the neighbour- 
hood was incessant. Goodyer's friend, Thomas Johnson, 
appears to have been in Oxford on 9 May 1643 to receive 
the D.Ph. degree, but he must have left soon afterwards, 
for he is heard of as a Colonel of Horse and one of 
the defenders of Basing House, which was being strongl)^ 
fortified by the Marquis of Winchester. And it was there 
that he met his death in September 1644, fighting for the 
King. The Royalists were defeated at Alton and Cheriton. 
Winchester was taken by Cromwell in October 1645, and 
the King became a fugitive. What followed is matter of 
history. On Midsummer Day, 24 June 1646, the Royalist 
garrison of Oxford, 3,000 strong, ' marched out of the town 
through a guard of the enemy extending from St. Clement's 
to Shotover Hill'. 




In 1648-9 the Parliamentarian Visitors, after many 
delays, expelled all from the University who did not 
submit to their visitation, including young Stonehouse and 
Drope. The latter answered ' I cannot submit for fear of 
perjury '. 


After the Civil War Goodyer was unquestionably the 
best botanist in England. Parkinson had died in 1650; 
and, until Morison returned in 1660 and Ray had reached 
his full development, there was no one to approach him 
in knowledge of our native plants or of the whole range of 
botanical literature. 

The high reputation that he had acquired naturally 
brought him visitors and correspondence. Elias Ashmole, 
the antiquary, had not long ' entred upon the Study of 
Plants'. A note in his diary is to the effect that 6 June 
1648 'about three of the clock was the first time I went 
a Simpling. Dr. Canter of Reading and Mr. Watlington^ 
an apothecary there, accompanying me '. And on * 19 Oct. 
165 1 my Father, Backhouse,^ and I went to see Mr. 
Goodier, the great botanist, at Petersfield '. Unfortunately 
we have no further account of the visit, but possibly 
Ashmole's recent experiences of the virtues of Bryony may 
have formed part of the conversation. He had fallen ill of 
a surfeit occasioned by drinking water after venison at the 
Astrologer s Feast in London. ' I was he wrote, ' greatly 
oppressed in my stomach ; and next day Mr. Saunders the 
astrologian, sent me a piece of bryony root to hold in my 
hand, and within a quarter of an hour my stomach was 
freed of that great oppression, which nothing which I took 
from Dr. Wharton could do before.' It is characteristic 
of the writings of Goodyer that no hint of this kind of 
quackery appears. He was evidently able to put Ashmole 

^ John Watlington, buried 2 October 1659. 

2 Mr. William Backhouse, astrologer of Swallowfield in Berkshire, had com- 
municated so many secrets to Ashmole that he caused his pupil to call him 
' Father' (Ashmole, Diary, 3 April 1651). 



on sounder lines of thought ; for after this visit Ashmole 
' took a journey into the Peake, in search of plants and 
other curiosities " ; and as there is no entry between the 1 5th 
and the 29th of October of this year in the notebook,^ in 
which he usually cast his horoscopes, we may assume that 
he was not encouraged to foretell Goodyer's future by the 


The books printed in Oxford during the next few years 
bear witness to the pleasure and profit that many were 
deriving from their gardens. And in illustration we may 
cite the works of Ralph Austen on Fruit Trees, various 
editions of which were published in Oxford in 1653, 1657, 
1658, and 1665, of John Beale whose Treatise on Frin^ 
Trees shewing their ma7iner of Grafting, Priming, and 
Ordering, of Cyder and Perry, of Vineyards in E7ig- 
land, &c., appeared in Oxford in 1653, and of Robert Shar- 
rock, Fellow of New College,^ whose History of the Pro- 
pagation and Improvement of Vegetables, by the Co7icurrence 
of Art and Nature, 8vo. Oxford, 1660. These works 
show the natural tendency of the time, a utilitarian 
tendency that our recent experiences towards the end of 
the Great War will teach us to connect with the troubles 
of the forties of the seventeenth century. 

During the last ten years of his life Goodyer's occupations 
appear to become more and more sedentary, When a man 
is over sixty years of age, he must perforce leave the 
searching for new plants to the young and active. John 
Goodyer now devoted himself to his books. The dated 
entries in the covers of his volumes show that he kept in 
the closest touch with the London booksellers ; indeed, in 
some cases he appears to have secured a work in advance 
of the day of publication. Some of his books he pro- 

^ MS. Ashmole, 374, which contains the horoscope of John Tradescant, the 

^ Sharrock gave several medical books, with his autograph, to New College 
Library. They are still, we are glad to. think, on the shelves : among others 
a copy of Lower, de Cofde. 

G 2 



cured through Dr. How, some through Dr. Dale, and they 
came down to Petersfield by carrier, or in the trunk of 
Mrs. Heath, presumably the wife of his friend and neigh- 
bour the Rev. John Heath. 

He was now closely associated with a botanist in the 
work of preparing a list and a synonymy of all known 
British plants, incorporating and extending the lists drawn 
on by How. The greater part of the labour of this work 
fell on a collaborator who had access to Goodyer s books 
and made notes in them : his name is not known to us for 
certain, but we have his manuscript. The evidence all 
tends to identify him with the Dr. Dale just mentioned, 
but the matter will be again discussed below, p. 295. 

This last period of his life is also marked by a literary 
labour that remains a record which to this day has never 
been broken. It was the writing out of the Greek text 
of the Materia Medica of Dioscorides, and the rendering 
it into English. Goodyer therefore accomplished in the 
case of Dioscorides a work which not one of the tens 
of thousands of Greek scholars who have lived before 
or during the past three centuries have been known to 
have attempted, a worthy sequel to his translation of 

And neither Theophrastus nor Dioscorides can be con- 
sidered as of no import. Of Matthiolus' Commentaries 
on Dioscorides alone thirty-two thousand copies were sold 
before 1561, and it passed through seventeen editions. 
His works have been translated into almost every civilized 
language, except English, and there is no separate article 
on Dioscorides in our national Encyclopaedia. 

The interlinear translation of Dioscorides fills six quarto 
volumes of 4,540 pages in all. It is most clearly written, 
the Greek text being easier to read in Goodyer's manu- 
script than in the 1499 edition, printed at the Aldine Press 
at Venice, Goodyer's copy of which has now been restored 
to its proper place among his books in the Magdalen 


■J / 

4^ tl(2 :fc^ A^^^ t/J,>«os^.^iyjft^'«, 



lei* v^^^a;^ ^-^ 




Every page bears evidence to his neat and methodical 
habits. At the beginning and end of every volume he 
wrote the dates of the beginning and end of his labours, 
and also of the time that was spent on reading over and 
revision. The entries are of interest because they show 
the speed with which the work was accomplished. 

29 Aug. 1655 ho. 2. p. 


10 a. 

Pages. English. 

I. 1-728 27 Apr. 1652 h. 

^I- 733~ 28 Marcii 1653 13 Nov. 1655 

1470 18 Aug. 1653 18 Jan. 1655 

III. 1471- 18 Aug. 1653 21 Jan. 1655 Exam. 
2070 3 Martii 1653 i Feb. 1655 Exam. 

IV. 2071- 3 Marcii 1653 4 Feb. 1655 Exam. 
2658 20 Junii 1654 14 Feb. 1655 Exam. 

V. 2659- 20 Junii 1654 15 Feb. 1655 Exam. 

3174 31 Aug. 1654 21 Feb. 1655 Exam. 

VI. 3497- 2 Nov. 1654 4 Marcii 1655 Exam. 

4540 29 Aug. 1655 17 Marcii 1655 Exam. 

Other entries show that he paid an assistant, probably 

as a reader : 

Vol. II. ' Receaved of Mr. John Goodyeere, upon 

this 28 of March 1653 • • 20^ 

And 18 of Januarie 1655 . .158' 

IV. ' 3 March 1653 . . £200 

20 Junij 1654 . . £0100' 

V. ' 20 Junij 1654 . . £100 

4 Sept. 1654 . . £0100' 

VI. ' 10 Martii 1654 paid . . . 20^ 

29 Aug. 1655 paid . . . 20S ' 

In Vol. V there is an entry for ' 3^ binedinge' on 
14 September 1654, and in the last volume is written : 

. ' 22 Sept. 1655 cariage upp and doone 
the bindinge ' 

A few notes on a duplicate page (p. 2071, MS. f. 17) of 
the fourth volume, written on 3 March 1653, show that 
he was acquainted with at least eighteen editions of 
Dioscorides dated ' 1499 gr., 1500 gr., 1506 gr., 15 12 padua- 
nensis, 1518 gr., 1529 gr., 1529 Herm. Barb., 1549 Gualt. 
Riffe, 1549 gr.-lat., 1552 Ruellius, 1552 Lacuna, 1554 lat. 
Mat, 1557 Jan Cornarius, 1558 Amatus Lusitanus, 1566 
french, 1581 Alphabeticum Empyricum, 1591 Antonini 
Pasini, 1598 gr.-lat. Saracen.' There is also a note that 



Theodorus Gaza translated Theophrastus from Greek into 
Latin and dedicated it to Pope Nicolas : a calculation 
shows that Nicolas was pope from 1447 to 1455 ^^^^ 
that Gaza died in 1478. But of still greater interest are 
the words : 

Lodvves iad Johes iaO 1 obolon 

which evidently refer to Goodyer s coadjutor John Heath, 
who will be mentioned again presently, and to whom we 
believe that the payments just recorded were made. 

Had Goodyer wished for a Preface to his translation 
he might well have used the words of his senior, Henry 
Lyte : 

* If perchaunce any list to picke a quarrell to my translation, as 
not being either proper or not ful, if I may obteine of him to beare 
with me til he himselfe shall have set foorthe a better . . . and in the 
meane while (considering that it is easier to reprehend a mans doing 
than to amend it) use me as a whetstone to further himselfe withal, 
I will not much strive : for I seeke not after vayne glorie, but rather 
how to benefite and profite my countrie.' 

In March he continued his studies in the botany of the 
ancients by translating, doubtless with the help of John 
Heath, the work of one of the principal commentators 
on Dioscorides, the Scholia or A^iimadversions upon the 
5 Bookes of Dioscorides of Physicall matter and tipon his 
two Bookes of Poisons, of Antonius Saracenus of Lyons, 
* In which y^ severall readings of divers Bookes are exa- 
mined, y^ different opinions of y^ old or new propounded, 
and some tymes reconciled, and y^ most corrupt, obscure, 
and difficult places of y^ Author himself, restored, illus- 
trated, and unfolded 

Goodyer, with his usual punctiliousness, noted that the 
translation was begun on 20 March 1655 at 11 a.m. 

Saracen's dedication is * To Henry y^ 4th y^ most 
Christian King of France and Navarre ' and is dated * y^ 
Calends of March 1 598 '. This is followed by the Intro- 
duction, which is worth quoting as an example of the 
literary style of the time. 



To the Gentle Reader 

Thou willt wonder, it may be (Gentle Reader) how it should 
come into my minde, y' I should sett about a new interpretation 
of Dioscorides, especially since y^ soe many famous men, renowned 
for Eloquence, learning and iudgement, as Hermol. Barbarus, Marc. 
Virgilius, Janus Cornarius, & Jo. Ruellius, have long since with 
great contention & aemulation taken abundant if not overabundant 
paines in translating him, & have donne well herein to their great 
commendations. But you will then leave off to wonder, when you 
shall have understood by what reasons I was induced, or drawen 
heereunto. Dr. Jo. Sambucus of godly memorie the Emperours 
Physition & Historiographer had formerly often importuned by 
letters Henry Steevens, Printer, a man most skillful of y^ twoe 
tongues both Greek and Latin, to sett out in print y"" Greek & 
Latin text of Dioscorides with y^ most elegant letters of y^ King's 
stampe, & y' hee should add to y^ Margent thereof his notes, sent 
over a little before, or rather y^ divers readings upon y^ Author, 
gathered by him with great labour, by a faithfull & diligent com- 
paring of divers antient bookes found in y^ severall Libraries of 
Princes. But while Steevens did prepare himself to goe about 
this worck, hee was minded to place Ruellius his Translation 
(which hee did, and not without cause, prefur before the rest) right 
over against the Greek text, but hee found it to be, as indeed it is, 
a little too free in many places, that y^ Latin did not sufficiently 
aunsere to the Greeke : therefore for y® acquaintance sake y^ did 
passe between him & mee, hee did intreat you & overintreate mee, 
y^ I would take a diligent review of it, & sett downe in the margent 
y^ correction of all y^ places in which Ruellius, either following 
some corrupted copie, or else by his beeing too much addicted to 
Plinie, as for y^ most part hee is, did not sufficiently expresse y® 
sence of Dioscorides, nor y^ force of his wordes. But I had scarce 
compared a few of the first leaves, when being as it were deterred 
with y^ difficultie of soe most grievous a burthen, I was compelled 
to decline from my first resolution, & to change my minde. For 
I mett forther (under favour be it spoken) with soe m.any places 
worthy of censure, & animadversion, y^ partly to avoide y^ hatefull 
labour, & partly to avoide y^ envie, 81 offence of them, which might 
have suspected mee to be too injurious against Ruellius his ghost, 
I thought it better to sett out a new translation, then to correct an 
others. In which I may truely say, y^ I have performed y^ part, 



not of a Paraphrast, but an Interpreter, as whoe, as much as lay in 
mee, have not departed a nailes breadth from Dioscorides his mean- 
ing, and yet withall have stuck close to y^ puritie of Plinie's style. 
But I had rather they should judge of this, which shall faithfully 
compare mine with their translations. Howsoever it be, I had 
allmost made an end of y^ worck, when behold Sambucus an 
earnest prosecutor heereof was taken away from us by untimely 
death. Then Steevens began to be, as it were, faint hearted in y^ 
businesse, yea & although many others were urgent upon y^ 
worck, to knit many delaies, and to put it off from day to day, 
either by his due employments, whereby he was some tymes 
diversly distracted or for y® travellings, which befell him often in 
y^ meane space, & were allmost continuall soe y' he could not 
performe his promise nor be as good as his word. And soe it came 
to passe that these my Elucubrations upon Dioscorides lay con- 
cealed in my desk for many yeares. This then, when y^ heyres 
of Andrew Wecher did understand, being most studious of helping 
on learning & did withall desire to satisfie y^ wishes & expectations 
of some good men, at last they obtained this of mee y^ I should 
suffer them to be brought out into y*" sight & view of men. These 
are (y^ I may once say it) y^ causes of this worcke intended, & also 
of the suppressing of it soe long unto this tyme. 

As concerning y^ Greek text, wee have laboured, y' as farre as 
might be, it should be restored to its old splendor. For although 
wee have relligiously followed y^ Parisian edition of y^ most learned 
Goupylus, as y^ most sound, & best amended of any that are 
extant, yet wee have, as much as might be, taken away y^ faults 
of y^ print, which were yet remaining. But what passages, both 
y^ matter it self, & y^ certaine faith & authoritie of y^ Copies, 
whether printed, or manuscript, did persuade to be changed, those 
wee have boldly changed. Yet wee have noe where yielded soe 
much to our owne or others conjectures, that wee have dared to doe 
anything without y^ Creditt of y^ better bookes, being contented 
only to note them with an interlineary Asterisck, which should 
direct thee y^ Reader to our Notes. But if, which yet falls out 
but seldome, wee found some places, soe corrupted & depraved, y^ 
there could noe sence be made of them, and yet there was no place 
for any Remedie either out of conjecture, or out of y^ footsteps of 
antient readings, there wee have marcked y^ margent with an 
Asterisck. But y^ divers readings, both of the most renowned man 
Dr. Sambucus, as also of others drawne out here & there upon 
Dioscorides. For both y^ same Dr. Steevens communicated some 



unto us, & D. Opsopoeus some by comparing of Palatine copies, 
these, I say, and y^ without choice, I have thought fitt to set upon 
y^ margent, y^ it might be free for every man to judge of them, 
and withall some Animadversions & Corrections of Interpreters, 
adding still y^ names of everie one out of whom wee tooke them, y^ 
wee might not seem to defraud any one of his desert. But wee 
have placed our own notes at y^ end of y^' worck, in which for the 
most part, there is a reason given of our different interpretation 
from others, as also there are sett downe our divers conjectures 
upon Dioscorides. And also you may finde many thinges inci- 
dently, as it were by y^ way, noted upon divers Authors, but 
especially upon Theophrastus & Plinie, as they came under mine 

Finally wee doe propose, velut, e7rt/i/eVp^, i. by way of 
Additament, the severall, & discrepant opinions, whether of y^ old 
or new writers concerning Medicinall Matter, & some tymes wee 
reconcile them, & besides, wee endeavour to resolve & cleare many 
doubts which wee met with everie where. But yet I would have 
you to understand, y*^ I did chiefly cavell heereat with all my 
labour, y* I might restore, illustrate, & explaine y^ most corrupted, 
obscure, & difficult places of Dioscorides himself. And soe you 
have been given to understand (Gentle Reader) what thinges have 
been performed by us in this Edition, out of which if I shall percieve, 
y' you have got any fruit, it will encourage mee peradventure to 
divulge other more great & more profitable matters. 
In the meane space, Farewell. 

[Goodyer MS. 6*, ff. 5-8 
The text of the work is written out on pp. 13-292 of the 
MS., which ends abruptly with Book 4, chap. 61, the last 
line being dated '2 Octob. 1656', and then follows an 
ominous note, which evidently refers to his collaborator. 
'Johannes Heath Clericus obijt 25*° die Novembris 1656.' 
This must have been Goodyer s neighbour, the Rev. 
John Heath, who was presented by the Earl of Worcester 
to the rectory of Clanfield,^ in or soon after 161 7. He 
may have been the John Heath who came up to Christ 
Church as a Westminster Student in 1607, and who 
matriculated in 16 10 aged 19.^ 

^ Clanfield is about three miles south-west of Buriton, and six from Petersfield. 
^ Foster, Alu7)ini Oxoti. 



In 1654 we have evidence of the return of Goodyer to 
his old love, field botany. There is the short note 

* Behen album . . . Rotherwort 5 Maij 1654'. 

And there is an interesting description of a station where 
* Dryopteris Tragi' used to be found.^ 

* It growes on a bottome called Rogers Deane in y^ parish of 
Faringdon in Hampshire^ about a mile and halfe from y^ church, 
a furlong from one John Trybes dwelling-house on y^ north-east 
part of y^ house about 2 miles from Alton above a mile north-east 
from Dogford Wood. Great antient beeches kept y^ sunne from 
shining on y*^ Plants. Anno 1654 many of those trees* were cut 
downe. The Plants y^ sunne shoane on y^ summer 54 were short 
y^ leaves growing on short stemms neere y^ earth, as Tabernae- 
mont pictureth it., pag. 501, tom. 2, under y^ title oi Filicula petraea 
fern. 3. Those y* grew under y^ trees were much higher agreable 
to Tragus' figure pag. 538.' 

In the beginning of August 1654 he recorded a new 
Crane's bill (Geranmm cohimdimcm) in his native county.^ 
The Rubia sylvestris described by him on 12 August 
1655, it Wild Madder (R. peregrina L.), is of 

historical interest because of its having been one of the 
first Hampshire plants to be recorded by our first botanist. 
William Turner, more than a century previously, wrote of 
it, ' The most that ever I saw is in the Isle of Wight, but the 
fairest and greatest that ever I saw groweth in the lane 
besyde Wynchester, in the way to Southampton '. It is 
now very rare on the mainland, but that is where Goodyer 
may have found it. 

His botanical labours in the field were almost done. We 
only note two occasions in the last ten years of his life on 
which he may possibly have left home and herborized. 

Again, the summer of 1656 he found the Marsh 
Isnardia (Liidwigia apetala Walter), ' Holosteum perpusil- 
lum which he had previously observed near Holburie 

^ In Goodyer MS. 9, under Pin. 358, there is a note 'Dryopteris Tragi, 
17 Aug. 1650, J. G. first saw it'. 

^ Morison, in ignorance of Goodyer's discovery, attributed this species to 
Jacob Bobart in 1680. The plant should be called Goodyer' s long cut Crane's 
bill rather than ' Bobarts long cut Crane's bill '. 



in the New Forest, growing in a little lake in the east 
part of a heath near Petersfield, ' The water of this lake 
this 2 of June 1656 about 4 of clocke in afternoone 
was well neere as warme as y^ Bath-water at Bath in 
Summersetshire although y® day was cloudy*. ' In a hott 
summer some parts of y^ lake are drie in August, some- 
times before, and then the plant, which had been green, all 
the winter under water, flowered Immediately recognizing 
the novelty of the plant, he described it as ' Anonymos 
aquatica rubida, foliis Anagallidis flore luteo 


In June 1657 he described what appears to be our 
Smooth Tare [Vicia tetraspermd)^ but as no locality is 
stated, we cannot claim his note as being the first evidence 
for the occurrence of this plant in Hampshire. 

The following information on a scrap of paper was sent 
him by an acquaintance : 

5° March 1657 

At Judge Rumseys 3 miles from Abergevenny croweth the Sweet 
Willowe, as I remember the plant I saw, was called 

Robert Baskett. 
To this a note is added in Goodyer's hand : 
9° Apr. 1658 — Judge Rumsey lives in Glamorganshire by the rela- 
tion of Gryffin Morgan of Malmesbury, a glasse carrier. [MS. f. 147 

But though able to move about in his own county, where 
he found the alien Xanthium Strumarium in 1659 (his last 
recorded find), we imagine that he now felt himself too old 
to herborize in Wales. 

But the record would have been valued by him as an 
addition to" the last work on which he is known to have 
been engaged, the compilation of a new British Flora. 
How's Phytologia Britannica, published in 1650, was very 
imperfect, as any first attempt at so comprehensive a work 
is bound to be, and no one would have been in a better 
position to recognize its many errors and deficiencies than 


Goodyer, nor more ready to remedy them. Our informa- 
tion comes through Edward Morgan, the ' very skilful 
botanist' of Westminster, who was in close touch with 
what was going on in the botanical world. He told John 
Ward in 1662 that Dr. Dale, Dr. Merrett, and Mr. Goodyer, 
' next Dr. Modesy, the best botanists of their age in 
London, were about a new phytologia 3 or 4 years agoe 
but that ' Dr. Modeseye's coming to towne, itt's thought, 
hindered itt '. Elsewhere Ward ^ also noted that ' Dr. Dale 
and another had a designe to amend y^ phytologia 
Brittanica to adde somewhat and take out somewhat 
This contemporary account is of the greatest interest to 
us, because it explains the presence of certain excellent 
catalogues of British plants among the Goodyer manu- 
scripts (Goodyer MS. 8, 9, see p. 296), and it also explains 
why they were never printed. I have not as yet found 
any clue to the handwriting, but I strongly suspect it to be 
that of Doctor John Dale, and the 'another' to have been 
Goodyer himself The case will be again considered in 
our note on Dr. Dale, and in the light of his Will which 
I have recently discovered at Somerset House. 

The 30 April 1659 must have been a red-letter 
day, for he then received the interleaved and annotated 
copy of the Phytologia to which reference has so often 
been made, and possibly with it the Lobel manuscripts 
which are described in a later chapter. Their late owner 
and part editor. Dr. How, died 30 August 1656. 

The greater number of manuscript notes in the Phyto- 
logia are in How's handwriting: they include information 
received from William Browne of Magdalen College and 
from John Goodyer, obviously between 1650 and 1656. 
Goodyer after acquiring the volume wrote in it the notes 
on seven plants, printed on p. 194, including his last 
dated record of a plant, the Common Ragwort (Senecio 
Jacobaea L.) from Ladle Hill (1659). 

^ Ward also noted that ' Mr. Goodyer is good at Insects as well as 




The last specimen of his handwriting, which we have, 
was written when he was seventy years of age. His hand 
was evidently very shaky. It is a receipt for a Resin 
ointment similar to that in use until recently in the British 
20 Mar. 1662 

Rosen that is blackish 
Fresh lard a wallnutt 
Crowne sope a wallnutt 

Boil till it sets clere (?) H . . and keepe stirringe. 

[MS. f. 16 

Then follows, in a steadier hand, ^ Mar. 22. John Neale 
in Lippock, the howse is called Gurmes, hadd a third 
Ague, and hath lost him about a moneth, and now hath 
a great cough '. 

Another note on the same paper is ominous : 


' The Line of Selborne • Scurvie 


These notes supply the clue to the occupation of his 
declining years. He was evidently applying his great 
knowledge of simples to the good of ailing neighbours. 
The latest medical works were sent him, as soon as they 
were printed, by his London bookseller, who evidently had 
a standing order to secure the sheets direct from the press. 
Thus he acquired Culpeper's English Physician, Pemel 
on Simples and on the Diseases of Children, Cole's Art of 
Simpling, Cooke's two works on Chirurgery (containing 
the ' Marrow of many good authors on the art of 
Chyrurgery '), Coghan's Haven of Health, and Muffet's 
Health! s Improvement ; or rules comprizing and discovering 
the nature, method and manner of prepari7ig all sorts of 
food used in this nation. But the most striking confirma- 
tion of his practising I found in the single word ' phisicke 
with a blank space in front of it, which occurs after his 
name in the opening sentence, written within a few months 



of his death, in the Book of Accounts kept by the Trustees 
of the Weston Charity in Petersfield. 

Obviously he was well known as a physician, but the 
writer left a blank as if in doubt whether to style him 
* Doctor of Physic ' — probably because he held no such degree, 
qualification, or licence at all. Moreover, his charitable 
disposition would have led to doctoring without fees. 

His great friend and neighbour, Dr. John Dale, died in 
May 1662, having appointed Goodyer one of the overseers 
of his will, but we do not know whether he was able to act. 

The exact day of John Goodyer's death is uncertain, but 
his will is dated 22 April 1664, and was proved 9 May 
1664 by the executor, the Rev. Edmond Yalden.^ He is 
now described as of Weston, in the parish of Buriton, 
CO. Southampton. 

IN THE NAME OF GOD AMEN I John Goodyer of 
Weston in the Parish of Buriton in the County of Southampton 
Gentleman being sick and weak in body but of good and perfect 
mind and memory thanks be given to God therefor revoking all 
former Wills by me made do this two and twentieth day of April 
in the sixteenth year ^ of the reign of our Sovereign Lord Charles 
the Second by the grace of God of England Scotland France and 
Ireland King Defender of the Faith &c and in the year of our Lord 
1664 make and ordain this my last Will and Testament in manner 
and form following (that is to say) 

First I bequeath my soul into the hands of Almighty God Jesus 
Christ my only Saviour and Redeemer hoping assuredly by his 
mercies and merits to receive pardon and remission of all my sins 
and to enjoy life everlasting And my body to the earth from 
whence it was taken decently to be buried by my Executor here- 
after named in the Church yard of Buriton aforesaid near my late 
wife and as for such worldly goods and estate as it hath pleased 
God of his goodness to bestow on me I give and dispose thereof 
as foUoweth Item t give to the poor people of the Tything of 
Weston aforesaid twenty shillings to be distributed with-in a month 
after my decease at .'-.he discretion of my Executor hereafter named 

^ Archdeaconry Court of Winchester Register, 1660-6, fol. 564. 

^ That the beginning of the reign is reckoned not from the Restoration in 
1660, but from the execution of Charles I in 1649, is a further indication that 
John Goodyer belonged to the Royalist party. 



I give and devise unto my honoured friend Leonard Bilson Esq 
and my Nephew Edmund Yalden in the County of Surrey Clerk 
and to their heirs and assigns for ever all my messuage dwelling- 
house together with all the barns stables outhouses and buildings 
and all the gardens and orchards thereunto belonging situate in 
Weston aforesaid wherein I now live and in my possession and 
likewise all those lands in Weston aforesaid called Halfpenny Land 
now in the possession of Thomas Jacques together "with free liberty 
to water and overflow the said lands as it now and heretofore hath 
been used for the best improvement thereof to the intent and 
purpose that they the said Leonard Bilson and Edmund Yalden 
and the Survivor of them their heirs and assigns shall grant and 
convey all the said messuage lands and premises with the ap- 
purtenances unto six able honest and sufficient persons their heirs 
and assigns as they or the Survivor of them shall think fit Upon 
trust and confidence and to the intent and purpose that all the 
yearly rents issues and profits of the said messuage lands and 
premises shall be employed and disposed of for ever hereafter for 
the putting forth and placing abroad of all such poor children of 
the Tything of Weston aforesaid and the overplus thereof shall be 
distributed unto the poorest inhabitants of the said Tything of 
Weston aforesaid as my said Trustees and their assigns shall think 
fit and if any or either of my said Trustees shall die then the 
Survivors of them shall convey the premises aforesaid unto the 
use intents and purposes and upon the trust aforesaid all the rest 
of my messuages lands tenements meadows and hereditaments 
whatsoever in Weston aforesaid I give and devise unto my said 
Nephew Edmund Yalden his heirs and assigns for ever Item I give 
and bequeath unto the said Leonard Bilson, Osmund Bilson Gentle- 
man, William Bilson Gentleman five pounds a piece to buy each 
of them a piece of plate Item I give and bequeath unto all the 
children that shall live unto the age of one and twenty years of 
Anne Worlidge Widow the sum of Forty pounds of lawful money 
of England equally to be divided betwixt them at their several 
and respective ages of one and twenty years and to such of them 
as shall be of the age of one and twenty years at my decease to be 
paid unto them within three months after my decease. Item I give 
unto my servant Mary Blackman the sum of twenty shillings all 
the rest of my goods chattels household stuff and personal estate 
whatsoever my debts legacies and funeral expenses being first 
satisfied paid and discharged except all my books de plantis which 
I do give and bequeath to Magdalen College in Oxon to be kept 



entirely in the library of the said College for the use of the said 
College unto my said Nephew Edmund Yalden whom I make sole 
Executor of this my last Will and Testament. IN WITNESS 
whereof to this my last Will and Testament contained in three 
sheets of paper together with this being fixed together I have set 
my seal subscribed my name the day and year above written 
JOHN GOODYER. Signed sealed and published as the last 
Will and Testament of the above named John Goodyer in the 
presence of Arch. Bold, Osmund Bilson,^ John Westbrook, Richard 
Goddin, John Winter, William Gammon. 

MEMORANDUM that immediately after the signing and sealing 
and before the publication hereof the above named John Goodyer 
did declare that his Will was that Susan the daughter of Thomas 
James should have and enjoy the lease of the houses he holdeth of 
the Dean and Chapter of Winton during all his term therein and 
likewise did give unto John Westbrook Gentleman his book of 
Chirurgery called Ambrose Barry ^ in the presence of Arch. Bold, 
Osmund Bilson, William Gammon. 

The books came to Magdalen College soon after his 
death, but some of the manuscripts may have been a year 
or two later in coming, for Edmund Yalden lent his uncle's 
descriptions of plants to Dr. Christopher Merret to be used 
in his ' Pinax' in 1666. The loan is duly acknowledged 
by Merret in his preface, but by a mistake he refers to 
Edmund Yalden as Mr. Yalden Goodyer, evidently 
believing him to have taken the family name on suc- 
ceeding to his uncle's property. This was certainly not 
the case. 

He was buried, as he directed in his will, in * the 
Churchyard of Buriton near his late wife '. No stone 
marks the spot, and when Canon Vaughan wrote his 
charming account of him in 1909,^ no memorial com- 
memorated his benefactions to the parish. Through the 
devotion of Miss Mabel Wotton a sum of money, towards 
which Magdalen College contributed five pounds, was col- 

^ Sir Thomas Bilson had four sons and two daughters : i. Thomas Bilson 
m. Edith da. of Peter Bettesworth of Finning, co. Sussex ; 2. Leonard B. m. 
Eleanor da. of Sir W. Lewis, Kt. ; 3. Osmund B.; 4. William B. ; 5. Anna; 
6. Susanna. (Information from Charles Billson, Esq.) 

^ Parey. ^ J. Vaughan, Cornhill, 1909. 



lected and an armorial window to his memory was put up 
in Buriton Church. Under the Goodyer arms is the in- 
scription 'To the Glory of God and in Memory of John 
Goodyer of Alton, Mapledurham, Petersfield, 1 592-1664, 
Royalist, Botanist, Founder of Goodyer Charity, Weston 
A water-colour drawing of the window by Mrs. Davis has 
been hung near his books in the Magdalen Library. 

The property which he left for the benefit of the poor of 
Weston, has already been described in his will. The way 
in which his Trustees set out to administer the Trust is 
shown in their first Account Book which we had the 
pleasure of consulting through the kindness of Mr. Burley, 
the solicitor to the Trust. The first entries of receipts and 
payments give some idea of the initial value of the legacy. 

A Booke of Receipt and Disbursements of the issues and profitts 
of the house and lands in Weston late Mr. John Goodyers, \a blank 
space'\ phisicke, And by his last Will and Testament settled upon 
two Trustees viz. Leonard Bilson Esq and Edmund Yalden, Clarke, 
to the end that they should nominate six able persons and Convey 
the said house and lands to them or ffeoffees in trust for the pro- 
lating and puttinge forth apprentices of y^ Children of the poorer 
sort of Inhabitants within the said Tithinge of Weston accordinge 
to the true intent and purport of the said last Will and Testament. 
In pursuance whereof they, the said Leonard Bilson and Edmund 
Yalden have nominated, and by their deed bearinge date the 11*^ 
day of June in the sixteenth yeare of the Raigne of King Charles 
the second, have Conveyed the said house & lands unto these six 
persons foUowinge viz. : 

William Bilson, gent- Henry Voake, yeoman. 

John James, gent. Jacob Voake, yeoman. 

John Bold, gent. Robert Cox, yeoman. 

The first Receipts. 

12 Julii Rec** of John Girdler for a bushell and an 

halfe of apples . . . . . 00 02 3 
Rec'^ of Will'" Budde for a parcell of faggotts 00 01 8 
12 Aug. Rec. of John Girdler for 3 halfe bushell one 
gallon of apples & one gallon of peares 
& 3 halfe bushells . . . . . 00 6 3 
23 Sept. ditto ditto for apples 00 4 o 




15 Oct. Rec. of Mr. Jaques for halfe a yeares rent 
of halpenney lands ending at Michael- 
mas, last past 7100 


14 Apr. Rec. of Mr. Bettesworth for his halfe yeares 

rent ending att Lady day last past (abat- 
inge nine shillings for Chimney money 
before hee came to the house . . 4 1 1 o 

The first Payments. 

24 June Imprimis to Will. Cox and Robert Tribe 

for mending the garden hedge . . 00 00 9 

13 Julii To Will. Cox and Robert Tribe for scour- 

inge the river . . . . . 00 02 4 

15 Oct. Paid att the Trustees first meeting to lett 

the lands the expenses of the house in 
fire, beare, & tobacco . . . . 00 05 o 
30 Dec. Paid John Gamons Bill for repairinge the 

glasse windowes of the house . . 00 10 o 


30 March Paid Doctor Gunter for losse of time in 

cominge over for a witnesse . . . 00 10 o 

His 'large house' was afterwards sold for over 1,000, 
the proceeds of which, invested in Consols, together with 
the rent of the land, bring in an annual income of some 
;^75, which is a source of considerable benefit to the parish. 
Part of this sum is yearly expended in gifts of money and 
clothing, part in making allowances by way of encourage- 
ment to servant girls, and part in apprenticing the young 
lads of the tithing. The people of Buriton have, indeed, 
much cause for gratitude towards the good botanist of Peters- 
field, whose very name is now forgotten in the village. 

His memorial in modern scientific botany is the customary 
one of a genus named in his honour. But unfortunately 
his name has been somewhat inappropriately connected with 
a rare Orchid, Goodyera repens, that is found in certain fir- 
woods in Cumberland and Scotland, but which could never 
have lived, where it was thought that he might have found 
it, in the 'moist meadow named Wood-mead, neere the 
path leading from Petersfield towards Beryton '. There 
Goodyer was acquainted with an orchid which he knew by 



the name of ' Palma Christi radice repente ' or ' Creeping 
Satyrion ', and which we should now call the Marsh Helle- 
borine or Epipactis palustris. Robert Brown, who gave 
the name Goodyera to the northern genus in honour of our 
Hampshire botanist, was misled by Johnson, who in error 
had attached a figure of Goodyera repens to the text 
relating to the Marsh Helleborine. It is somewhat un- 
fortunate that by a triple error his name should have been 
attached to a plant which in all probability he could never 
have seen, but that is only one of the many chance circum- 
stances which have led to the passing from memory of the 
services of ' an incomparable botanist, of sound judgement, 
and of immense industry 

C5 Uwy iW-. V 1»titA^ 


I ' 

Ocymoides sempervirens A Fe?'n 

Drawings by Goodyer 

H 2 


These descriptions of plants are for the most part the 
earliest that are extant in the English language. They 
are now printed for the first time from Goodyer's original 
manuscripts, with others reprinted from passages con- 
tributed to the second or emaculate edition of Gerard's 
Herbal, printed in 1633. 

In the following Table the extent of Goodyer's botanical 
labours is indicated by differences in the type. 

Table of Names with Modern Equivalents, grouped in 
Natural Orders. 

Capital letters indicate plants of which descriptions are extant. 
Small letters indicate plants of which no descriptions are extant. 
Roman type indicates English plants. 
Italic type indicates Foreign and Garden plants. 

B, H, s, w, &c., denote Record or First Mention y^r Britain or for the Counties of Yi?ctii^. 

Sussex, or Wilts,, &c. 
Gardens are denoted by the names of their owners. 

Goodyer frequently quotes more than one name of a plant : in such cases we have 
only printed one for reasons of economy of space. Determinations for which I have had 
the advantage of the experience of Dr. Daydon Jackson, Mr. Britten, and Dr. Stapf are 
marked with j., B., and s. respectively. 

Modern Name. Locality. Goodyer's Name. PAGE . 


Ranunculus Ficaria L. Chelidonium minus. 115 

„ Flammula L. Ranunculus flammeus aquatilis 

angustifolius. 69 

Adonis autumnalis L. Adonis. 136 

NIGELLA DAMASCENA L. Nigella multiplex. 152 

„ HISPANICA h.[^roh.). Spain „ elegans. 153 


Papaver hybridic7n h. {])Oss\h\y). Argemone Pavio. 155 

Papaver Argemone, L. Durford S Argemone capitulo longiore. 178 

„ Rhoeas, ^ seti^erzem V>otnn. {].) Spain Papaver Rhoeas Baeticum. 155 

HYPECOUM PROCUMBENS L. Coys Hypecoon Clusii. 129 


Corydalis claviculata DC. Southsea H Fumaria claviculis donata. 47 



Modern Name. 
Sisymbrium Alliaria Scop. 

„ Irio L. 
Nasturtium sylvestre R. Br. 
Cardamine impatiens L. 
Dentaria bulbifera L. 
Brassica Sinapistrum Boiss. 
Draba sp. 


Biinias orientale L. 

Viola tricolor L. 
Viola odor at a L. fl. pi. 



Droxford H 


Mayfield B 
Droxford H 


Goodyer's Name. 


Alliaria recentiorum. ' Herbe 

John.* Ill 
Erysimum ii Tab. 191 
Eruca palustris minor. 192 
Cardamine impatiens. 
Dentaria bulbifera. 186 
Sinapi sativum alterum Penae. ill 
Cherlock. 162 
Draba lutea sil. long. 69 
Thlaspi umbellosum marinum 

fl. alb. 130 
Rapistrum aliud non bulbosum. 191 

Viola tricolor sylv.parva. How. 194 
Sheet garden H Viola martia purpurea multi- 
plex. 109 

Silene fricticosa L. (J.) 
Lychnis dioica L. 

„ Githago Scop. 

Stellaria aquatica Scop. 

Montia fontana L. 

Hypericum Androsaemum L. 

Malva moschata L. 

„ stipulacea Cav. ? (J.) 

y ^ 1 ri ^ c c ^ c 

Haylinge B 
Bursledon Ferry 


Chichester S 
Wellingborough B 

Hants H 

An Polygoni marini species. 148 
Polygonum alterum pusillo. 151 

Ocymoides sempervirens. 99 
'Lychnis sylv, flore cameo 

odorato' Merrett. 195 

Pseudomelanthium. 112 

Alsine palustris foliis tenuis- 179 

simis. ' Saxifraga pal. alsin.' 77 

[No name.] 186 

Alsine major repens. 69 

' Alsine flosculis conniventibus ' 
Merrett. * Blinks ' Goodyer. 195 

St.Vincent's Rocks Androsaemum magnum. 


Mapledurham H 
Coys. Spain 

Hants, Purfleet 

Geranium columbinum L. 

„ lucidum L. 
Willd. ? (J.) 


Hants, Whitechapel 
Coys. Spain 

(whitish fl. var.) (S.) 

NANUS Forst. (S.) 
parviflorus. (S.) Provence 



Alcea vulgaris albo flore. 1 11 

Malva flore amplo Baetica 
aestiva. 134 

Linum silvestre catharticum 
Milmountaine. 109, 112 

'Geranium columbinum ' How. 191 
* Geranium saxatile ' Park. 708. 185 
Geranium Baeticum sp. Boelii. 146 

Ye great furze. 189 

Genista spinosa flore albo. 189 
Ye least furze (not Gen. sp. 

minor Park. 1003). 189 
Genista spinosa major bre- 

vibus aculeis B. P. 394. 190 

Genista spinosa minor. 189 

Medica anglica minor. 141 
Medica major Baetica sp. i. 

spinulis intortis. 142 



Modern Name. 

Trifolium ligusticum Balb. ? (J.) 

„ Lagopus L. ?(J.) 



Onobrychis sativa Lam. Langford, Wilts, w 

Hippocrepis comosa L. Buttersworth Hill 

St. Vincent's Rocks 

CUS Lam. (J.) 
VIC I A FAB A L. var. (J.) Coys. Spain 

Vicia tetrasperma Moench. 
Vicia sylvatica L. 





Vzcrn hitea /3 laevigata Boiss. (J.) Coys. [Portu- 


Ervum Lens L. Droxford 







Lathyrus sylvestris L. Hants H 

LENS ESCULENTA Moench. ? (J.) ^ 


laevigata L. (J.) 



Potentilla Anserina L. 


Spiraea Filipendula L. St. Vincent's Rocks 


„ Chamaemorus L. ? Ingleborough 

Rosa cin7tamomea L. Droxford 
Rosa Eglanteria L. Bath 

Goodye?-''s Name. PAGE 
Medica major Baetica altera. 142 

„ marina spinosa sp. 
Pisum quadratum. 
Melilotus Indiae orientalis. 
Securidaca minor. 
Lagopus trifolius maior Baeti- 

Lagopus trifolius flore ruber- 

Hedysarum clypeatum. 
Caput Gallinaceum Belgarum 
Ferrum equinum Germanicum. 





Astragalus marinus Lusitani- 

cus Boelii. 
Faba veterum serratis foliis 


Vicia sive Cracca minima. 
'Vicia maxima sylvatica spicata 

Bathoniensis Goodyeri.' 190, 196 
Vicia indica fructu albo. 139 



Aracus maior Baeticus Boelii. 138 

Legumen pallidum Vlissipo- 

nense Nonii Brandonii. 139 
Lens minor. iii 
Pisum maculatum Boelii. 141 
Ervilia silvestris Dodonaei. 141 
Lathyrus aestivus flore luteo. 136 

Lathyrus aestivus Baeticus fl. 

coeruleo Boelii. 136 
Lathyrus aestivus flore miniato. 137 
Lathyrus aestivus dumetorum 

Baet. Boelii. 138 
Lathyrus palustris Lusitanicus 

Boelii. 137 
'Lathyrus maior angustifol. fl. 

pall, rubro ' Merrett. 195 
Lathyrus aestivus Baeticus fl. 

albo Boelii. 137 
Scorpioides mathioli. 131 
Scorpioides multiflorus Boelii. 151 
sihqua crassa 
Boelii. 151 
„ repens Bupleuri folio. 132 

Macocks Virginiani, 165 
Melones Aquatici. 165 

Quinquefolium palustre. 170 

Heptaphyllonmaius Phyto.651 155 

Filipendula vulgaris. 77 

Rubus repens fructu caesio. 114 

Cloudberry. 195 

Rosa cinamomea simpl. fl. 112 
' Rosa sylvestris odora Eglan- 
teria ' How MS. 



Modem Name. 
Rosa gallica L.^ 
Pyrus Aria L, 

Epilobium angustifolium L. 


Sedum rupestre L. var. minus. 


Sandrish in Kent ' K 

New Forest 

St. Vincent's 


Chrysosplenium oppositifolium L. Mapledurham 

Parnassia palustris L. 

Eryngium maritimum L. 
Trinia glauca O. K. 
Cicuta virosa L. 


Tichfield Bay 
St. Vincent's Rocks 
Denham, Herts. 


APIUM INUNDATUM Reich, b. f. (J.) 
ApiujH crispujji L. Idsworth 
Aegopodium Podagraria L. 
Sison Amomum L. 
SIUM ERECTUM Huds. Droxford 
Bupleurum rotundifolium L. 
„ SILAIFOLIA Bieb. (T.) 

pimpinelloides L. 
Crithmum maritimum L. Hurst Castle 

Peucedanum sativum B. and H. 
Caucalis arvensis Huds. Petersfield 


nodosa Scop. 

Daucus Carota L. 
Smyrnium Olusatrum L. 

Adoxa Moschatellina L. Bunny- 
kens Holworte. 
Sambucus Ebulus L. 

Sherardia arvensis L. 

Locusta L. 

Droxford H 

Goodyer^s Name. PAGE 
Rosa holoserica. 1 10 

' Aria Theophrasti ' Merrett. 195 

Lysimachia forte. IH 
Chamaenerion Gesneri. in 
Lysimachia virginiana. 159 
Herba aquatica rubescens facie 187 
Anagall. Holosteum. 193, 195 

*Sedum Divi Vincentii non- 

descr.' Merrett. 77, 195 

Aizoon. 152 

Saxifraga aurea. 185 
Gramen parnassi. 180 

Eryngium marinum. no 

Peucedanum pumilum. 77 

Slum alterum olusatri facie. 179 

fSium repens. 114 
' Slum umbellis ad caulium 

nodos' Merrett. 195 

Sium pusillum foliis variis. 192 

Apium crispum. 172 

Podagria germanica. I lo 

Sium odoratum Tragi. 121 
Sium siifoliis. Honewort. 53, 121 
Pastinaca aquatica latifolia. 176 

,, „ minor. 116 

Oenanthe angustifolia Lob. 115 

») » 35 

„ apii folio. 145 
Crithmum chrysanthemum G. 193 

Caucalis pumila segetum Mer- 
rett. 195 

Caucalis nodosa echinato se- 
mini Bauhini. 1 14 

Caucalis major Baetica. 128 

Siser erraticum Plinii. 112 


Radix cava minima viridi flore. 69 


Veny Sutton w Ebulus. m 

Rubia sylvestris. 191 

spicata Cretica Clusii. 132 

Rubia minor flore rubro. 148 

Hants B Synanchica. 113 

Valeriana mexicana. 
Lactuca agnina. 


^ Probably. J. notes that the Moss Rose R. muscosa Ait. seems not to be catalogued 
before 1720 by Boerhaave. 



Modern Natne. Locality, 

Jasione montana L. Sheet H 


,, columbaria L. 

Tussilago Farfara L. 

ERIGERON ACRE L. Winchester H 

Jaso7iia tuber osa DC. 

Anthemis Cotula L. 

„ nobilis L. 



Chrysanthemum segetum L. 

„ annuics L. 

Senecio Doria L. 

Senecio paludosus L. Downham Fen B 

Goodyer's Name. 


Scabiosa minima hirsuta G. 

585. S. media. no, 164 

Scabiosa flore rubro = S. sexta 

indica Clusii. 164 
Scabiosa minor. 164 

Jacobaea L. 

Ladle Hill H 

Achillea Millefolium L. 


G7iaphaHum margaritaceu7n L. 
[Filago minima Pers.^ Petersfield H 

[Xanthium Strumarium L. Southwick St.. Hants ?B 
Arctium minus Bernh. ? 

Lappa L. Mangerfield, Glos. G 

NOTOBASIS SYR I AC A Cass. Coys. Spain 




Carduus crispus L. 

„ nutans L. 
Carlina vulgaris L. 

Centaurea Scabiosa L. 

Sonchus tingitanus L. ? 







Conyza coerulea C. odorata. 
Aster conyzoides Gesneri. 
Buphthalmum vulgare i Mat- 

Cotula foetida. 

Chrysanthemum Creticum i 

Chrysanthemum Baeticum 

Boelii inscr. 
Chrysanthemum tenuifolium 

Baeticum Boelii. 
Chrys. segetum. 
Flos solis pyramidalis. 

,, Peruanus. 
Herba Doria. 
Herba Doria altera. 
Conyza aquatica laciniata. 
Jacobaea angustifoHa Pan 

nonica 2 Clus. 
Ptarmica imperati. 
Achillea sideritis. 
Common Yarrow. 
Gnaphalium marinum. 
Gnaphalium Americanum. 
' Filago minor Lob.' 
Zanthium. 128 

135, 155 
109, 166 


Arctium montanum et Lappa 

minor Galeni. 194 
Silibum minus flore nutante 

Boelii. 145 
Carduus bulbosus Monspel- 

liensium. 144, 154 

Carduus eriocephalus. 109, 146 
Carduus acaulis septentriona- 

lium L'Obelii. 118, 145 

[Hants] H 
Hants: Purfleet HE 
Coys. [Naples] 
Montp. Spain 

Carduus viarum fl. purp. et alb. 112 

Carlina sylvestris. 112 

Acarna flore rubro. 145 
Stoebe Salmantica i Clusii 

foliis Cichorei. 154 

Chawton H Jacea albo flore. no 

„ major. 165 

Sonchus Africanus Boelii. 69 
Southampton H Lactuca silvestris vera ingrato 

odore. 111,158 

^ Filago minor is included in How's list, p. 280. He may have obtained the locality, 
Petersfield, from Goodyer. 



Modern Nnfne. 

Gaertn. (J.) 

TOLPIS BARB A TA Gaertn. (J.) 



Lange (J.). 

„ ANDRYA- Coys. Spain 

LOIDES Vill. (J.) 
Hieracium murorum L. Godalming s 

„ Pilosella L. 
Taraxacum officinale Willd. 
Cichorium Intybus L. 
Lapsana communis L. 

LAPSANA ZACINTHA L. ? [Italy: Florence] 
& Reut. ? (J). 

Pri mulaceae. 



Priinula verts L. 

,, vulgaris Huds, 
Samolus Valerandi L. 
Lysimachia nemorum L. 



„ „ Droxford 

Campanula patula L. 

Reseda Luteola L. 


Con volvulac eae. 
Convolvulus Soldanella L. Hants 

or some var. of it (J.). 

„ „ Boel. Coys 

Cuscuta Epithymum L. 


B oragineae. 

Goodyer's Name. page 

Lactuca agrestis. 159 

(Hieratium Narbonense falcata 

siliqua L'Obelii. 148 
Hieratium stellatum Boelii. 
Hieratium medio nigrum flore 

maior Boelii. 149 
Hieratium medio nigrum flore 

minore Boelii. 149 

Hieratium intybaceum. 149 

lanosum. 150 

Pulmonaria Gallica sive aurea 

latifolia. 180 

Pilosella repens. 150. 

Dens leonis vulg. 1 15 

' Wild Cicorie.' 1 50 

Lampsana. 149 

Cichorium verrucatum. 151 

Jacea capitulis hirsutis Boelii. 164 

palustris Baetica Boelii. 164 

Androsace altera Matthioli Ger. 

p. 425. . 150 

Cowslip 2 in a hose. 109 

Primrose 2 in a hose. 109 

Anagallis aquatica tertia. 11 1 

„ flore luteo. 187 

[Rapunculus corniculatusmon- 
tanusl. 185, 196 

Rapunculum silvestre, 
' Rapunculus sylvestris fl. rubro 

albescente ' Merrett. 
Lesser Bell-flower. 
Phyteuma monspeliensium. 

Orobanche verbasculi odore. 

[Soldanella marina]. 





Convolvul us coeruleus Bryoniae 
nigrae folio flos Noctis non 
♦script. 153 

Convolvulus coeruleus minor 
Baeticus. 129 

Convolvulus minor. 129 

Cuscuta. 112 

Periploca recta virginiana. 131 


Buglossum scorpioides an 
Echii facie Buglossum mini- 
mum flore rubente (Lobel). 131 
New Forest b Pulmonaria foliis Echii. 115, 190 



Modern Name. 
Hyoscyamus niger L. 

var. BRASILIENSIS Comes. (S.) 
var. FRUTICOSA Hook. f. (S.) 


Orobanche Purpurea Jacq. ? 

Verbascum nigrum L. 



Goodyer's Name. 


Hyoscyamus luteus. 122, 160 

Petum indicum folio pene 

obtuso. 160 
Petum indicum folio Hydro- 

lapathi acuto. 161 

I'Anblatum Dod. 123 
\ Dentaria maior sive n(f>v\Xos 
{ Clus. 

Orobanche. 122 

? Droxford H Blattaria flo. luteo. 

Antirrhinum minus. 115 
Antirrhinum minus flore Lina- 





Lange ?(J.) 
Linaria Elatine Desf. 

[Scrophularia vernalis L. Coys 

Scrophularia nodosa L. 


Veronica hybrida L. St. Vincent's Rocks 


„ „ var. alb. Bellmere 


Pedicularis sylvatica L. Warwickshire 
? CERINTHE MAJOR L. [Prob. Spain] 


„ major L. vzx.flavo flore. 


riae luteo inscriptum. 143 
Cymbalaria Italica. 17, 163 

Linaria minor aestiva. 143 

Fluellin. Elatine. 163 


Common Scrophularia. 156 
Digitalis ferruginea. 186 
' Veronica mas recta ' Merrett. 76 
Eufrasia altera Dodo. 117 
Euphrasia 2 Dod. flo. albo. 150 
Melampirum luteum latefolium. 1 18 

' Pedicularis fl. albo ' How MS. 
Cerinthe flore rubro. 128 
„ minor flore albo veris 
luteis. 180 
Yeallow flowered Cerinthe. 128 

Nepeta nuda L 
Origanum Major ana L. 
Nepeta Cataria L. var. ? (J.) 

Lavandula officinalis L. 

)> » 
„ Betonica Benth. 
Lamitim Orvala L. 

Thymus Serpyllum L. 

Galeopsis Tetrahit L. var. bifida. 

Coys Horminum silvestre iii Clusii. 
Droxford Menthastrum montanum. 
Yalden, Sheet Sweete Marjoram. 

„ „ Acinos [odoratissimum]. 

Parkinson Nepeta media. 

Coys Cattaria tuberosa radice Bae- 
tica Boelii non script. 
Witney B Stachys (Buckner). 

Stachys Wild Horehound. 

Coys Lamium Pannonicum 2^"^ exo- 
ticum Clusii. 
Petersfield h Serpillum. * Serpillum foeti- 
dum Goodyeri ' How MS. 

H 'Cannabis spuria altera flo. 
purp.' How. 






Littorella lacustris L. 

Plantago Psylliian L. 
Plantago Coronopus L. 

' Holosteumjunciifoliuih repens 

Goodyeri ' How MS. 
Psyllium. 1 57 

Comu cervinum Lobelii. 130, 155 



Modern Navie. 


Goodyer's Name. 


Scleranthus annuus L. Knavvel. (B.) Tichfield Bay H Polygonum germanis. 

Rumex Acetosa L. 

Chamaepitys verniiculata. 
Kali album, p. 8i, Dodo. 
Blitum spinosum Creticum. 
Acetosa maxima. 





U rticaceae. 
Urtica dioica L. 
Humulus Lupulus L. 


MONTANA Stokes. 
GLABRA Miller. 
MINOR Miller. 

Droxford B Anthyllis montana, Linaria 

adulterina. 117 



Stubbers B 
New Forest B 

Ulmus vuly. folio lato scabro. 38 

„ folio latissimo scabro. 41 

„ folio glabro. 43 

„ minor f. angusto scabro. 39 

Fagus sylvatica L. 

„ „ L. var. 

„ „ agg. Bramshaw, Wilts, w 

Salix viminalis L. 



Alder. 175 
Unnamed. 175 
Faringdon H * Great antient Beeches. 189 
Fagus. 188 
Quercus. Cachryes and Galls. 172 
' Quercus serotina, procerior. 
Dor-Oak' Merrett. 195 
Longwood Nux Juglans. 112,174 
Cachrys Castaneae. 17 A 

Salix aquatica. 77 

Butomus umbellatus L. 
Alisma Plantago L. 

Damasonium stellatum Pers. Hounslowe Heath B 
Between Sandie Chappell 
and Kingston 

Neottia Nidus-avis Rich. 

Epipactis palustris Crantz. Petersfield B 



Allium ursinum L. 

Colchicum autumnale L. Warminster w 

Juncus bufonius L. 

Paris quadrifolia. Chawton H 


Carex vulpina L. or C. Pseudo 
Cyperus ?(J.). 

Carex pulicaris L. ? o 

Hordeum sylvaticum Huds. Petersfield B 

Panicum sanguinale L. Petersfield 

? B Acorus legittimum Clus. 231. 
Durford B Tribulus aquaticus minor flori- 
bus uvae. 

Droxford B Tribulus aquaticus minor mus- 
catellae floribus. 

Plantago aquatica stellata. 
Plantago aquatica stellata. 




Nidus avis. 127, 195 

Palma Christi, radice repente. 184 
Nidus avis flore et caule vio- 

laceo. 47, 126 

Bryonia nigra. 127,153 
Ram sons. 

Colchicum flo. albo et purpur. 
Gramen holosteum Alp. min. 
Herba Paris. 

Cyperus gramineus Lobelii. 
' Gramen palustre Cyperoides 

Lob. Ger. Great Cyperus 

Grasse' How. 
Flea-grass. Ray, Synopsis. 
'Gramen secalinum maximum' 

Merrett. 196 
* Gramen paniceum procum- 

bens* Merrett. 196 






Modern Name. 


{not Festuca Myurus L.) (S.) Winchester 

L. (S.) 



MINOR L. (S.) Spain 

BULB OS A L. (S.) Spain 
Nardus striata L. 

BRIZA MAXLMA L. Coys. Spain 

Phragmites communis Trim. 




Filices, etc. 
Ophioglossum vulgatum L. 

Botrychium Lunaria Sw. Droxford H 


Sw. var. /3 LOBATUM. 
DRYOPTERIS THELY- nr. Petersfield B 


„ „ var. AFFINIS. Hants H 

DILATATUM Sm. Durford ; B 
Asplenium Trichomanes L. Wolmer Forest H 
„ Ruta-muraria L. ? h 

Scolopendrium vulgare L. var. Swaneling H 


Ceterach officinarum Willd. ? H 

Lycopodium clavatum L. Petersfield H 

Pilularia globulifera L. Petersfield H 

Clathrus cancellatus L. (J.) Petersfield H 

Goodyer's Name. PAGE 
Calamagrostis. 172 
Gramen murorum spica longis- 

sima. 171, 190 

* Gramen Paniceum ' Merrett. 195 

Panicum sylvestre. 120 
Phalaris minor Baetica Boelii, 

sem. nigro. 133 
Phalaris minor Baetica Boelii, 

sem. albo. 133 
Phalaris bulbosa Boelii. 133 
Gramen cristatum Baet. Boelii. 157 
Spartum or Matweed. 171 
Gramen tremulum maximum. 158 
Arundo vallatoria. 176 

Juniperus sterilis. 123, 195 

Taxus glandifera baccifera. 168 
„ tantum florens. 169, 196 

Lunaria minor. 

Dryopteris Tragi. 

Filix mas non ramosa pinnulis 

latis auriculis spinosis. 
Dryopteris Penae et Lobelii. 

Filix mas non ramosa pinnulis 

Filix mas non ramosa pinnulis 

Filix ramosa pinnulis dentatis. 

Ruta muraria 
Phyllitis multifida. 


' Chamaepeuce foemina seu 

polyspermos' Merrett. 
Gramen piperinum ' Merrett. 
Fungus corallinus ' Merrett. 










The manuscript descriptions are wholly in Goodyer's 
handwriting : the colour of the ink shows that in several 
cases the whole of a paragraph was not written at the same 
time. The concluding sentences, usually mentioning locality 
and date, were sometimes added later in a browner ink. 
Such sentences are indicated by the use of the mark ||. 

These additions must have been made before 1632, when 
many of the descriptions were handed to Johnson for his 
revision of the Herbal. The methodical Goodyer kept 
a list of descriptions thus lent to Johnson (MS. 11, 


f. 134). In all more than two hundred and fifty plants 
are specially noticed in addition to some hundred which 
are casually mentioned in his descriptive writings. About 
a hundred and fifty of Goodyer's descriptions of plants 
are still extant: sixty were printed by Johnson, ninety are 
in manuscript. Johnson did not print all the descriptions 
sent him. 

In cases in which both printed and manuscript versions 
are available, we have followed Goodyer's own manuscript 
in essential particulars, but have retained the spelling of 
the printed version, except of the word ' flower \ in which 
case we have adopted Goodyer's spelling. 

It may be noted that Goodyer's spelling of English 
words, though perhaps more uniform than that of many 
of his contemporaries, was apt to vary. On the whole 
he favoured such forms as color, devide, flower, yealowe, 
coople, apece, fower, toppe, ioynt, bignes, ymediatlie, ynch, 
and a final e at the ends of present participles and other 

The manuscript referred to is Goodyer MS. 1 1. 

Woolly-headed Thistle. Cnicus eriophorus L. 
Carduus eriocephalus. Corona fratrum quorundam. 161 7 

[See 29 June 1621 and 13 Aug. 1621.] 

Linum silvestre catharticum. Mil-mountaine. Oct. 1617 

[See 2 July 1619.] 

Jerusalem Artichoke. Helimithus tuber ostis L. 
Heliotropium Indicum vel Virginianum. 25 March 16 17 

You had lately planted it when I was at your hovvse. 25 Martii 
161^,— MS. ff. 48 v., 54. 

[Refers to a visit to Coys. See p. 24 and under 17 Oct. 1621.] 

Cowslipps 2-in-a-hose. 1617 

Double violet. Viola odorata L., fl. plen. 
Viola martia purpurea multiplex. 9 Apr. 161 8 

At Sheet.— J/5, f. 58 v. 

Primula veris L. var. and P. vulgaris Huds. var. 
Primula veris flore gemino. 9 Apr. 1618 

Cowslipps 2 in a hose at Sheet. 
Primrose 2 in a hose at Sheet. — MS. f. 56 v. 



A s h w e e d. ^gopodmm Podagraria L. 
Podagria germanica. Lo. 700 ; Herba Gerardi, 848. 11 Apr. 161 8 
Lungwort, good wife hewes. — MS. f. 56 v. 

Moonwort. Botrychium Ltmaria Sw. 
Lunaria minor. 21 Maij & i Junii 16 18 

I found it in Droxford in a wood by Strugnells in the 
Thetcher.— f. 55. 

Velvet Rose. Rosa gallica L. 
Rosa holoserica. G. 1085 ; Lo. o. 207. 3° Junii 161 8 

Ch: Edwards.— f. 57. 

Herb Paris. Paris quadrifolia L. 
Herba Paris. Lo. 267 ; G. 328. 10 Junii 161 8 

I sawe some with 5 leaves and some with 6 leaves at Chawton. — 
MS, f. 54. 

[This is the first notice for Hants, but the discovery of 5- and 
6-leaved forms had been already made by Sir John Salusbury in 
North Wales in 1606.] 

Sheep's bit Scabious. Jasione montana L. 
Scabiosa minima hirsuta. G. 585. 7 Julii 161 8 

At Sheete.— J/5, f. 57 v. 

Greater Knapweed. Centaur e a Scabiosa L. 
Jacea albo fiore. G. 589. 18 Julii 1618 

At Chawlton.— f. 54 v. 

Sea Holly. Eryngium maritimum L. 
Eryngium marinum. G. 999. 20 Julii 161 8 

One plant at Tichfield Bay. — MS. f. 53 v. 

K n a w e 1. Scleranthus anmms L. 
Polygonum germanis. Trag. p. 393. 20 Julii 161 8 

In a barren rye feild belowe Tichfield Bay & is y^ Parsley pert 
of Ger. p. 453. — MS, f. 56 v. 

Water Plantain. Damasonitim stellatum Pers. 
Plantago aquatica stellata, Phitopinax 355 ; Lo. 301 ; Deles. 1058. 

30 Julii 1618 

In Hounslowe Heath. — MS, f. 56 v. 

[First record for Britain (see 2 July 1 633). In 1723 the Duke of 
Argyle took in a large part of the Heath and planted it with a large 
collection of trees and shrubs from the Northern Colonies.] 

Autumn Crocus. Colchiciim autumnale L. 
Colchicum fio. albo et purpureo. 21 Aug. 161 8 

At Warminster in flo: 21 August 1618. — MS, f. 59. 



? W i 1 1 o w - h e r b. 
Lysimachia forte. 27 Augusti 1618 

Wiltshere.— f. 55. 

D anewort. Sambuais Ebuhis L. 
Ebulus. Lo. o. 164; G. 1238. 27 Augusti 1618 

At Venny Sutton in Wiltes : it is called Scotts blood. — MS. f. 53. 
[' They call it Danes weede in Suffolk,' Bullein 1562.] 

Brook weed. Samohs Valerandi L. 
Anagallis aquatica tercia. Lo. 467. 161 8 

By a mill at Emsworth.— f. 51. 

Willow-herb. Epilobium angustifolium L. 
Chamaenerion Gesneri. Lo. 343 ; G. 386. 161 8 

It is called Willowe at Winchester. — MS, f. 52 v. 

White Mustard. Sinapis alba L. 
Sinapi alterum sativum. Lo. ps. 2: pag. 277. 1618 
White pepper : Drox.— MS. f. 54 v. 

Lactiica vivos a L. 
Lactuca silvestris vera ingrato odore. 161 8 

[See 13 Sept. 1621.] 

Musk Mallow. Malva moschata L. 
Alcea vulgaris albo flore. [1618] 

At Mapledurham. — MS. f. 51. 
Malva verbenacea. n. d. 

' Mr. Goodyer found the Vervain Mallow with white flowers 
growing plentifully in a close neere Maple-Durham in Hampshire, 
called Aldercrofts.' — Ger. emac. 931. 

[The first record for Hants.] 

Jack-by-the-Hedge. Sisymbrium Alliaria Scop. 
Alliaria recentiorum. Lo. 530 ; G. 560. [1*^18] 
At Droxford. herbe John.— f. 51. 

Lentil. Erviiin Lens L. 
Lens minor. Lo. o. 74 ; G. 1049. [161 8] 

Droxford.— .^5. f. 55. 

Nepeta nuda L. 

Menthastrum montanum. [1618] 
Droxford in y^ stone wall. — MS. f. 55 v. 

Phytciima orbicular e L. 
Rapunculum silvestre. Tragi, p. 726. [1618I 
Droxford.— ^5. f. 57. 


Cinnamon Rose. Rosa cimiamomea L. 
Rosa cinamonea simplici flore. G. 1086. [161 8] 

Droxford.— f. 57. 

Wild Carrot. Daucus Carota L . 
Siser erraticum Plinii. [1618J 
Droxford.— f. 57 v. 

Black Mullein. Verbascum nigrum L. 
Blattaria flo. luteo. G. 633 ; Lo. 565. [16 18] 

I found this wild.— f. 47 v. 

Musk Thistle. Car dims nutans L. 
Carduus viarum flo. purpureo. G. loii.] ri6i81 
„ viarum flo. albo. G. loii. j ^ 
We have a kind here that smells like muske. — MS. f. 47 v. 

Car Una vulgaris L. 
Carlina sylvestris. Lo. 14; G. 997 ; Math. 497. [i5i8] 
Clusius, p. clvi, hath ye figure of Carduus vidgatiss. viarum^ Lo. o. 
ao, for Carlina sylvestris. || It growes on our Chalke Downes & 
also at Purflet.— fif. 47 v., 52. 
[See 8 July 1620.] 

Dodder. Cuscuta Epithymum L . 
Cuscuta. Lo. 427 ; G. 462. [1617-18] 
I have seene it on furse, heath, nettles. — MS. f. 48. 

„ „ on furse, heath, nettles, fatches. — MS. f. 53. 

Walnut. Juglans regia L. 
Nux Juglans. Lo. o. 108 ; G. 1252. [1618] 
Forked at y® toppe : at Longwood. Ex relat. Daniel Waite. — 
MS. f. 55 V. 

[Longwood, in the parish of Owslebury, was in the possession of 
Richard Garth, who died seised of it in 1597.] 

Corn Cockle. Lychnis Githago Scop. 
Pseudomelanthium. G. 926 ; Lo. 38. [1618] 
Crappe. In Sussex about Cheichester. — MS, f. 56 v. 

[The name Crap was formerly given to various weeds growing 
among corn. Withering applied it to Rye Grass and Buckwheat.] 

Purging Flax. Linum catharticum L. 
Linum silvestre catharticum. Mil-mountaine. 2 July 1619 

It riseth up from a small white threddy crooked root, sometime 
with one, but most commonly with five or six or more round stalks, 
about a foot or nine inches high, of a browne or reddish color, 


every stalk dividing it selfc neerc the top, or from the middle 
upward into many parts or branches of a greener colour than the 
lower part of the stalke : the leaves are small, smooth, of colour 
green, of the bignes of Lentill leaves, and have in the middle one 
rib or sinew, and no more that may bee perceived, & grow alongst 
the stalke in very good order by couples, one opposite against the 
other : at the tops of the small branches grow the flowers, of 
a white colour, consisting of five small leaves apiece, the nailes 
whereof are yellow : in the inside are placed small short chives 
also of a yellow colour, after which come up little knobs or buttons, 
the top whereof when the seede is ripe divideth it selfe into five 
parts ; wherein is contained small, smooth, flat, slippery, yellow 
seed : when the seed is ripe the herbe perisheth ; the whole herbe 
is of a bitter taste, and herby smell. It groweth plentifully in 
the unmanured inclosures of Hampshire, on chalkie downs, & on 
Purfleet hils in Essex, and in many other places. It riseth forth 
of the ground at the beginning of the Spring, and flowereth all the 
sommer. — 6^^r. emac. 559. 

[For the rest of Goodyer's description see p. 21.] 

Squi nancy wort. Asperula Cynanchica L. 
Synanchica. 3 Aug. 16 19 

This herbe groweth in y® inclosures of Hampshire in drie 
Chalkie grounds. The root is crooked, blackish without, yellow 
underneath the skinne, white within that and wooddie ; about five 
or six inches long, with many hairy strings : from the root arise 
many foure-square branches trailing upon the ground, sometimes 
reddish towards the root : the leaves are small and sharpe pointed, 
like [those of] Gallium, and grow along the stalke, on certaine 
knees or ioints, foure or 5 together, sometimes fewer : from those 
knees the stalk divideth it selfe towards the toppe into many parts, 
whereon grow many flowers, each flower having foure leaves, 
sometimes white, sometimes of a flesh colour, and every leafe of 
these flesh coloured leaves is artificially straked in the middle, and 
neere the sides with three lines of a deeper red, of no pleasant 
smell ; after which commeth the seed something round, growing 
two together like stones. It flowereth all the sommer. — MS, 
f. 81 ; Gcr. emac. 11 20. 

[In the printed version the date is given as 13 August, and either 
Goodyer or his editor has added an account of the Verttce. 'It dries 
without biting, and it is excellent against squinancies, either taken 
inwardly or applied outwardly, for which cause they have called it 
Synaftchica, Hist. Ltigd.'*^ 




Water Parsnip. A pium nodiflorum Reichb. f. 
and Caucalis nodosa Scop. 
Sium repens. 27 Aug. 1619 

Hath longe plaine and smoothe leaves, made and fashioned like 
the leaves of the Ash havinge comonlie 4 or 5 small leaves 
growinge on ech side of the midle ribbe directlie one against 
another, snipt about the edges, amongst which come forth a round 
chamfered or furrowed hollowe stalk, of the bignes of a thumbe, 
browne or reddish neare the root, 4 or 5 foot longe, devided at the 
ioyntes or knees into many p[ar]tes or braunches ymediatlie from 
the root even to the toppe whereon growe the leaves without order 
like the former but shorter, nowe and then of a browne colour 
both above and underneath, of a stronge smell as is the whole 
plant, the flowers are white and many in number consisting of 
5 sharpe pointed leaves apeece, growinge at the ioynts or devidinge 
of the stalkes, on short stems umbell fashion, after the manner of 
Caucalis nodosa echinato semine Bauhmi, The stalks creape or 
run on the water, river or diches bankes, and hamper or matt them 
selves fast together, (contrarie to both those before mentioned, 
which growe upright and beare their flowers and seed at the topps 
of their stalks and branches). The flowers past; there appeareth 
the seed, two ioyned together at the first greene when it is ripe 
of a browne colour like to parsley seed, of a stronge tast but not 
plesant. The root is compacted of white threddie stringes infinite 
in number for the most parte as small as haires growinge or 
creepinge at the bottome of the water within the mire or marish 
ground, wherby it infinitely increaseth. The leaves of this plant 
growe greene in or above the water all the yere winter and somen 
This groweth plentifullie by the lakes and rivers sides at Droxford 
in Hampshire. — MS. f. 82. 

Dewberry. Rubiis caesiiis L. 
Rubus repens fructu caesio. 6 Sept. 1619 

This hath a round stalke set full of small crooked and very 
sharpe pricking thornes, and creepeth on hedges and low bushes of 
a great length, on the upper side of a light red colour, and under- 
neath greene, and taketh root with the tops of the trailing branches, 
whereby it doth mightily encrease : the leaves grow without order, 
composed of three leaves, and sometimes of five, or else the two 
lower leaves are divided into two parts, as Hop leaves are now 
and then, of a light greene colour both above and underneath. 
The flowers grow on the tops of the branches, 7'aceniatim^ many 
together, sometimes white, sometimes of a very light purple colour, 


every flower containing five leaves, which are crompled or wrinkled, 
and do not grow plaine : the fruit followes, first green, and after- 
wards blew, everie berry composed of one or two graines, seldome 
obove foure or five growing together, about the bignesse of corans ; 
wherein is contained a stony hard kernell or seed, and a iuyce of 
the colour of Claret wine, contrarie to the common Rubus or 
Bramble, whose leaves are white underneath : the berries being 
ripe are of a shining blacke colour, and every berry containes 
usually above forty graines closely compacted and thrust together. 
The root is wooddy and lasting. This growes common enough in 
most places, and too common in ploughed fields. — Ger. emac. 

Lesser Celandine. Ranuncuhis Ficaria L. 
Chelidonium minus, Lo. 593, Ger. 669. 10 March 1620 

Inc. fl. [flowers open] 10 Marcii 1620. — MS. f. 52 V. 

Dandelion. Taraxacum officinale Willd. 
Dens leonis vulgi, Lo. 232, Ger. 228. 10 March 1620 

Inc. fl. [flowers open] 10 Marcii 1620. — MS. f. 53. 

Marsh Parsley Dropwort. Oenanthe Lachenalii 

Oenanthe angustifolia Lob. Obs. p. 420. 19 May 1620 

[Identified by Druce as the first British Record.] 
This 19 of May 1620 I found this wild in East Hoo in ye parish 
of Subberton about 7 miles from Petersfield in Hampshire in a 
hedgerowe about a flightshott from ye then dwelling house of 
Mr. William Browne on ye south part of ye said house and ye 
18 of June 1620 I saw it there in flower. — G. quoted by How in 
MS. note to Phytologia, p. 81. 

[Merrett, Pi?tax, p. 84, gives the locality as East How. Druce gives 
the date as 28 June, but the figure is more like 18.] 

Lungwort. Pulmonaria angustifolia L. 
Pulmonaria foliis Echii. 25 May 1620 

Found, May 25 Anno 1620 flowering in a Wood by Holbury 
House in the New Forest in Hampshire. — Ger, emac. 809. 

Linaria minor Desf. 
Antirrhinum minus. 20 Junii 1620 

The stalks are small, round, hairy & branched, about 4 or 5 
ynches high, ye leaves are small, smooth, blunt topped & like 
to Hissope leaves, y® flowers are small fashioned like ye greate 
Antirrhinum, ye upper leaves whereof are of an ill favored purple 
color, & ye under leaves somewhat whitish, havinge a very little 

I 2 



taile like to larkes spur, seed followeth contayned in a husk 
which is somethinge longe. The root is small whitish & threddy. — 
MS. f. 83. 

Sium erectwn Huds. 
Pastinaca aquatica minor. Sium odoratum Tragi. ^ Julij 1620 
figura in hist, lug: p. 701. Apium palustre Fuchsii. 

The leaves and footstalkes that growe in the water by them 
selves distant from the stalk are about 2 foot longe, reddish, 
spongie, smooth, on the upper parte whereof on ech side of the 
midle ribbe groweth nine or ten broad short smooth sharpe pointed 
leaves and opposite against another, fast to the midle ribbe without 
any footstalk notched about the edges, and one alone at the toppe 
of the footstalk, which leaves are of a browne colour ; amongest 
which Cometh uppe a small round hoUowe ioynted stalk about 
3 foot high, no bigger then a parsley stalk, reddish towards the 
root, finely straked, not deeply champfered, devided into many 
partes towards the toppe, on ech ioynt groweth one leafe more 
notched and devided then the former, and those towards the toppe 
of the stalk have fewer leaves growinge on the sides of the midle 
ribbe then the lower, and of a lighter greene. The flowers growe 
on the topps of the braunches in umbells, of colour white, everie 
flower havinge five very small leaves devided into two pts at the 
toppe, the flowers past the seed followeth, w^^ is small very like to 
parsley seed. The root is verie full of white hairy threddes, and 
putteth forth by the sides newe springes or shootes whereby it 
encreaseth. The whole herbe doth yeld a stronge savor, like to 
Petrolium. This groweth plentifullie in the River by Droxford in 
Hampshire.— f. 82 v. 

Phyteuma orbicidare L. 
Rapunculum silvestre Trago. p. 726. Phyto. 137 (4). 

5*'' Julij & 27 Augusti 1620 
This hath 6 or 7 leaves with footstalks square abroad uppon the 
ground, in forme like those of ye wild March violett, but much 
smaller, finely indented about ye edges, amongst which riseth uppe 
a small, round straked stalk, not so bigg as a strawe, sometimes 
of a browne color, seldome a foot high whereon growe very small, 
narrowe, sharpe pointed leaves, without footstalks at ye toppe of ye 
stalk groweth one blewe flower tendinge to purple, almost round and 
sometimes somewhat longe, like those of ye comon Trefoile, com- 
posed of abundance of small crooked flowers, ech crooked flower 
beinge devided into two parts at ye toppe. After which follow 



[ ] seeds contayned in small husks. Ye root is white 

growinge deepe into ye ground, nine or ten ynches longe whereof 

2 or 3 ynches of ye upp part is very small, and sometimes devided 
into more hedds than one. Ye midle part is Rampion-like, as 
bigge as a goose quill, the whole herbe & root beinge broken or 
cut doth yeld a white iuyce like milke. — MS. f. 84. 

[Dr. Stapf points out that P. spicatum with which this plant has 
been identified has white flowers.] 

Bartsia odontites Huds. 
Eufrasia altera Dodo. 5*° Julij & 1% Augusti 1620 

This sendeth forth from a small threddie, hard, crooked root, one 
4 square, upright hard rough stalk, about 9 ynches or a foot high, 
devided into many branches, which are sett one opposite against 
another, ye leaves are small, rough, sharpe pointed, indented about 
ye edges, comonly hanginge or bowinge downewards, growinge by 
cooples, also one opposite against another, ye flowers are many 
hooded and growe but one side of ye branches and stalks, of 
a reddish color, with yealowish cheives in ye midle, after which 
Cometh a small round seed vessell, neare as bigge as a wheate corne, 
wherein is contayned [ends abruptly]. — MS. f. 84. 

Bastard Toadflax. Thesium htimifustim DC. 
Anthyllis montana. hist. lug. p. 11 50. Phyto: 403. 15. an Anony- 
mos Clus: p. 324. 5 Julij 1620 et citius et 27 Augusti 1620 

[First record for Britain of the only species of the Sandalwood 
family known in Britain.] 
This hath many very small round, cornered branches sometimes 
17 or 18 from one root, which are devided into branches, growinge 
close uppon ye ground, sometimes 7 or 8 ynches longe, whereon 
growe very small narrowe, thick leaves out of order, one after, not 
one against another, of a ^ or yealowish greene color, as are also ye 
branches, of a salt tast, neare ye topps of ye branches on short foot- 
stalks growe leaves smaller then ye other, 3 allwaies together 
whereof one is longer then ye other two, in ye midst of these 

3 leaves groweth one small white flower, havinge 5 sharpe pointed 
leaves, spreadinge wide open starr fashion, in ye midle whereof 
groweth 7 small short cheives, with pale yealowe topps, after 
Cometh one small long round harde husk, contayninge a seed 
which is white within. The root is small white, crooked, short, 
devided into branches & threddie and is perennis. — MS. f. 84. 

^ The word ' pale ' is struck out here, and the word substituted looks like 
* nervie 



Linaria adulterina. n. d. 

Johnson states that ' Mr. Goodyer found it growing wilde on the 
side of a chalkie hill in an inclosure on the right hand of the way, 
as you goe from Droxford to Poppie Hill in Hampshire'. — Ger, 
emac. 555. 

Dwarf Thistle. Car dims acaiilis L. 
Carduus acaulis septentrionalium L^'obelii. 8° Julij & 5 Sept. 1620 
Ger. non habet. 

It hath many greene short narrowe leaves, somewhat hairie, 
spread abroad uppon the ground, seldome above six ynches longe, 
parted or gashed even to the midle ribbe, sett with sharpe prickles : 
amongst which groweth one (sometimes more) scaly head without 
prickles, with a thrum of purple flowers which are nothinge but 
small cheives, and after turne into downe, contayninge gray seed 
within : theis hedds growe close to the ground comonly without any 
stalk, yet sometimes havinge a small smooth footstalk 3 or 4 ynches 
longe. The root is small crooked scragged, with many out grow- 
inge branches, reddish in the midle, and of longe continewance. || It 
groweth wild on the Chalkie downes of Hampsheire plentifullie ; 
and also at Purflett in Essex. — MS, f. 105. 
[See 1618.] 

Common Cowwheat. Melampyrum sylvaticum L. 
Melampirum luteum latifolium. Phyto. .444 (3). Pin. 234 (a. 4). 
Crategonon, Lob. icon. p. 36. Parietaria silvestris, 2 Clus. p. xliiij. 
Ger. p. 84 (2). 22 Julij & 22 Augusti 1620 

It hath a stalk about a cubit high, round close by ye root 
4 square above, spreading it selfe abroad, often of a browne redd 
color on ye upper side, ioynted, devided ymediatly from ye root 
into branches, alwaies one branch growinge right against another, 
under which branches growe ye leaves, also one opposite against 
another, ye brodest and lowest are about 3 ynches longe, & one 
ynch broad, smooth nothinge at all notched by the sides, of a darke 
greene color, of an unpleasant an harsh tast, ye flowers growe neare 
ye toppes of ye branches, amongst smaller iagged leaves, and 
opposite against another, yet ye topps hang downwards & ioyne 
neare together of a yealowe color, which when they begin to wither 
are whitish, ye mouth not withstanding remayninge yealowe, after 
which followeth broad, flatt, sharpe pointed seed vessells, wherein 
is contayned 2 or 3 seeds like wheate cornes. 

The root is small, whitish and threedie, and dieth at winter. — 
MS. f. 83 V. 


XcrantheimiDi anmmvi L. 
Ptaimica imperati. 26 Julii 1620 

Ptarmica Austriaca species Clusii. 

This riseth uppe with a small hard tough cornered whitish 
woolly stalk, devided into many branches, and those againe devided 
into other branches like those of Cyanus about two foot high, 
whereon grow long narrow whitish cottonie leaves out of order, of 
a bitter taste, whiter below than above, of the colour of the leaves 
of Wormwood, having but one rib or sinew & that in the midle 
of the 4eafe, and commonly turne downewards : on the top of each 
slender branch groweth one small scalie head or knap, like that of 
Cyaniis, which bringeth forth a pale purple flower without smell, 
containing sixe, seven, eight, or more, small hard drie sharp 
pointed leaves : in the midle whereof groweth many stifife chives, 
their tops being of the colour of the flowers ; these flowers fall not 
away till the whole hearbe perisheth, but change into a rustic 
colour : amongst those chives grow long flat blackish seed, with 
a little beard at the toppe. The root is small, whitish, hard and 
threddie, and perisheth when the seed is ripe, and soone springeth 
up by the fallinge of the seed, and remaineth greene all the Winter, 
and at the Spring sendeth foorth a stalke as aforesaid. The herbe 
touched or rubbed sendeth forth a pleasant aromaticall smell. — 
MS. f. 92 : Ger. emac. 606-7. 

Senecio sarracenictts L. 
Herba Doria altera. 26 July 1620 

This herbe groweth uppe with a greene round brittle stalke, very 
much champhered, sinewed, or furrowed ; about 4 or 5 foot high, 
full of white pith like that of Elder, and sendeth forth small branches : 
the leaves growe on the stalk out of order, & are smooth, sharpe 
pointed, in shape resembling those of Herba Doria, but much 
shorter and narrower, the broadest and longest seldome being 
above 10 or 11 inches long, and scarce 3 inches broad, and are 
more finely and smally nickt or indented about the edges ; their 
smell being nothing pleasant, but rather when together with the 
stalke they are broken and rubbed yeeld forth a smell having 
a small touch of the smell of Hemlocke. Out of the bosomes of 
these leaves spring other smaller leaves or branches. The flowers 
are many, and grow on small branches at the tops of the stalkes 
like those of Herba Doria, but more like those of lacobcea, of 
a yealow colour, as well the middle button, as the small leaves that 
stand round about, every flower having commonly 8 of those small 
leaves. Which being past the button turneth into downe and 


containeth a very small long seed which flieth away with the 
winde. The root is nothing else but an infinite of small strings 
which most hurtfullie spread in the ground, and by their infinite 
increasinge destroyeth and starveth other herbes that grow neare 
it. Its naturall place of growing I know not, || for I had it from 
M'^. lo/ifi Coys, and yet keep it growing in my garden. — MS. ff. 83, 
92 ; Ger. emac. 431. 

[The sentence after the H is written in a hand that I believe to be 
that of the editor, Thomas Johnson.] 

Jasonia tuber osa DC. 
Aster conyzoides Gesneri. 

[Goodyer's note in Latin on this plant {MS. f. 83 v.) is copied from 
Lobel, Observatioftes, (1576) p. 189.] 

Echmochloa Crtis-galli Beauv. 
Panicum sylvestre. Sheet. 10 Augusti 1620 

Hath very many ioynted stalks, 2 foot high or higher, whereof 
some growe upright, and some growe sidelonge & leane towards 
ye earth, the leaves are longe & smooth not hairie. On ye toppe 
of ye stalks growe spikes or eares, sometimes single but comonly 
devided into many parts, lesser shorter & thinner than those of 
Panick, everie one whereof is composed of small short sharpe 
pointed husks, of a browne redd color sometimes of a greenish 
color, not [words illegible] ye stem on rib whereon they growe, but 
growinge on ye outer side thereof ; wherein is a whitish seed, 
somewhat hard, lesse then those of Panick. The root is nothinge 
els but white strings. — MS. f. 83 v. 

B a s i 1. Ocimum Basilicum L. 
Acinos [odoratissimum]. 12 Augusti 1620 & longe before. 

Phyto: 427 (4). Ger. 548 . 2. Math. 595 (i). 

It hath manie fower square hairie stalks proceedinge from the 
root, sometimes two foot longe or longer, parted into a fewe 
branches, the leaves growe on the ioynts, in wide distances by 
cooples one opposite against another, in forme like those of wild 
Margerom but smaller and are hairie, rough, lighthe snipt or 
indented about the edges : the flowers are purple & resemble those 
of Betonie, but of a lighter purple colour and growe forth of rough 
round whorles or crownetts close above the leaves, and one allwaies 
at the toppe of the stalk and branches, in forme like those of 
Horehound. The flowers past the seed followeth inclosed in those 
whorles. The root is small threedie & lastinge. — MS. fif. 83 V., 84. 

[This description differs essentially from that printed in Gerard. 
Sec II Oct. 162 1.] 



Corn Parsley. Carum segetum^ Benth. 
Sium siifoliis. Hone- wort. i8 August 1620 

^ The Description. 

This hcrbe commeth up at the first from seed like Parsley, with 
two small long narrow leaves, the next that spring are two small 
round smooth leaves nickt about the edges, and so for two or three 
couples of leaves of the next growth there are such round leaves 
growing on a middle rib by couples, and one round one, also at the 
top : after as more leaves spring up, so the fashion of them also 
change, that is to say, every leafe hath about eight or nine small 
smooth greene leaves, growing on each side of a middle rib one 
opposite against another, and one growing by it selfe at the top, 
and are finely snipt or indented about the edges, in forme re- 
sembling those of Sitim odoratum Tragi^ but not so bigge^ long, or 
at all brownish ; amongst which rise up many small round straked 
stalkes or branches, about two foot long, now and then above 
twenty from one root, sometimes growing upright, sometimes 
creeping not farre from the ground, joynted or kneed, and dividing 
themselves into very many branches, at every joynt groweth one 
leafe smaller than the former, which together with the lowermost 
perish, so that there is seldome one greene leafe to be seen on this 
herbe when the seed is ripe ; the flowers are white, and grow most 
commonly at the tops of the branches, sometimes at most of the 
joynts even from the earth, in uneven or unorderly umbells, every 
flower having five exceeding small leaves, flat, and broad at the 
toppe, and in the middle very small cheives with purple tops, the 
whole flower not much exceeding the bignesse of a small pins head, 
which being past there commeth up in the place of every flower 
two small gray crooked straked seeds, like Parsley seeds, but 
bigger, in taste hot and aromaticall. The root is small and 
whitish, with many threds not so big as Parsley roots. It beginneth 
to flower about the beginning of luly, & so continues flowering 
a long time ; part of the seed is ripe in August, and some scarce 
in the beginning of October, mean while some falleth wherby 
it renueth it selfe, and groweth with flourishing greene leaves all 
the winter. 

I tooke the description of this herbe the yeere 1620, but 
observed it long before, not knowing any name for it : first I re- 
fered it to Sium^ calling it, Sium tcrrestre, and Sium segetum 
& agrorum ; afterwards upon sight of Selinum peregriiiiun primum 
Clusii, which in some respects resembleth this herbe, I named it 



Seli7ium Sij folijs ; yet wanting an English name, at length about 
the yeere 1625 I saw Mistris Vrstila Leigh (then servant to 
Mistris Bilso7i of Mapledurham in Hampshire, and now (5 Marcif 
1632 wife to Master William Mooring Schoolemaster of Peters- 
field, a Towne neere the said Mapledurham) gather it in the 
wheate ershes about Mapledurham aforesaid (where in such like 
grounds it still groweth, especially in clay grounds) who told me it 
was called Honewort. — Ger. emac. 1017-18. 

[The remainder of the description has been printed on p. 53.] 

Yellow Bird's-nest. Monotropa Hypopithys L. 
Orobanche verbasculi odore, MS. Good: 22 August 1620 

This riseth up with a soft round very brittle stalk, seldome 
8 ynches high, sett with thinn small short scaly leaves like skynns 
growing close to the stalk, at or very near ye top of ye stalk 
groweth one sometimes 4 or 5 small flowers in fashion like ye 
flowers of Hyosciamns hiteus or of y© Cowslip every flower con- 
sisting of 4, but most commonly of 5 leaves, growing all of one 
height, evenly & of one proportion, & nothing like those of 
Orobanche. In ye middle of every flower groweth a small round 
umbo, no further out but just even with ye leaves, broad at ye top, 
with a small hoale in the middle, and ye lower end of which groweth 
at ye bottome of ye flower round, as bigge as a pease, so that it 
resembleth y® suckbottle which children use to suck their drinke 
out of, having small cheives growing round about it with purplish 
tops. The root is obtuse, not usually so bigge as ye stalk, with 
very few threeds growing to it, & groweth at ye very upper face 
of ye earth. The whole herbe, flowers stalks & leaves are at 
their first flowring of a whitish yealowe, or strawe colour, and being 
broken or brused smelleth like to ye roote of a Primrose. This 
I found in a hedgerowe in a ground belonging to Droxford farme, 
neare ye foot path that leadeth from Droxford to Waltham, and 
took this Description ye 22 of August 1620. 

[This copy of a lost note of G.'s is written on the back of f. 249 of 
Bannister's Herbarium Szcctim^ (Herb. Sloane) in the Botanical De- 
partment of the British Museum, to which my attention was drawn by 
Mr. J. Britten. 

A similar description evidently derived from this same description 
and an engraving of the plant are given by Plot, Nat. Hist, of Oxford- 
shire, 1677, p. 146, who was the first to find this plant in Oxfordshire. 
Plot gives the number of flowers as ' eight or ten': he adds that 'It 
grows at the bottoms of Trees in the woods near Stoken-Church, and 
we find it mention'd in some MS. notes of the famous Mr. Goodyer'.] 


J 23 

Toothwort. Lathraea sqtiamaria L. 
Anblatum Dod. in fol. p. 553 ; Math. 689 (9). 15 Apr. 1621 

Dentaria maior sine a^uXAo? Clus: p. cxx. 

From the root riseth uppe 2 or 3 sometimes more slender brickie 
stalks, hairy & full of iuyce, like those of Orobanche, 6 or 7 ynches 
longe, garnished with many flowers thick sett together not much 
unlike those of Satyrion or Orobanche, which doe all bend or looke 
that way which the stalk bendeth or leaneth. On ye back side growe 
2 rowes of leaves, or rather small whitish skinne-like scales, and 
also amongst ye flowers there growe the like leaves : the flowers 
past there come small hedds wherein is contayned very small s eed 
the stalk soone perisheth, and leaveth the root in y® ground which 
is composed of whitish scales like teeth. The stalks and flowers 
when they growe in darke shadowie woods, are of a purplish color, 
but when they growe where the sunne cometh on them, they have 
no purple at all. 

The scales on the root are not sharpe pointed as Clusius, Lobel 
& Dodo: pictureth them, but round topped, as Math: hath best of 
all by his figure expressed them. — MS. f. 87. 

[This note is written on the back of an uncompleted order to the 
Overseers of the Poor, dated Southwick 162 1.] 

Cachryes. 28 Apr. 1621 

[See under 9 May 1622.] 

Juniper. Jtmipei'tts communis L.or^ 
luniperus sterilis. 15 Maii 1621 

This shrub is in the manner of growing altogether like the 
Juniper tree that beareth berries, only the upper part of the leaves 
of the youngest and tenderest bowes and branches are of a more 
reddish greene colour : the flowers grow forth of the bosoms of the 
leaves, of a yellowish colour, which never exceed three in one row, 
the number also of each row of leaves : each flower is like to 
a small bud, more long than round, never growing to the length 
of a quarter of an inch, being nothing else but very small short 
crudely chives, very thicke and close thrust together, fastened to 
a very small middle stem, in the end turning into small dust, which 
flieth away with the winde, not much unlike that of Taxus sterilis : 
on this shrub is never found any fruit. — Ger. emac. 1629. 

Curly Pondweed. Potamogeton crispus L. 
Tribulus aquaticus minor, quercus floribus [uvae]. 2 Junii 1621 
This water herbe bringeth forth from the root, thin, flat, knottie 
stalkes, of a reddish colour, two or three cubits long, or longer, 
according to the depth of the water (which when they are drie, are 



pliant and bowing) devided towards the top into many parts or 
branches, bearing but one leafe at every ioynt, sometimes two 
ynches long, and halfe an ynch broad, thin, and as it were shining, 
so wrinckled and crompled by the sides that it seemeth to be 


torne, of a reddish greene colour : the foot-stalkes are something 
long and thicke, and rise up from amongst those leaves, which 
alwaies grow two one opposite against another, in a contrarie manner 
to those that grow below on the stalk : neare the top of which 
foot-stalke groweth small grape-like huskes, out of which spring 


very small reddish flowers, like those of the Oke, every flower 
having foure very small round topped leaves. After every flower 
commeth commonly foure sharpc pointed graines growing together, 
containing within them a little white kernell. The lower part of 
the stalke hath at every ioint small white threddie roots, somewhat 


long, whereby it taketh hold in the mudde, and draweth nourish- 
ment unto it. The whole plant is comonlie covered over with 
water. It flowereth in June and the beginning of July. I found it 
in the standing pooles or fish-ponds adioyning to a dissolved Abbey 
called Durford, which ponds devide Hampshire and Sussex, and in 
other standing waters elswhere. This description was made] upon 



sight of the plant the 2 of lune, 1622. — MS. ff. 120 a, 122 ; Ger. 

[In the fair copy (f. 122) Goodyer altered the name ' floribus uvae ' 
to 'quercus floribus'. The rough copy (MS. f. 120 a) has the notes 
' about ye beg. of July, or fortnight before Lamas ' and ' both begunn 
to flower 2 Junij 1621' written in the margin. If the year 1622 given 
in the text be correct, Goodyer would appear to have been at Durford 
two years running on the 2nd of June.] 

P o n d vv e e d. Potainogeton densiis L. 
Tribulus aquaticus minor, muscatellae floribus. 2 Junii 1621 

This hath not flatt stalkes like the other, but round, kneed, and 
alwaies bearing two leaves at every ioint, one opposite against 
another, greener, shorter and lesser then the other, sharpe pointed, 
not much vi^rinckled and crumpled by the edges. Clusins saith, 
that they are not at all crompled. I never observed any without 
crumples and wrinckles. The flowers grow on short small foot- 
stalkes, of a whitish green colour, like those of Mtiscatella Cordis 
called by Gerard^ Radix cava minima viridijiore : viz. two flowers 
at the top of every foot-stalke, one opposite against another, every 
flower containing foure small leaves : which two flowers beeing 
past there come up eight small husks making six several waies 
a square of flowers. The roots are like the former. This groweth 
abundantly in the river by Droxford in Hampshire. It flowereth 
in June and July when the other doth, and continueth covered over 
with water, greene, both winter and somer. — MS. ff. 120 a, 122; 
Ger. emac. 823-4. 

[The rough copy (MS. f. 120a) has the note 'in running brooks' 
and a reference to Clusius cclij after the name.] 

f Melilotus indica L. 
Melilotus Indiae orientalis. 11 Junij 1621 

This is in stalks, branches, leaves flowers and smell altogether 
like Melilottis Italica Camerarii, but smaller more branched & 
delicate, not growinge so high, & the stalks are greene and have 
no redd at all. 1| The seed is also like, but smaller. The root 
groweth downe right, and is small white, with a very fewe thredds, 
and perisheth when the seed is ripe the same yere it is sowen. 
II This hath not beene written of by any that I find. I receaved seeds 
thereof from Mr. William Coys often remembred. — MS. f. 97. 

Epipactis violacea Dur. 
Nidus avis flore et caule violaceo purpureo colore, an Pseudo- 
leimodoron Clus. Hist. Rar. PI. p. 270. 29 June 1621 

This riseth up with a stalke about nine inches high, with a few 



smal narrow sharpe pointed short skinny leaves, set without order, 
very little or nothing at all wrapping- or inclosing the stalke ; 
having a spike of flowers like those of Orobanche^ without tailes or 
leaves growing amongst them: which fallen, there succeed small 
seed-vessels. The lower part of the stalke within the ground is 
not round like Orobanche, but slender or long, and of a yellowish 
white colour, with many small brittle roots growing underneath 
confusedly, wrapt or folded together like those of the common 
Nidus avis. The whole plant as it appeareth above ground, both 
stalkes, leaves, and flowers, is of a violet or deepe purple colour. 
This I found wilde in the border of a field called Marborne, neere 
Habridge in Haliborne, a mile from a towne called Alton in 
Hampshire, being the land of one William Balden. In this place 
also groweth wilde the thistle called Corona fratrnm. — Ger. emac. 
228 ; Druce, pp. 6-7. 

[In Dillenius' interleaved copy of Ray's Synopsis^ 1724, 'cum notis 
MSS. Lightfoot, Yalden, etc.', at the Botanic Garden at Oxford is a 
note, ' Limodorum Austriacum found in the border of a field called 
Marborne near Habridge in Haliborne a mile from Alton. Mr. 
Goodyer. See Camden's Britannia. I have searched for it in vain 
several years '. 

The identity of this plant is very doubtful. See p. 47.] 

Woolly Thistle. Cniats eriop horns L. 
Corona fratrum herbar. Caput monachorum. 29 June 1621 

I found this wild in Hampshire in greate plentie by Haliborne in 
a feild called Marborne, nere a bridge called Habridge, beinge the 
land of Wm. Balden, & also in the next feild to it 29 Junii 1621. — 
MS. f. 53- 

[See under 1617 and 13 Aug. 1621 for the description,] 

Black Bryony. T amies communis L. 
Bryonia nigra florens et fructum ferens. Summer 1621 

,, florens non fructum ferens. 

This is altogether like the first described in roots, branches, and 
leaves ; onely the foot-stalks whereon the flowers grow are about 
eight or nine inches long : the flowers are something greater, 
having neither before or after their flowering any berries or shew 
thereof ; but the flowers and footstalks do soone wither and fall 
away: this I have heretofore, and now this Sommer, 1621, dili- 
gently observed, because it hath not beene mentioned or observed 
by any that I know. — Ger. emac. 871. 

[The first record for Hants : probably of a male plant.] 



Cerinthe majoj' L. 
Cerinthe flore rubro. 9 Julij 1621 

The stalks or braunches for the most parte growe uppe of 2 or 
3 foot high devided into branches even from the root, about which 
grovve leaves out of order, not one against another like the yealowe 
flowred Cerinthe, but somethinge lesser, of a greene and blewe 
color as it were mixed together, also spotted with white spots on 
the upper side, the topps of the stalks bend downewards, and send 
forth amonge the leaves, out of cupps whose footstalks (not cupps 
as Clusius was informed) are of a deepe purple color, longe hollowe 
flowers like those of the said yealowe flowred Cerinthe growinge 
but one in a place, of a redd purple color, which seeme to be 
sprinckled with a certaine whiteness, which fallen there followeth 
blackish seed contayned in small seed vessells two usually ioyned 
together in forme like to the seed of Borage or redd Ciches, but as 
bigge as a pease. The root is white and short with a fewe small 
branches or thredds, and perisheth when the seed is ripe. — 
MS. i. 120. 

Caiicalis latifolia L. 
Caucalis maior Baetica. 9 Julii 1621 

An Caucalis pumila, Clusio Cur, post. p. 37. 

The stalks are rough round straked, a cubite high or higher j 
kneed or ioynted devided into branches, sett with rough iagged 
leaves, of an herbie smell, on the topps of the stalks and branches 
growe umbells of flowers, reddish before they open, after of a per- 
fecte white color, the leaves that growe on the out side of ech 
particular flower are greater and broader then those within ; close 
under ech umbell groweth a rowe of greene leaves cutt and devided 
into very small sharpe pointed leaves. After the flowers cometh 
greate prickley burrs half as bigge as those of Xanthium sett with 
rowes of large prickles everie burr when it is ripe partinge into 
2 parts contayninge one seed a peece. The root is small white 
threddie in smell like to a carrott and perisheth when the seed 
is ripe. The whole plant in stalks, leaves and flowers is verie like 
to the wild carrott. || The seeds hereof I receaved from M"" William 
Coys often remembred, and he from Boelius a Lowe Contry man. — 
MS. f. 95. 

Xanthium Strumarium L. 
Bardana minor. The lesser Burre Docke. ? 162 1 

It groweth plentifuUie in Southwicke street in Hampshire, as I 
have been informed by Mr. Goodyer. — Ger. emac, 810. 
[Not included in Hants Flora by Townsend.] 



Horned wild Cumin. Hype coon proaimbens L. 
Hypecuon Clusii. 11 Julij 162 1 

The leaves of this plant are devided into many partes, verie like 
in figure and color to the leaves of Rewe but softer or tenderer, 
and sometimes longer, spread uppon the ground ; amongest which 
rise uppe many small stalks, growinge slopewise, about 6 ynches 
longe, without leaves, but onlie neare the toppe where it devideth 
itself into 3, 4 or more small branches and those againe sometimes 
devided into other little short branches, with little tender footstalks 
at their topps, ech foot stalk bearinge one small yealowe flower, 
somewhat sweet, contayninge 6 leaves, but of a strange fashion, 
and unlike other flowers, for it hath 2 leaves bigger then the rest, 
with a greene strakc or line on the out side, (which is blunt and as 
it were bowed or folded in) the other fower leaves are very small, 
round topped and scarce to be seene, unlesse the flower be open, 
which past there succeed uppon everie of the said footstalks or 
branches, one longe crooked blunt topped codd, with ioynts knotts 
or devisions contayning in the space betwene everie bunch or knott, 
one blackish seed in a manner round, which is hard to be pulled 
forth. The root is single sometimes parted, somewhat yealowe, 
anuall, not livinge over yere, the whole plant with us is of little 
smell or none at all. || It groweth not wild in England. I have 
seene it growinge plentifullie in Mr. Coyses garden in Essex, 
who kindlie imparted seeds thereof unto me, Anno 1620. — 
MS. f. 97. 

Convolvulus purpureus L. 
Convolvulus coeruleus minor Baeticus. 11 Julij 162 1 

This herbe hath many tender, small round weake hairie branches 
a foot or a Cubite longe or longer, devidinge it self presently from 
the root, some leaninge some traylinge on the ground none standinge 
upright, or windinge them selves about anie thinge, whereon growe 
rough leaves without footstalks, out of order, like those of Alsine 
myosotis, L'obelij, narrowe neare the stalk, broad towards the toppe, 
out of the bosomes of those leaves growe the flowers on long foot- 
stalks, made of one leafe, like in forme and bignes to those of the 
common Convolvulus minor, folded or plated when it is shut uppe, 
into five folds of a bright blewe color, with raies of yealowe in the 
bottom within, which fallen there succeedeth round buttons or 
knapps, as bigge or little bigger then a pease, wherein in ech 
button is contayned 2, 3 or 4 three cornered seeds almost as bigge 
as Radish seed. The root is small white single, and groweth 



downeright with a fewe threddie strings or side branches. Both 
herbe and root do perish at winter. || 

The seeds hereof were gathered in Spaine by Boelius and com- 
municated by him to my good friend Mr. William Coys who 
yerlie doth carefuUie sowe the same and infinite other seeds of 
strange herbes, and hath imparted thereof unto me. It hath not 
beene hetherto written of that I knowe. — MS. f. 97. 

Astragalus hamosus L. 
Securidaca minor. Ob. p. 523. Adversar. p. 401. 13 Julij 1621 
This plant is like to the greater Securidaca in stalks and leaves, 
but altogether smaller, and of a darker greene color, ech little leafe 
havinge a small nick at the toppe ; the flowers are very small and 
white, (and not purple with us, as Pena hath it) growinge in small 
tufts : after which followe round, crooked, sharpe pointed codds, 
so sharpe that they will perce into the flesh, first bowinge downe- 
wards to the footstalk, and then turninge uppe againe, like crooked 
homes, wherein is contayned two rowes of small seed, in fashion of 
a kidney almost round, in tast like drie pease or beanes, not bitter ; 
of a darke color drawinge neare an ash color. The root is small 
white with some threddes, and perisheth when the seed is ripe. 
II Seeds hereof were sent me from Mr. William Coys a man verie 
skillfull in the knowledge of symples, my singuler good frend. — 
MS, f. 97. 

Iberis umbellata L. 
Thlaspi umbellosum marinum flore albo. 14 Julij 1621 

An Thlaspi quartum parvum odorato flore Clusii, p. cxxxij. 

This plant riseth uppe with one small stalk and divideth it self 
ymediatelie from the root into many branches which are about 
a foot high, greene, round, rough brittle straked as is the stalk and 
everie branch devidinge it self into more branches, whereon growe 
longe narrowe rough leaves, devided neare the toppe like to Corim 
Cervimim Lobelij, of a bitter tast, which leaves sometimes turne 
downewards : on the toppe of the stalks & branches growe umbells 
of pleasant flowers, of a stronge but no pleasant smell, appearinge 
purple before they be open, (the midle of the umbell alwaies 
flowringe last) but beinge fullie blowen, they are of a perfect white 
color, ech flower beinge made of fower blunt topped leaves, some- 
times nicked at the toppe, and the two leaves that growe on the 
out side, are neare fower times as bigge, as those two that growe 
within, havinge short yealowe cheives in the midle, which fallen 
there succeedeth || broad flatt powches, seed vessels or husks, forked 


or devided into two parts at the toppe, ech huske coiitayninge two 
flatt yealowish seeds, of a very bitter tast. The root is white and 
short, with a fewe side branches. The whole herbe perisheth when 
the seed is ripe. — MS. f. 98. 

[A rough copy of the last five lines is written on MS. f. 11.] 

Asclepias purpiirascens L. 
Periploca recta Virginiana. 14 Julij 1621 

An Apocynum Syriacum Clusii, p. Ixxxvij. 

The stalk is bliintlie fower squared, upright, strait, not branched 
fower or 5 foot high, straked, of the bignes of a finger, black 
spotted, full of spungious white pith within, whereon growe by 
cooples, one opposite against another, uppon thick short footstalks, 
large, broad blunt topped leaves, with a whitish softe cotton under- 
neath, of a light greene above, plaine and smooth not notched by 
the sides, neare the toppe of ech stalk, exactlie against the leaves 
(not out of the bosomes of the leaves) groweth forth about two 
short rough footstalks, but one in a place, ech bearinge 4 or more 
knapps like small buttons, which by nature turne downe, open and 
appeare like a greenish flower, with five leaves ; above which 
groweth the flower of a purple or reddish color, composed of 
5 round small hollowe leaves sharpe pointed on the outside, ech 
leafe havinge a short sharpe pointed pointell of the color of the 
flower, turninge into the umbo or midle of the flower. — MS, f. 98. 

Anchusa angiistifolia L. 
Buglossum Scorpioides. 14 Julij 1621 

An Echij facie Buglossum minimum flore rubente. Ob. p. 310. 

This is like the common Buglosse in stalks and leaves, but 
altogether smaller & lower, the topps of the branches whereon the 
flowers growe, are more crooked, turninge and bowinge inwards, 
the occasion (as I take it) of the name. The flowers are smaller, 
the leaves thereof narrower at the toppe, at their first openinge 
more reddish, and when they are fullie blowne, of a perfecte purple, 
or black violet color, but in tast, savor, operation and all things else 
alike.— 1/5. f. 98. 

Ornithopus scorpioides L. 
Scorpioides Mathioli. 16 Julij 16 21 

Math. p. 895. Phyto. 568 (5). Ger. hath it not. 

This hath many small round firme branches proceedinge from 
one root, and those againe devided into other branches, whereon 
growe leaves almost round, comonly 3 sometimes 4 together ; 
whereof the midlemost is 4 times as bigge as anie of the other, both 

K 2 



stalks and leaves, are of a mealie white color, and are some what 
like the leaves of Portulaca : the flowers are small, yealowe, like 
those of Scorpioides repens Biipleuri folio VObelij\ but smaller, 
growinge forth of the bosomes of the leaves, on long footstalks, 
sometimes three, most comonly 4 together. After which cometh 
on ech footstalk as many longe, small, jointed, slender, sharpe 
pointed codds, bowinge like the taile of a scorpion or like to birds 
clawes, wherein is contayned betweene everie ioynt one longe 
slender yealowish seed like Galega, The root is small, white, with 
a fewe thredds, and perisheth when the seed is ripe. — MS. f. 88. 

Crucianella sp. 

Rubia spicata Cretica Clusii, p. clxxvii. 19 July 1621 

This hath proceeding from the root many knottie foure square 
rough little stalks, a foot high, devided immediately from the root 
into many branches, having but one side branch growing forth of 
one ioint : about which ioints grow spread abroade 4, 5, some- 
times 6 narrow, short, sharpe pointed leaves, somewhat rough : 
the toppes of the stalkes and branches are nothing but long small 
foure square spikes or eares, made of three leafed greene huskes : 
out of the top of each huske groweth a very small greenish yellow 
flower, having foure exceeding smal leaves scarce to be scene : 
after which followeth in each huske one smal blackish seed, some- 
what long, round on the one side, with a dent or hollownesse on 
the other. The root is small, hard, woodie, crooked or scragged, 
with many little branches or threds, red without, and white within, 
and perisheth when the seed is ripe. — MS. f. 88 ; Ger. emac. 11 19. 

Campanula puniila hort. C. ptilla e. 
Lesser Bellflower. ^ [19 July 1621]? 

Ye lesser Bellflower hath small, rough, round, straked stalks, 
seldom braunched, or above a foot or a cubit high. The leaves are 
rough, of a light greene colour, very lightly indented about y° 
edges in form like sloe leaves, or those of ye wild violett, those 
that grow below have footstalks, & those above are smaller, & 
grow close to ye stalk without any footstalk at all ; the flowers are 
like small bells, & devided in the toppe into 5 sharpe pointed 
leaves, which are pointed in y*" middle devided in ye toppe in 
3 pts. Some whereof growe alongest ye stalk, and some times 
12 together in a bunch or Cluster at very toppe of ye stalk, after 
which cometh ye seed cod in small rough (?) husks. The root is 
white, small, strayght, with many threads & perennis. — MS. f. 8 v. 

[Note on the back of a letter from F. Waller to Sir T. Bilson, 
bearing date 19 July 1621.] 



PJialaris canaricnsis L. 
Phalaris minor Baetica Boelij, semine nigro. 20 Julij 1621 

Is in stalks, height, leaves and scalie eares, like the greate 
Phalaris, but twise as small, of a darker greene color, and the seed 
is much smaller and of a blackish color. — MS. f. 88. 

PJialaris minor L. 
Phalaris minor Baetica semine albo Boelij. [20 July 1621] 

The stalks growe not above a foot high, the leaves are whighter 
then the other, the eares are also whighter, and scarce growe forth 
of the greate hose or uppermost leafe, the seed is whitish in all 
things else like the former. — MS, f. 88. 

Phalaris bulbosa L. 
Phalaris bulbosa Boelij. [20 July 1621] 

Is altogether like the Phalaris with blackish seed in stalks, 
leaves and spikes, but the roots are bulbus, like those of Catts taile 
grasse, growinge most comonlie on the upper crust of the earth, 
wuth a fewe small threddie roots hanginge thereat fastened within 
the earth, the seed is of an Ash color or darke white, the bulbus 
roots most comonlie live manie yeres. — MS, f. 88. 

Valeriana Cormtcopiae L. 
Valeriana mexicana. 20 Julij 162 1 

non est Valeriana Indica Clusii. 

The stalke is round, tender, brittle, verie much straked, hollowe, 
greene, yet reddish in some places, & ioynted, devided into branches, 
about 2 foot high ; at everie ioynt groweth two leaves^ those on the 
lower parte of the stalk are crompled, not notched by the sides, 
round topped, of a light greene color, verie like the leaves of garden 
lettice (nothinge at all like the leaves of Lactuca agnina) about 
4 ynches longe, and 3 ynches brode, with broad leafed footstalks ; 
those on the upper parte of the stalke, are narrower, shorter, some- 
what notched by the sides, without footstalks ; on the topps of the 
branches growe the flowers as it were in umbells, and are longe, 
of a bright purple color, everie flower contayninge 5 small round 
topped leaves, whereof 2 are greater then the rest. The seed 
followeth (sem. i. Sept.) growinge in chafifie scales or hedds, as 
bigge or bigger then a wheate corne, blackish, seminge to be nothinge 
but light husks and no seed. 

The root is very small for the bignes of the plant, white and 
threddie, and perisheth when the seed is ripe ; the whole plant 
is without any manifest tast or smell. || Clusius, Gerard & Bauhinus 



have written of Valeriana mexicana sive indica, but this herbe 
agreeth with neither of their descriptions. I receaved seeds whereof 
grewe this described herbe from Mr. William Coys often re- 
membred.— f. 89. 

Reseda Phyteuma L. 
Phyteuma monspeliensium. Ger. p. 918. 21 Julij 162 1 

The stalks are small, greene, round, straked, rough, creepinge or 
leaninge neare the ground, a foot long, devided into many branches 
imediatlie from the root ; the leaves are small like those of Ltiteola^ 
round topped, rough on the midle ribbe on the under side, some- 
times crompled by the sides ; the flowers growe from the midle pte 
of the stalk upwards spike fashion, not close together, on short 
rough foot stalks ; beinge nothinge but thrumie whitish cheives, 
like those of Rheseda ; ech flower havinge growinge close adioyninge 
under it comonlie 6 small leaves star fashion, the flowers past. — 
MS, f. 89. 

? Malva stipitlacea Cav. 
Malva flore amplo Baetica aestiva. 21 Julij 1621 

This mallowe hath stalks and leaves altogether like the greate 
comon high wild mallowe; but the flowers are as bigge againe, 
composed likewise of five leaves a peece, of a lighter purple color 
and makinge a braver showe, the seed is blackish like a half moone, 
not rough [but finely straked on the upper side, twise as bigge 
as the seed of the comon mallowe, growinge in a round circle 
closely compact together within or at the bottome of a duble 
huske, and covered over with a flatt spongious cake, blackish on 
the upper side, so this seed in manner of growinge is contrarie 
to the comon mallowe, this havinge two husks and a little cake 
and seed underneath, and that having by one huske a little cake 
but half so bigge, made only of the seed. The root is very small, 
white, brittle, with a fewe small threddes hanginge thereat and 
perisheth at winter. || 

I cannot find that this mallowe hath been written of heretofore. 
The seeds were sent to my worthy frend Mr. William Coys by 
Boelius who gathered them in Spaine, who with many other 
imparted them unto me Anno 1620. — MS. f. 89. 

Chrysanthemum coronarium L. 
Chrysanthemum Creticum primum Clusii. 28 Julii 1621 

The stalkes are round, straked, branched, hard, of a whitish 
greene, with a very little pith within ; neere three foot high : the 



leaves grow out of order, devided into many parts, and those again 
snipt or devided, of the color of the stalkes : at the topps of the 
stalkes and branches grow great flowers, bigger than any of the 
rest of the Corne-flowers, forth of scaly heads, consisting of twelve 
or more broad leaves apeece, notched at the top, of a shining 
golden colour at the first, which after turne to a pale, whitish, or 
very light yellow, and grow round about a large yellow ball, of 
smell somewhat sweet. The flowers past, there commeth abun- 
dance of seed closely compact or thrust together, and it is short, 
blunt at both ends, straked, of a sand color, somwhat flat, & of 
a reasonable bignes. The root is whitish, neere a fingers bignesse, 
short, with many threds hanging thereat, and perisheth when the 
seede is ripe ; and at the Spring groweth uppe againe by the falling 
of the seed. — MS, f. 90 ; Ger. emac. 744-5. 

Chrysanthemum coronarium L. 
Chrysanthemum Baeticum Boelij inscriptum. 28 Julij 1621 

The stalks are round, straked, reddish brown, devided into 
branches, containing a spungious white pith within, a cubite high : 
the leaves growe out of order, without footstalkes, about 3 inches 
long, and an inch broad, notched about the edges, not at all 
devided, of a darke greene colour : the flowers growe at the tops of 
the stalkes and branches, forth of great scalie heads, containinge 
twentie leaves a piece or more, notched at the top, of a shining 
yellow color, growinge about a round yellow ball, of a reasonable 
good smell, verie like those of the common Chrysanthemum 
segetum : the seede groweth like the other, and is very small, long, 
round, crooked and whitish : the root is small, whitish, threddie, 
and perisheth also when the seed is ripe. — MS. f. 90 ; Ger. emac, 


Chrysanthemum coronarium L. 
Chrysanthemum tenuifolium Baeticum Boelij. 28 Julij 1621 

The stalks are round, small, straked, reddish, somewhat hairie, 
branched, a cubit high, or higher : the leaves are small, much 
devided, iagged, and verie like the leaves of Cotula foetida : the 
flowers are yellow, shining like gold, composed of thirteene or 
fourteene leaves a pece, notched at the top, set about a yealovve 
ball, also like the common Chrysanthemum segetwn: the seed 
groweth amongst white flattish scales, which are closelie compacted 
in a round head together, and are small, flat, greyish, and broad at 
the top : the root is small, whitish, with a few threds, and dyeth 
when the seed is ripe. — MS. f. 90 ; Ger, emac. 745. 



Prickly Beet of Candy. Emex spinosa Campd. 
Blitum spinosum Creticum. 28 Julij 1621 

est Beta Cretica semine aculeata Bauhini. Joynt Flower-topp. 

This sendeth forth from one root many round greene straked, 
trayhng, ioynted, small branches, about a foot longe : the leaves 
are of a light greene colour, and grow at every ioint one, somewhat 
like the leaves of great Sorrell, but they are round topped without 
barbes or eares below, or any manifest tast or smell, very like the 
leaves of Beetes, but much smaller : the flowers grow clustering 
together about the ioynts, and at the tops of the branches small 
and greenish, each flower containing 5 or 6 very small blunt topped 
leaves, and a few dustie cheives in the middle : which past, there 
cometh greate prickley shrivelled seed, growing even close to the 
root, and upwards on the ioints, each seed having three sharpe 
prickes at the top growing sidewaies, which indeed may be more 
properly called the huske ; which huske in the inside is of a darke 
reddish color, and containeth one seed in forme like the seed of 
Adonis, round at the lower end, 3 cornered towards the toppe, and 
sharp pointed, covered over with a darke yealowish skyn ; which skyn 
pulled away, the kernell appeareth yealow on the outside, and 
exceeding white within, and will with a light touch fall into very 
small powder like meale. — MS. f. 90 ; Ger. emac. 1626. 

Lathyriis Ochrus DC. or Z. animus L. 
Lathyrus aestivus flore luteo. 28 Julii 162 1 

This is like LatJiyris latiore folio Lobelij, in stalks, leaves, and 
branches, but smaller: the stalks are two or three foot long, made 
flatt with two skyns, with 2 exceedinge small leaves growinge on the 
stalks, one opposite against another : betweene which spring up 
flat footstalks, an inch long, bearing two exceeding narrow sharpe 
pointed leaves, three inches long : betweene which grow the 
tendrels, devided into many parts at the top, and taking hold 
therwith : the flowers are smal, and grow forth of the bosomes of 
the leaves, on each footstalk one flower, wholly yealow, with purple 
strakes. After each flower followeth a smooth cod, almost round, 
two inches long, wherein is contained seven round Peason, some- 
what rough, but after a curious manner, of the bignesse and taste 
of field Peason, and of a darke sand color. — MS, f. 108 ; Ger. 
emac. 1628. 

} Lathy r ICS Clyrnenmn L. 
Lathyrus aestivus Baeticus flore coeruleo Boelii. [28 Julii 1621] 
This is also like Lathyris latiore folio Lobelij, but smaller, yet 



greater than that with yellow flowers, having also adioining to the 
flat stalkes, two eared sharpe pointed leaves, and also two other 
slender sharpe pointed leaves, about foure inches long, growing on 
a flat foot-stalke betweene them, an inch and a halfe long, and 
one tendrel between them devided into two or three parts : the 
flowers are large, and * grow on long slender foure-square foot- 
stalkes, from the bosomes of the leaves, on each footstalk one : 
the upper great covering leafe being of a light blew, & the lower 
smaller leaves of a deeper blew : which past there come up short 
flat cods, with two filmes, edges, or skins on the upper side, like 
those of Eruilia Lobelij, containing within foure or five great flat 
cornered Peason, bigger than field Peason, of a darke sand color. — 
MS. f. 108 ; Ger. eniac. 1628. 

? Le7is escidenta Moench. 
Lathyrus aestivus edulis Baeticus flore albo Boelii. [28 Julii 1621] 
This is in flat skinny stalks, leaves, foot-stalks, and cods, with 
two skins on the upper side, and in all things else like the said 
Lathyrus with blew flowers; only the flowers of this are milk 
white : the fruit is also like. — MS, f. 108 ; Ger. emac. i6z8. 

} Lathyrus sphaericus Retz. 
Lathyrus aestivus flore miniato. [28 Julii 1661] 

This is also in skinnie flat stalks and leaves like the said 
Lathyris latiore folio ^ but far smaller, not three foot high : it hath 
also small sharp pointed leaves growing by couples on the stalke, 
between which grow two leaves, about three inches long, on a flat 
foot-stalk half an inch long: also between those leaves grow the 
tendrels : the flowers are of the color of red ledd, but not so bright, 
growing on smooth short foot-stalks, one on a foot-stalke : after 
which follow^ cods very like those of the common field peason, but 
lesser, an inch and a halfe long, containing foure, five, or sixe cornered 
Peason, of a sand color, or darke obscure yealowe, as big as common 
field peason, and of the same taste. — MS. f. 108 ; Ger. emac, 

Lathyrus pahtstris L. 
Lathyrus palustris Lusitanicus Boelii. [28 Julii 1621] 

Hath also flat skinnie stalks like the said Lathyrus latiore folio, 
but the paire of leaves which grow on the stalke are exceeding 
small as are those of Lathyrus flore luteo, and are indeed scarce 
worthie to be called leaves : the other paire of leaves are about two 
inches long, above halfe an inch broad, and grow from betweene 
those small leaves, on flat foot-stalks, an inch long : betweene which 



leaves also grow the tendrels : the flowers grow on footstalks 
which are five inches long, commonly two on a foot-stalke, the 
great upper covering leaves being of a bright red colour, and the 
under leaves are somewhat paler: after commeth flat cods, con- 
taining seven or eight small round peason, no bigger than a Pepper 
corne, gray and blacke, spotted before they are ripe, and when 
they are fully ripe of a blacke colour, in taste like common Peason : 
the stalks, leaves, foot-stalkes and coddes are somwhat hairy and 
rough. — MS. f. 109 ; Ger. emac. 1629. 

Lathyrus ttiherosiis L. 
Lathyrus aestivus dumetorum Baeticus Boelii. [28 Julii 1621] 
Hath also flat skinnie stalks like the said Lathyrus latiore folio, 
but smaller, and in the manner of the growing of the leaves 
altogether contrarie. This hath also two small sharp pointed 
leaves, adioyning to the stalke : betweene which groweth forth 
a flat middle rib with tendrels at the top, having on each side (not 
one against another) commonly three blunt topped leaves, some- 
times three on the one side, and two on^the other, and sometimes 
but foure in all, about an inch and a halfe long : the flowers grow 
on foot-stalks, about two or three inches long, each foot-stalk 
usually bearing two flowers, the great covering leafe being of a 
bright red colour ; and the two under leaves of a blewish purple 
colour : after which follow smooth cods, above two inches long, 
containing, five, sixe, or seven smooth Peason, of a browne Chestnut 
colour, not round, but somewhat flat, more long than broad, 
especially those next both the ends of the cod, of the bignesse and 
taste of common field peason. — MS. f. 109 ; Ger. emac. 1629. 

cia sativa (3 linearis Lange. 
Aracus maior Baeticus Boelii. 30 Julii 1621 

It hath small weake foure square straked trayling branches, two 
foot high, lesser, but like those of Fetches ; whereon grow manie 
leaves without order, and every severall leafe is composed of six, 
seven, or more small sharpe pointed leaves, like those of Lentils, set 
on each side of a middle rib, which middle rib endeth with clasping 
tendrels : the flowers grow forth of the bosomes of the leaves, but 
one in a place, almost without any foot-stalkes at all, like those 
of Vetches, but of a whitish colour, with purple strakes, and of 
a deep colour tendinge to purple towards the nailes of the upper 
covering leaves : after which follow the cods, which are little above 
an inch long, not fully so big as those of the wilde beane, almost 
round, and very hairy: wherein is contained about 4 peason. 



seldom round, most commonly somewhat flat, and sometimes 
cornered, of a blackish colour, neere as big as field peason, and of 
the taste of Fetches. The whole herbe perisheth when the seed is 
ripe. II This plant Boeliits sent to M^ William Coys, who hath care 
fully preserved the same kind ever since, and friendly imparted 
seeds thereof to me in Anno 1620. — MS, f. 91 ; Gcr. emac. 1627. 

Vicia hitea /3 laevigata Boiss. 
Legumen pallidum Vlissiponense Nonii Brandonii. 30 Julii 1621 
This plant is very like, both in stalks, leaves, and cods, to Arams 
maior Bcsticus, but the flowers of this are of a pale yellow or 
primrose colour, and the whole herbe smaller, and nothing so 
hairy. It perisheth also when the seed is ripe. || I received the 
seeds likewise from Coys. — MS. f. 91 ; Ger. emac, 1627. 

Vicia sativa var. leucosperma Moench. 
Vicia indica fructu albo. Pisum indicum Gerardo. 30 Julii 1621 
This Vetch differeth not in any thinge at all, eyther in stalkes, 
leaves, codds, fashion of the flowers, or colour thereof, from our 
common manured Vetch, but that it groweth higher, and the fruit 
is bigger and rounder, and of a very cleare white colour, more like 
to peason than Vetches. || Gerard was wont to call this Vetch 
by the name of Pisum Indicum, or Indian Pease, gotten by him 
after the publishing of his Herball, as Coys reported to me. 
But the said M''. Coys hath (in my iudgment) more properly named 
it Vicia frticiu albo : which name I thought most fit to call it by, 
only addinge Indica to it, from whence it is reported to have been 
gotten. — MS. f. 91 ; Ger. emac. 1627. 

Pisum sativum L. 
Pisum quadratum. 30 Julij 1621 

Lotus siliquosus rubello flore. Clus: p. ccxliiij. Phyto. 668 (60). 

This hath many round, hairie, branches, proceedinge imediatelie 
from the root, longe spreadinge for the most pte uppon the 
ground ; yet the topps or ends of the branches liste themselves 
somewhat upright, whereon growe broad rough hairie blunt-topped 
leaves at certaine distances 3 allwaies on one foot stalk, out of 
whose bosomes growe round hairy footstalks, bearinge three other 
leaves like the former but smaller, and one or two flowers like 
those of Vetches, of a beautifull color like deepe redd or orenge 
tawnie velvett, after which cometh uppe the codds, about 3 ynches 
longe, havinge 4 wrinckled filmes or skyns growinge alongst them 
viz. two on the upper side and 2 on the lower side, which make the 
codds (?) appeare fower square when they be drie, wherein in ech 



codd is contayned about lo or ii round seeds, browne when they 
are ripe, neare of the bignes of feild peason, and of the same tast. 
The root is white and small, with abundance of thredie small side 
branches, and perisheth at winter. 

It begineth to flower in June, and so contineweth flowringe and 
bearinge fruite till the extreame froste. — MS, f. 91. 

[Goodyer sent a description of Pisum quadratuin to Johnson on 
5 March 1632, but the text printed in the Herbal dififers markedly from 
this one: cf. Ger. emac. 1198.] 

Astragalus lusitanicus Lam. 
Astragalus marinus lusitanicus Boelii. 31 Julii 1621 

This hath five, six, or more round straked reddish hairy stalks 
or branches, of a reasonable bignesse, proceeding from one root, 
sometimes creeping or leaning neere the ground, and sometimes 
standing upright, a cubit high, with many greene leaves, set by 
certaine distances, out of order like those of Glaux vulgaris, but 
lesser, every leafe being composed of fourteen or more round 
topped leaves, a little hairy by the edges, set on each side of a long 
middle rib, which is about nine or ten inches in length, without 
tendrels : the flowers grow forth of the bosomes of the leaves, 
neere the tops of the stalkes, on long round streaked hairy foot- 
stalkes, of a very pale yellow colour, like those of Securidaca minor, 
but bigger, growing close together in short spikes, which turne into 
spikes of the length of two or three inches, containing many small 
three cornered cods about an inch long, growing close together like 
those of Glaux vulgaris, each cod containing two rowes of small 
flat foure cornered seeds, three or foure in each row, of a darke 
yellowish or leadish colour, like to those of Securidaca minor, but 
three or foure times as big, of little taste : the root is small, slender, 
white, with a few threds, and groweth downe right, and perisheth 
when the seed is ripe. || I first gathered seeds of this plant in the 
garden of my good friend M''. lohn Parkinson an Apothecary of 
London, Anno 1616. — MS. f. 107 ; Ger. emac, 1627-8. 

Vicia Faba L. var. 
Faba veterum serratis foliis Boelii. 31 Julii 1621 

This is like the other wilde Beane in stalks, flowers, cods, fruit, 
and clasping tendrels, but it differeth from it in that the leaves 
hereof (especially those that grow neere the tops of the stalks) are 
notched or indented about the edges like the teeth of a saw. The 
root also perisheth when the seed is ripe. || The seeds of this wilde 
Beane were gathered by Boelius a Low-country man, in Baetica 
a part of Spaine, and by him sent to M"". William Coys, and by 



him carefully preserved, who also imparted seeds thereof to me, in 
Aujio 1620. — MS. f. 107; Ger. emac. 1628. 

Lathy riLs Ochriis DC. 
Ervilia silvestris Dodonaei, p. 522. 31 Julij 1621 

Ervilia sendeth forth 3 or 4 stalks or branches from one root, 
somewhat like Lathyrus, but broader weaker and lyeinge flatt 
uppon the ground : the leaves are about two ynches longe and an 
ynch broad, with claspinge tendrells at the ends, without footstalks, 
making the stalks flatt with their two edges, whole bendath on the 
lower parte of the stalk onlie devided into 2 parts at the ends, but 
neare the topps of the branches everie leafe is devided at the toppe 
into 2, 3 or 4 small leaves. The flowers are small of a pale yealowe 
or primrose color growinge but one in a place on a short footstalk. 
The codds are short somewhatt flatt havinge 2 edges or filmes on 
the upper side wherein is contayned 4 or 5 or 6 round ash colord 
fruite, verie like feild peason of the same bignes, and verie neare of 
tast. The root is verie small and threddie and perisheth when the 
seed is ripe. 

II I first observed this pulse in the garden of Mr. John Parkinson 
in London Anno 161 6, and after 1620 I receaved seeds hereof from 
my trewe frend Mr. William Coys, often remembred, with many 
other. — MS. f. 107. 

[Cf. L. Ochriis DC, 28 July 1621.] 

Pis?im arvense L. 
Pisum maculatum Boelii. 31 Julii 1621 

They are like to the small common field Peason in stalkes, leaves, 
and cods ; the diflerence is, the flowers are commonly smaller, and 
of a whitish greene colour : the Peason are of a darke gray colour, 
spotted with blacke spots in shew like to blacke velvet ; in taste 
they are also like, but somewhat harsher. || These peason I gathered 
in the garden of M'". lohn Parkinson, a skilfull Apothecarie of 
London ; and they were first brought out of Spaine by Boelms 
a low-countrey man. — MS. f. 107 ; Ger. emac. 1628. 

Medicago minima L. 
Medica Anglica minor 2 Augusti 1621 

an Trifolium cochleatum alterum. Dod. p. 579. 

Hath many fower square hairy straked reddish branches, grow- 
inge from one root, two or three foot longe, and those also devided 
againe into other branches, whereon growe smooth leaves three on 
a footstalk, somewhat indented, very broad at the toppe, and 
narrowe belowe, of the fashion of a hart, with a crooked black 


spott in the middest of ech leafe. The flowers are very small and 
yealowe, growinge on short footstalks, alongest the branches, forth 
of the bosomes of the leaves, 3, 4 or 5 on a footstalk ; after cometh 
small round fruits, writhen or wound together, flatt at the toppe, 
prickley, no bigger then a small pease, wherein lyeth small yealowe 
seed, in fashion of a kidney, but no bigger then a flea. The root is 
small, whitish, groweth downeright with a fe we side branches and small 
thredds, and perisheth at winter after the seed is ripe. — MS. f. 104. 

Medic ago polymorpha L. 
Medicae maioris Baeticae species prima, 2 Aug. i6ai 

spinulis intortis. 

Hath also foure square reddish streaked hairy trailing branches, 
like the small English Medica^ but greater and longer, foure or 5 foot 
long : the leaves are also smooth, growing three together, neither 
sharpe pointed, nor yet so broad at the top as the said English 
Medica, but blunt topped, with a small blacke spot in the midst, 
not crooked : the flowers are also yellow, three, foure, or five on 
a foot-stalke : after commeth a round writhed fruit fully as big as 
a hasell nut, with small prickles not standing foreright, but lying 
flat on the fruit, finely wrapped, plaited, folded, or interlaced 
together, wherein lieth wrapped the seed in fashion of a kidney, 
very like a kidney beane, but foure times smaller, and flatter, of 
a shining blacke colour without, like polished leat ; containing 
a white kernell within : the root is like the former, and perisheth 
also at Winter. — MS. f. 104; Ger. emac, 1200. 
[' leate ' in MS., probably = jet.] 

Hedgehog Medic k. Medicago intertexta L. 
Medicae maioris Baeticae spinosae species altera. 2 Aug. 163 1 

The branches also creepe on the ground, and are straked smooth 
foure square, reddish here and there, three or foure foot long : the 
leaves are smooth, finely notched about the edges, sharp pointed, 
without blacke spots, very like Medica pericarpio piano : the flowers 
are small and yellow like the other : the fruit is round, writhed or 
turned in, also fully as big as a hasell nut, somewhat cottonie or 
woolly, with short sharpe prickles : wherein lyeth also wrapped 
a shining blacke kidney-like seed, so like the last described, that 
they are not to be discerned apart: the root is also alike, and 
perisheth at Winter. — MS. f. 104; Ger. eviac. 1200. 

Medicago marina L. 
Medicae marinae spinosae species. 2 Aug. 1621 

The branches of this are the least and shortest of all the rest. 




little exceeding a foot or two in length, and are foure square, 
greene, somewhat hairie, and trailing on the ground : the leaves are 
like to those of Medica pericarpio plano^ not fully so sharpe pointed, 
without blacke spots, soft, hairy, three on a foot-stalke : the flowers 
grow alongst the branches, on very small foot-stalkes, forth of the 
bosomes of the leaves, (not altogether on or neere the tops of the 
branches) and are very small and yellow, but one on a foot-stalke : 
after commeth small round writhed fruit, no bigger than a pease, 
with very short sharpe prickles, wherein is contained yellowish seed 
of the fashion of a kidney like the former, and is the hardest to be 
plucked forth of any of the rest : the root is also whitish like the 
roots of the other, and also perisheth at Winter. — MS. f. 104 ; Ger. 
emac. 1200. 

Linaria tJiymifolia DC? 
Antirrhinum minus flore Linariae luteum inscriptum. 3 Augustii62i 
This hath at the first many very small, round, smooth branches 
from one root, trayling on the ground, about foure or five inches long, 
set with many small greene short sharp pointed leaves, like those of 
Serpillum, but that these are longer, smooth, and three or foure 
growing opposite one against another : amongst which rise up five 
or six, sometimes ten or twelve upright round smooth little stalks 
a cubit high, divided into branches bearing small long smooth 
greene leaves, growing without order, as narrow as the upper leaves 
of Oenanthe Angustifolia : at the toppes of the stalks and branches 
grow clustering together five six or more small yellow flowers, 
flowering upwards, leaving a long spike of very small huskes, each 
huske having a small line or chinke as though two huskes were 
ioined together, the one side of the huske being a little longer than 
the other, wherein is contained exceeding small blackish seed. The 
root is very short, small, and white, with a few threds, and perisheth 
at winter. 

II This plant is not written of that I can finde. I received seed 
thereof from William Coys often remembred. — MS. f. 103 ; 
Ger. emac. 1626. 

Li7iaria serpyllifolia Lange? 
Linaria minor aestiva. 3 Augusti 1621 

The stalkes are round, smooth, of a whitish greene colour, a foot 
high, weake, not able to stand upright : whereon grow long narrow 
sharpe pointed leaves, most commonly bending or turning downe- 
wards. The flowers grow in spikes at the toppes of the branches, 
yet not very neere together, and are verie small and yellow, with 



a small tayle : the seed of this plant is small, flat, and of a blackish 
gray colour, inclosed in small round huskes, and you shall com- 
monly have at one time flowers and ripe seed all on a stalke. The 
whole plant is like to the common Linaria, but that it is a great 
deale lesser, and the flowers are six times as small, and perish at 
Winter. 1| I also received seeds thereof from William Coys. — 
MS. f. 103; Ger. emac, 1626. 

? Trifolium Lagopus L. 
Lagopus trifolius flore ruberrimo. 4 Augusti 1621 

This Lagopus sendeth forth many leaves presentlie from the root 
three growinge together uppon a longe footstalk almost round softe 
hairie of a light greene amongest which groweth uppe a round 
hairy reddish stalk of a foot or a cubite high devided into certaine 
branches under which growe the like leaves not so round but a little 
longer. At the topps of the stalks and branches growe longe 
heads or spikes about two ynches longe of a finger bignes made 
of rough husks ech huske devided into five small narrowe parts 
at the toppe out of which growe small flowers of a delicate bright 
redd color, which fallen there succedeth in ech of those husks 
a round thick yealowe seed. || The root is very small, white, short, 
and perisheth when the seed is ripe. — MS. f. 106. 

Tjdfolium ligiisticum Balb. 
Lagopus trifohus maior Baeticus. [4 Augusti 1621] 

Hath many small round weake hairy branches about nine ynches 
longe proceedinge from one root traylinge on the ground and 
those againe devided into other branches whereon growe small 
greene round topped hairie leaves three together on a round hairy 
footstalk like those of Trifolium flore albo but longer. On the 
topps of the branches growe round hairie woollie heads amongest 
which come forth small white flowers like those of Trifolium flore 
albo but smaller, and have allwaies close ' adioyninge underneath 
each flower three broad hairy scales and three leaves growinge 
thereon like the former on a verie short footstalk. 

II The Seeds of this Hares foot were gathered in Baetica by 
Boelius, and by him sent to Mr. William Coys, who hath ever 
since carefullie preserved the plant, and imparted seeds to me in 
Anno 1620. — MS. f. 106. 

Cnicus pratensis 

Carduus bulbosus Monspelliensium. n. d. 

Hath at the first manie leaves spread abroad uppon or neare the 
ground greene above & somewhat white underneath and cottonie 



about two foot longe, sometimes parted or devided into manic 
parts, sometimes into verie fewe, sett with many small weake 
prickles in fashion like the leaves of Cardtius viarum, amongest 
which riseth uppe one stalke somewhat wollie champhered or 
straked and devided into branches, whereon growe leaves like 
the former but much shorter and smaller, on the topps of the 
branches growe round buttons or hedds, not so bigge as an olive 
sett full of small scales with verie short innocent pricks, forth of 
which growe abundance of small purple cheives, and no borderinge 
flowers like those of Carduus acaulis Septentrionalmm but lesser, 
which past the seed followeth inclosed in downe like other thistles. 
The rootes are bulbus after the manner of Asphodelus, the old 
ones yerelie dieinge, and yonge succeedinge, as doe the roots of 
Oenanthe apii folio. — MS. f. 124. 

[It is a great pity that no locality is given for this plant. If 
Goodyer found it growing wild this would be the earliest record for 
Britain. The plant is now confined to the county of Wiltshire, whence 
it was recorded for the first time in 181 3. Smith.] 

Carlina lanata L. 
Acarna flore rubro. 11 Augusti 1621 

The stalk is round upright, straked full of white pith within, 
about 5 foot high devided into many branches espetiallie neare the 
root ; under which growe longe broad leaves deepely notched by 
the sides, and sett with very sharpe pricks, very full of milk white 
strakes, smooth above somewhat hairie on the vaines or sinewes 
underneath : on the topps of the stalks and branches growe 3, 4 or 
5 small hedds not farr apart, not fullie an ynch thick full of gentle 
short crooked pricks by the sides, with purple cheives at the toppe 
closely compact together, ech havinge growinge close underneath 
him 3, 4 or more prickly leaves with reddish vaynes, the seed is 
greate, broad at the toppe, blackish without, with a white kernell 
within wrapped or inclosed in white downe, of a bitter tast, and is 
more then twise as bigge, as the seed of Carduus marie. 

This plant at the first sight is in stalks leaves and purple flowers, 
verie like to our ladies thistle & is hard to be distinguished from it 
but by the number of the flowers growinge neare together, and the 
prickley leaves growinge close underneath them. || Mr. William 
Coys receaved the seeds hereof from L'obell by the foresaid name. 
Mr. Coys imparted of his seeds unto me, Anno 1620. — MS. f. 105. 

Notobasis syriaca Cass. 
Silibum minus flore nutante Boelii. 11 Augusti 1621 

This Thistle is in stalkes and leaves much smaller than our Ladies 




Thistle, that is to say, the stalkes are round, straked, somewhat 
woolly, with narrow skinny prickly edges three or foure foot high, 
divided into many branches, whereon grow long leaves, deeply 
divided, full of white milke-like strakes and sharpe prickles by the 
edges : the flowers grow on the tops of the stalks and branches, 
forth of small heads, commonly turning downwards, of the bignesse 
of an Olive, set with very small slender sharpe pricks, containing 
nothing but small purple chives, spreading abroad like those of 
lacea, with some blewish chives in the middle : the seed followeth, 
inclosed in downe, and is small and grayish like the seed of other 
Thistles, but it is as clammy as Bird-lime. || The whole plant 
perisheth at Winter, and reneweth it selfe by the falling of his seed. 
I finde not that this is written of It was first gathered by Boelius 
in Spaine, and imparted unto M"*. William Coys, who friendly gave 
me seeds thereof — MS. f. 105 ; Ger. ernac. 1627. 

Woolly Thistle. Cnictis eriophorus L. 
Carduus Eriocephalus, Corona fratrum quorundam. 13 Augusti 1621 
It is the 6*"^ in Ger. p. 900. 

This thistle hath many leaves at the beginninge spread on the 
ground bigge longe very much devided very pricklie white under- 
neath but greene above and somewhat rough ech leafe havinge as 
it were fower rowes of small leaves betwene which groweth uppe 
a stalk 3 or 4 foot high somewhat woollie thick straked devided 
into many branches sett with leaves like to those which spread 
uppon the ground but lesser uppon the topps of the branches 
growe greate hedds with many thornie prickles and so cumpassed 
about or fraught with woollines like Spiders webbs that the prickles 
doe only a little appeare, the hedds openinge themselves comes 
out the flowers consisting of many purple cheives, whereunto 
succeedeth the seed inclosed with downe, shininge somethinge 
longe as in many other thistles. The roote is longe with many 
little thredds, above an ynch thick Russett without. It seedeth 
not till two or three yeres after the sowinge, and most comonly 
perisheth after it hath borne seed. 

II I found this wild neare London highwaie on the east parte of 
Haliborne in Hampsheire, 1617. And also in the highwaie neare 
Abington leadinge towards Oxford the % of July 161%. — MS. f. 105. 
[See also under 29 June 1621.] 

E rod iu vi grii in ii m W i 1 1 d . 
Geranii Boeticae, species Boelii. 14 Aug. 1621 

This hath at the beginning many broad leaves, indented about 



the edges, somwhat divided, like those of Geraiiiuni Cretictini^ but 
of a h'ghter greene colour, and smaller : amongst which grow up 
many round hairy kneed trailing branches, divided into many other 
branches, bearing leaves like the former, but smaller, and no more 
divided. The flowers are smal like those of Geranium Moschatiim^ 
but of a deeper reddish colour, each flower having five small round 
topped leaves : after followeth small long hairie seed, growing at 
the lower end of a sharpe pointed beak like that of Geranium 
Moschatum : the whole plant perisheth when the seed is ripe. 

II Boelius a Low-countrey man gathered the seeds hereof in Boetica 
a part of Spaine, and imparted them to M"". William Coys^ a man 
very skilfull in the knowledge of Simples, who hath gotten plants 
thereof, and of infinite other strange herbes, and friendly gave me 
seeds hereof, and of many other. Anno 1620. — MS. f 106; Ger. 
emac, 1626. 

[This species is probably the Geranium Alceae vesicariae foliis or 
Venice Mallow-leafed Cranesbill concerning which Parkinson wrote, 
'This and the third among a number of other seeds were brought me 
by Guillaume Boel which he gathered in Spaine upon my charge ; 
however Mr. Goodier getting the seeds from Mr. Coys, caused it and 
divers other things to be published in his name: notwithstanding 
I told him the charge was mine that procured it and many other'. 
Theatrum, p. 707.] 

Hedysarum humile L. 
Hedysarum clypeatum. 14 Aug. 1621. 

Hath at the first many smooth large leaves, lyeinge on or neare 
the ground, ech leafe beinge made comonly of 7 or more leaves, 
usuallie growinge on a cornered straked midle ribbe three one against 
another, and the biggest at the toppe, sometimes one or 2 growinge 
by them selves, ech leafe beinge about an ynch broad and 2 ynches 
longe, and are proportionablie round both at the toppe & towards 
the midle ribbe or footstalk; amonge which from one root growe 
uppe 4, 5 or more round greene pliant straked stalks, leaninge 
towards the ground, of a reasonable bignes about three foot high 
bearinge by longe distances leaves like the former ; the flowers 
growe at the topps of y® stalks on very longe footstalks in greate 
spikes, of a delicate redd color, in fashion like those of broome, 
after followeth rough round flatt burrs, growinge likewise in spikes 
4, 5 or more fastened or growinge forthright one uppon another, or 
one at the toppe of another after a strange fashion, ech burr beinge 
verie like in fashion and biggnes to the burrs of Cynoglossum or 
Hounds tongue, everie burr inclosinge one small seed. The root 
[MS. ends abruptly].— f. 106. 

L 2 



Diotis mai'itima Cass. 
Gnaphalium marinum. 20 Augusti 1631 

Gerard pag: 515. The i & 2 are both one. 

The root is longe slender yealowish woodie and groweth deepe 
in the sande or gravell, and sendeth forth many small round branches 
and those againe devided into other branches about half a foot 
longe, besett with small short blunt topped leaves growinge all 
alongest the stalk very thick together, without footstalks. The 
whole herbe both branches & leaves are covered over with a thick 
white delicate softe cotten like Gnaphalium Americanuni, called in 
English ' live ever ' much whiter softer and more cottonie then anie 
of the other Cotton-weeds. Of a bitter tast and pleasant smell, 
somethinge like to sea wormewood. || The flowers I observed not. 

I found one plant hereof growinge on the seashoare on the south 
parte of the Hand of Haylinge in Hampsheire, the 20^^ of August 
162 1. And brought it into my garden where the winter foUowinge 
it perished. — MS. f. 103. 

Sea Heath. Frankenia laevis L. 
An Polygoni marini species. 20 Augusti 1621 

This hath one verie longe whitish root of the bignes of a wheate 
strawe, sett here and there with small threeds, creapinge farr into 
the sand or sea baich, which a little within the soile sendeth forth 
manie weake smooth greene branches sometimes devided into other 
branches three or fower ynches longe above the grounde, bearinge 
many smooth grasse greene short small leaves ; somewhat round 
yet sharpe at the toppe, a little resemblinge Rubia minor flore ruhro. 
There groweth at the topps of the branches very small whitish 
flowers ^ contayninge 5 little round topped leaves a peece, no bigger 
then a pinns head, which perished without bearinge any seed at all. 

II This I found on the sea shoare in the west parte of the Hand 
of Haylinge in Hampsheire and in other places by sea likewise. 
I brought it into my garden where it flowred as aforesaid about the 
midle of May.— f. 103. 

Rhagadioliis edulis Gaertn. 
Hieratium Narbonense falcata siliqua L'obelij. 22 Augusti 162 1 
Ger. p. 285. (7). 

The stalks are round hairy straked a cubite high ojr higher, devided 
into many branches : whereon growe broad rough greene leaves, 
very bluntly indented about the edges ; the flowers are small and 

^ Flo; in horto 21 Maij. 



yealovve like those of Lampsaiia. The seed is small browne some- 
what longe, hairie at the toppe, not inclosed in downe, but within 
small heads, made of small short crooked hairie sharpe pointed 
husks, not exceedinge half an ynch in lenght, which open when the 
seed is ripe and spread abroad like larkes clawes starr fashion, and 
not before. The root is small hairie, full of milkie iuyce, as is also 
the whole plant, and perisheth when the seed is ripe. — MS. f. loi ; 
Ger. ernac. 1625. 

Rhagadiohis ediilis Gaertn. 
Hieracium stellatum Boelij. 22 Aug. 1623 

This plant is in round, hairy, straked, branched stalks, and longe, 
rough, blunt indented leaves like to Hieracium falcatum^ but scarce 
a foot high : the flowers are also yellow three times smaller : which 
past, there succeed long crooked slender sharpe pointed cods or 
huskes, neere an inch long, spreading abroad, star-fashion, wherein 
a long seed is contained : this hath no heads or woolly down like 
any of the rest, but onely the said crooked coddes which doe at the 
first spread abroad. The root is small, threddie, full of milkie iuice, 
as is also the whole plant and it perisheth when the seed is ripe. — 
MS. f. loi ; Ger. emac. 1625. 

Tolpis barbata Gaertn. 
Hieracium medio nigrum flore maiore Boelij. 22 Aug. 1621 

This hath at the first spreading upon the ground many long 
narrow, green, smooth leaves bluntly indented about the edges, like 
those of Hieracium falcatum^ but smaller : amongst which rise up 
three, foure, or more, small, smooth, straked round stalks, divided 
into other branches, which grow longer than the stalks themselves 
leaning or trayling neere the ground : the flowers grow on the tops of 
the stalks, but one together, composed of many pale yellow leaves, 
the middle of each flower being of a blackish purple colour. — MS, 
f. loi ; Ger. emac. 1625. 

[In last line but one the MS. has ' yealowe flowers ', doubtless rightly 
corrected to ' yellow leaves ' by the editor.] 

Tolpis iimbellata /? minor Lange. 
Hieracium medio nigrum flore minore Boelij. [22 Aug. 1621] 

This is altogether like the last before described in stalkes and 
leaves : the flowers are also of a blackish purple in the middle, but 
they are three times smaller. — MS, f. loi ; Ger. emac. 1625. 

Hieracium intybacetim L. 
Hieratium intybaceum. [22 Aug. 1621] 

This sendeth forth from one small root many rough leaves like 


those of wild Cicorie very much lagged and devided even to the 
midle ribbe amongest which rise uppe many short round hairy straked 
browne redd little stalks a foot high or higher devided into one or 
two branches bearinge a fewe leaves lesser then the former at the 
topps of the branches growe greate doble flowers (bearinge many 
more leaves then Clusius spakes of) sometimes single only havinge 
the outer border of leaves of a pleasant reddish purple color. The 
seed is very longe & browne with much white downe at the toppe 
inclosed in heads made of crooked husks or codds like those of 
Hieratium falcatum. — MS, f. loi. 

Hieracium andryaloides Vill. 
Hieracium lanosum. [22 Aug. 1621] 

There groweth from one root three, foure or more round upright 
soft cottonie stalks, of a reasonable bignesse, two foot high, divided 
into many branches, especially neere the top, whereon groweth at 
each division one broad sharpe pointed leafe, divided into corners, 
and very much crumpled, and also very soft cottonie and woolly, 
as is the whole plant : the flowers are small, double, of a pale yellow 
colour, very like those of Pilosella repens, growing clustering very 
many together at the tops of the stalkes and branches, forth of 
small round soft cottonie heads : these foure ^ plants grew from seed 
which I received from Coys^ 1620, and I made these descrip- 
tions by the Plants the 22. of August, 1621. — MS, f. loi ; Ger, 
emac. 1625-6. 

Androsace maxima L. 
Androsace altera Mathioli. Ger. p. 425. 23 Aug. 1621 

Hath many leaves spread abroad uppon the ground like those of 
plantaine but lesser with three sinewes, of a pale greene color, 
notched by the sides, full of iuyce, in tast somewhat sharpe: 
amongest which rise uppe six sometimes more small stalks a span 
high of an herbie color sometimes purple, naked somewhat hairie, 
which .in the verie toppe hath a little crowne made of 5 smalle 
leaves hairy and notched like the lower leaves but smaller from 
where growe forth 5 or more little footstalks bearinge a little herbie 
hairie huske made also of 5 leaves notched also by the sides, 
which hath a small white flower in the midle devided into five 
parts. — MS. f. 102. 

Bartsia Odontites Huds. var. alb. 
Euphrasia 2 Dod. flo. albo. 24 Aug. 1621 

Apud Bellmere pond. — MS. f. 53 v. 

* The MS. has ' 6 including the two descriptions not printed in Gei'. emac. 


Climbing Fumitory. Corydalis claviculata DC. 
Fumaria claviculis donatis. Phyto 246 (4). 30 Aug. 1621 

At Southsea Castle in flower 30 Augusti 1621. — MS. f. 53 V. 

? Lapsana Zacintha L. 
Cichorium verrucatum. i Sept. 1621 

Hath at the first many longe iagged greene leaves like those of 
Cicorie but smaller, a little hairy & very bitter, amongst which 
springe uppe round straked stalks 2 or 3 foot high, hairy belowe, 
smooth above, devided into branches, bearinge leaves on the lower 
parte like the former, but smaller towards the toppe. The flowers 
are like those of Cicorie but very small, yealowe & growe on very 
short footstalks, forth of the bosomes, on the sides, and on the 
topps of the branches, which turne not into downe but into hard 
hedds, with a little tuft at the toppe, composed commonly of eight 
knotts, corners or bunches sett orderly round, wherein is the seed. 

The root is white and short not much unlike that of Rapunadus, 
full of small branches & little thredds. || The whole herbe perisheth 
when the seed is ripe. — MS. f. 102. 

Scorpiuriis stibvillosa L. 
Scorpioides multiflorus Boelii. i Sept. 162 1 

This Plant is in creeping branches and leaves like the common 
Scorpioides btipleuri folio: the flowers are also alike, but a little 
bigger, and grow foure or five together on one foot-stalke : the 
cods are rougher, and very much turned round, or folded one 
within another : in all things else alike. — MS. f. 102 ; Ger. emac. 

Scorpiurus vermiculata L. 
Scorpioides siliqua crassa Boelii. i Sept. 162 1 

This is also like the other in creeping branches and leaves : the 
flowers are something bigger than any of the rest, and grow not 
above one or two together on a foot-stalk : the cods are crooked, 
without any rough haire, yet finely checkquered, and seven times 
bigger than any of the rest, fully as big as a great Palmer- worme, 
wherein is the difl'erence : the seed is almost round, yet extending 
somewhat in length, almost as big as small field Peason, of a 
browne or yellowish colour. This also perisheth when the seed is 
ripe. — MS. f. 102 ; Gei'. emac. 1627. 

Sea Heath. Frankenia laevis L. 
Polygonum alterum pusillo vermiculato, serpilli folia Penae. Ger. 
453(3). 3 Sept. 1621 

Hath many small round smooth hard woodie branches, somewhat 


reddish, traylinge on the ground 9 ynches or a foot longe : whereon 
by short distances on small ioynts grow tufts of very small short 
blunt topped smooth greene leaves, in a manner round, like those 
of the smallest time, but much smaller and without smell, devidinge 
it self at the bosom es of those leaves into small branches, on the 
topps of which branches growe small flowers, one flower on a branch 
and no more, consistinge of fower small round topped leaves a peece, 
of a faint or pale purplish color. I observed no seed. The root 
is woodie blackish without, very bitter with some tast of heate and 
groweth deepe into the ground. The leaves are nothinge so full 
of iuyce as Aizoon. 

I found it flowringe the 3 of Sept. 1621 on the diches bancks at 
Burseldon Ferrey by the seaside in Hampsheire. — MS. f. 89 and 
Ger. emac. 567. 

Glasswort. Salicornia herbacea L. 
Kali album. Dodo. p. 81. minus, Adversar. p. 170. 3 Sept. 1621 
Ger. hath it not. 

Hath many small round straked branches sometimes standinge 
upright, sometimes traylinge on the ground, devided into other 
smaller branches, sett full of small longe narrowe whitish greene 
leaves, very full of saltish iuyce. The bosomes of the leaves are 
thick fraught with very small bunches, husks or little buttons, 
v/hich opened there appeare very small short pale yealowe cheives, 
which are the flowers. The seed followeth which is [a blank 
space]. The root is verie small white threddie and perisheth at 
winter. This plant doth at the first viewe before you come very 
neere it appeare like yonge broome. — MS. f. iii. 

Nigella sp. 

Nigella flore albo pleno. [3 Sept. 1621] 

is the fourth in Ger. p. 925 accordinge to the description. — MS. 
f. III. 

Nigella Damascena L. 
Nigella multiplex. Sept. 1621 

Melanthium Damascenum flore pleno Clus. 

The doble damaske Nigella hath small round smooth tough 
stalks, devided into verie many branches, whereon growe the leaves 
which are exceedinge small like thredds, verie finelie iagged and 
of a darke greene color : at the toppe of ech stalk and branch 
groweth one faire doble flower of a pale or whitish blewe color, and 
close underneath ech flower groweth five iagged leaves altogether 
like those on the stalks. The seed is inclosed in a head like the 



former and is [a blank space]. The root is small and yealowe with 
some threeds. The whole plant (except the doblenes of the flowers) 
is like the single Damaske Nigella. — MS. f. 111. 

Nigella hispanica L. 5'° Sept. J 62 J 

Nigella elegans ex Hispania. 

This beutifull Nigella hath small round straked upright stalks, 
devided into branches, whereon growe lagged leaves of a pale greene 
color, whose iaggs are not so broad as those of Nigella flore albo 
plc7to, nor so narrowe or small as those of Nigella Damascena. At 
the toppe of ech stalk and branch groweth one greate pleasant 
flower, bigger then anie of the other sorts of Nigella, made of 
5 sharpe pointed wrinckled leaves, everie leafe beinge about anynch 
both in lenght and bredth, of a beutifull purple color above, and of 
a whitish greene with a little shewe of purple underneath. In the 
midle of the flower groweth the head havinge sometimes but 7 or 8 
most comonlie 12 or 13 homes, at the first small of a deepe 
murrey or obscure browne redd color, about which groweth manie 
cheives of the same color, next and close above the leaves of the 
flower, there groweth spread abroad 8 small forked leaves of a blewe 
color, with a reddish line crossinge them at the first, and afterwards 
havinge a white line close adioyninge, and one small short pointell 
appearinge neare the midle of ech of those leaves. The leaves 
of the flowers beinge readie to fall away, the heads appeare greater, 
and are rough sett as it were with fine redd spotts, and the homes 
are wound or turned round in the end. — MS, f. iii. 

[Both of these descriptions of Nigellas were sent to Johnson but 
were not included in the Herbal, cf. p. 1085.] 

Convolvulus purpureus L. var. 
Convolvulus coeruleus Bryoniae nigraefolio. 7 Sept. 1621 

flos Noctis. non script. 

Hath manie small weake round hairie browne redd branches, 
growinge from one root, windinge wrappinge and turninge them 
selves against the sunne, round sticks or poles that are sett by them 
for that purpose : whereon by certaine distances growe greate 
broad leaves, in a manner round, yet picked at the toppe, without 
anie corners like Ivie leaves, verie like those of Bryonia nigra but 
rounder, somewhat rough above and smooth underneath. Forth of 
the bosomes of the leaves growe longe slender hairie footstalks, on 
the toppe whereof growe 2 or 3 most beutifull flowers, not flowringe 
all at a time but one after another, those that will open in the 
morninge make some small shewe overnight, onlie wound together, 
and not of half their growth, erlie in the morninge they appeare in 


their full lenght, but ioyned close together with 5 corners, which 
after in a short time open and are round like a little bell, like those 
of white Bindweed, but of a delicate Azure or as it were a color 
of blevve and redd mixed together, with five straight strakes or 
lynes in the inside like redd darke colored crimson velvet. This 
glorious shewe continueth but awhile, for towards night the same 
daie that they open, they beginn to vade and fold themselves in 
together at the toppe, and never open againe, and the next daie fall 
quite away. Quaere, whether they do always so. — MS. f. no. 

Centatirea salmantica L. 
Stoebe Salmantica j^^^ Clusii foHis Cichorei. 8 Sept. 1621 

Hath at the first large leaves about a foote and a half longe 
spread abroad uppon the ground unorderly iagged even to the midle 
ribbe and those iaggs are indented about the edges sawe fashion, 
but not devided into other iaggs, ech small indentinge endinge 
with a weake sharpe prickley point verie thick sett with fine softe 
cotton-like hairines somewhat like the devided leaves of Cichorie 
amongst which riseth uppe a round straked stalk 5 or six foot high, 
devided into many branches, of a browne reddish color, with a softe 
hairines like that on the leaves towards the root, whereon growe 
leaves like the former but lesser and lesser upwards on the stalk, 
the stalk and branches beinge very little or nothinge at all hairy 
towards their topps, and bearinge very narrowe prickley topped 
leaves almost without haires, not devided like the former, but onlie 
deepelie indented, endinge with sharpe but weake pricks. At the 
toppe of ech stalk and branch groweth one head sett on the outside 
with smooth scales, ech scale endinge with a very small short harme- 
lesse prickle, out of the toppe whereof groweth abundance of pale 
purple cheives very like the flowers of Cardtms vulgatissimus, or 
Carduus biilbosus moTispel. and not unlike the flowers of Jacea, but 
havinge no larger spreadinge flowers on the borders like it, or like 
the flowers of Cyaniis. — MS. f. 92. 

Anthemis tinctoria L. 
Buphthalmum vulgare. primum Matthioli. 9 Sept. 1621 

Hath manie small round straked brittle branches cominge from one 
root about 2 foot high, and those againe devided into other branches 
covered with a little thinne white cottonlike woollines whereon 
growe the leaves of a whitish greene color, spread abroad devided 
into many parts and those small devisions are finelie iagged or 
minced like the leaves of Tansie but much smaller. On the topps 
of the stalks and branches growe the flowers somethinge like those 


of Chrysantheminn scgctum but smaller no bigger then Camomill 
flowers not onlie havinge a greate yealowe ball or dish in the midle 
but also those small leaves which compasse the ball and likewise of 
a bright yealowe color and are finely nickt at the toppe and comonlie 
two, three, fower or five & twentie in number. — MS, f. no. 

? Papaver hybridttm L. 
Argemone Pavio. 9 Sept. 1621 

Hath manie round hairie stalks or branches proceeding from 
one root about 3 foot longe whereon growe longe iagged leaves 
full of white milk-like iuyce as are also the branches. At the 
topps of the branches growe greate flowers havinge 4 greate round 
topped leaves a peece of a light redd or crimson color. The heads 
or seed vessells are small smooth three quarters of an ynch longe, 
wherein is contayned plentie of exceedinge small seed of a yealowish 
redd color. The root is small and perisheth when the seed is ripe. 
This herbe is like Papaver Rhoeas in leaves, stalks, flowers & milkie 
iuyce, but the stalks are longer, the flower much paler & the seed 
vessels longer. — MS. f. 113. 

Papaver Rhoeas (3 setigerum Boenn. 
Papaver Rhoeas Baeticum. [9 Sept. 1621] 

I cannot discerne wherein it differeth from our comon Papaver 
Rhoeas.— f. 113. 

Achillea nobilis L. 
Achillea sideritis. Tanacetum minus Dodo: Achillea Math: p. 213. 
Achillea, sine millefolium nobile Gerardo, p. 915. 9 Sept. 1621 
Hath sometimes 4, 5 or more round hard stiffe straked stalks 
proceedinge from one root, and those sendinge forth even from the 
root to the toppe many small side branches, whereon growe very 
manie small iagged leaves, devided into many smaller parts, some- 
thinge like those of Buphthalmum Matthioli but not so finelie 
minced or iagged, the small side branches of the leaves verie well 
resemblinge Cornu Cervinum Lobelij, of a whitish greene color and 
of a stronge smell but not unpleasant, verie hott and bitter in tast. 
On the topps of the stalks and branches growe large umbells of 
small white flowers verie like those of Comon yarrowe in smell like 
the herbe.— i]/5. f. 113. 

} Alchemilla alpina L, 
Heptaphyllum maius. Phyto. 651. (8). 11 Sept. 1621 

The stalks growe upright and are round firme somethinge 
hairie of a reasonable bignes 2 or 3 foot high devided neare the 
toppe into many small branches, the leaves growe on longe hairie 



footstalks out of order, everie leafe beinge usuallie devided into 
7 leaves deeplie notched or indented by the sides, and those that 
growe next the ground are comonlie 4 or 5 ynches longe and neare 
1 ynches broad altogether like in color and fashion to the Comon 
Cinckfoile. The flowers growe on the branches of a pale yealowe 
color, made of 5 broad topped leaves, with a Iplunt nick at the toppe 
of ech leafe, and are manie in number and flower one after another, 
whereby it continueth longe in flowringe: the seed is small and 
browne contayned in leafie husks or hedds. The root is short and 
small brown without and white within with many strings or small 
roots growinge from the upper parte thereof, and is perennis. — MS, 
f. 113. 

Lamhim Orvala L. 
Lamium Pannonicum 1^ exoticum Clusij, p. xxxviij. 11 Sept. 1621 
This strange Lamium the first yere after it is sowen, hath leaves 
almost round, very like nettle leaves, but for the most parte much 
bigger, with a fine softe hairines, and whilest they are yonge covered 
with a fatt clammie matter as it were a dewe, indented by the 
sides, growinge on longe softe hairie footstalks ; amongest which 
leaves, the springe after the sowinge, there groweth uppe hollowe 
stalks, 3 or 4 foot high, eyther fower square or with six corners 
(for there are comonlie of both sorts growinge from one root) also 
covered with a softe hairines, alongest which by certaine distances, 
on short footstalks, growe sometimes 2 sometimes 3 leaves, allwaies 
one right against another lesser and shorter then the other: out 
of whose bosomes growe sometimes 2, sometimes 3 (accordinge 
to the number of the leaves) small hairie footstalks, an ynch longe 
bearinge 3 or 4 flowers or more, of the bignes of a pease, which are 
of a pale yealowish greene color, hollowe within, with a small hole 
at the toppe, out of which groweth a fewe small short cheives ; 
after the flowers there succeed small sharpe pointed heads almost 
like those of flax, but more like those of the Common Scrophularia, 
full of very small black seed. The root is crooked with many 
small, hairie threeds like that of the nettle, whose stalks perish 
in the winter sendinge forth other againe at the springe, and some- 
times before winter, and flowringe againe as at the springe. 

j| I receaved the seeds which produced this plant, with many 
other from the most worthie English Herborist, my very good frend 
Mr. William Coys often remembred. — MS. f. 112. 

Clary. Salvia Verticillata L. 
Horminum silvestre tercium Clusij, p. xxix. ? [13 Sept. 1621] 

Hath at the first hairie leaves spread uppon the ground about 



five ynches broad and 5 ynchcs longe, bluntlie indented by the 
edges, almost round at the toppc : amongest which rise uppe square 
hairie kneed stalkes about a foot or cubite high, bearinge leaves 
by cooples one opposite against another, like the former but lesser 
and more sharper pointed, sometimes with two little leaves like 
eares growinge on the footstalks of the leaves, of no ill or stronge 
smell, the stalks devide them selves into braunches at the bosomes 
of the leaves. The flowers are of a blewish purple colour (lesser 
then the flowers of Clarie, and scarce bigger then Lavender flowers) 
growinge in whorles to the verie toppes of the stalks and braunches 
makinge longe spikes, which comonlie bowe or turne their toppes 
downewardes, without anie leaves growinge amongest them. The 
seed [blank] 

The roote is greate of a finger bignes growinge downeward into 
the earth, a foot deepe or more, with a fewe side braunches, black 
without, hard lastinge, yerelie sendinge forth newe braunches. 

It groweth not wild in England, the seed hereof I receaved from 
Mr. William Coys with many other, in Anno 1620. — MS. ff. 11, 115. 

[Rough draft of a description sent to Johnson, March 5, 1633, but 
not acknowledged by him.] — MS. f. 11. 

Cynosurus echinatus L. 
Gramen cristatum Baeticum Boelij. 13 Sept. 1621 

Hath many round ioynted stalks growinge from one root, 
a cubite or 2 foot high, and greate longe leaves like Barley. 
At the toppe of ech stalk groweth one eare or rather a one sided 
bunch, an ynch broad and somethinge above an ynch longe, onlie 
growinge on one side of the toppe of the stalk, so that it maketh 
as it were half an eare, with small queveriiige cheive-like flowers, 
like those of other grasse, and, verie thick sett with small whitish 
haires makinge the whole eare appeare like a catts beard ; the seed 
is small longe and brownish somewhat like that of Psyllium, but 
nothinge so black, inclosed in very small whitish bearded husks. 
The root is verie small beinge nothinge but verie small white 
threddie strings, and perisheth when the seed is ripe. || This grasse 
is not yet described that I find of. The seeds were gathered by 
Boelius a lowe Contrey man in Baetica a parte of Spaine and 
given to that diligent preserver of simples Mr. William Coys often 
with very good cause remembred, who imparted seeds hereof to 
me in Anno 1620. — MS. f 99. 

[Goodyer himself noted that this species was ' Gramen alopecu- 
roides spica aspera ' and that it was found ' by y® adiacent pts of 
Shepey'. 11, f. 133. See p. 59.] 



Briza maxima L. 
Gramen tremulum maximum. 13 Sept. 1621 

an Phyto. p. 10. No. xxxviii. Gramen lupuli glumis Boelij. 

This hath many small round smooth ioynted stalks, 2 or 3 foot 
high, with longe broade smooth leaves like those of otes or barley, 
at and neare the toppe of ech stalk groweth scatteringlie or some- 
what farr apart, about 7 or 8 flatt eares the topps hanginge down- 
wards, about 3 quarters of an ynch longe, and a quarter of an ynch 
broad, made of 2 rowes of fine thinn scales, curiouslie foldinge one 
within another, verie like those of the comon Phallaris pratensis 
but 8 times bigger, which eares in a close roome you cannott hold 
so still, but they will wagge and tremble, their footstalks beinge so 
longe and small, no bigger then small haires. The seed is verie 
small, flatt and browne, in a manner round, one seed and no more 
inclosed at the inner end of ech scalie huske. The root is made 
of small white thredds, and perisheth when, the seed is ripe. 
II The seeds also of this grasse were given by Boelius to Mr. William 
Coys by the name of Gramen lupuli glumis, who afterwards in 
Anno 1620 sent seeds thereof to me. — MS. f. 99. 

Lactuca vivos a L. 
Lactuca silvestris vera ingrato odore. 13 Sept. 1621 

Hist. lug. p. 547, optima figura. Phyto. p. 202 N^ xii. 

This wild lettise hath at the first many broad leaves spread 
uppon the ground, like to garden lettice leaves, whiter on the 
underside then above, sometimes a foot longe and 5 ynches broad, 
broadest neare the toppe, with a greate ribbe or sinewe underneath 
full of sharpe pricks, and many other small branches sinewes full 
also of little pricks, very little nicked and crisped by the sides, 
but nothinge at all gashed, yet also full of small pricks, amongst 
which groweth uppe a greate upright round stiff prickley browne 
reddish stalk, full of white pith like that of the elder, usuallie 5 or 
6 foot high, (sometimes 10 foot high as I observed this yere 1621) 
devided into many parts or branches, on the lower parte whereof 
groweth leaves like the former, but upwards on the stalk they are 
smaller shorter without footstalks, gashed or devided with deepe 
devisions. The topps of the stalks and branches are garnished 
with manie small yealowe flowers, like in forme and bignes to those 
of the common lettice, flowringe one after another, which maketh 
it longe in flowringe : the flowers past there succeed flatt blackish 
seed like to lettice seed, with downe at the toppe and is caried 
away with the wind and reneweth itself by the fallinge thereof, 



which quicklic grovveth and sendcth forth such broad leaves as 
aforesaid spread uppon the ground and remaine greene all the 
winter, sendinge then forth such stalks as is aforesaid. The root 
is hard woodie sometimes devided into branches yealowe without 
& groweth deepe into the earth. The whole herbe and root 
is full of clammie white iuyce like milk, and of a very loathsome 
stinkinge smell, which on the stalks sometimes turneth into a 
yealowish gummie matter. 

II This wild stinkinge lettice I found wild on the walls and dry 
bancks of earth at Southampton. Anno 161 8. — MS. f. 99. 

Lactiica agrcstis L. 
Lactuca agrestis. 13 Sept. 1621 

This hath not leaves spread abroad uppon the ground like the 
former, but riseth uppe presentlie with a small round stiffe stalk 
prickley only belowe 3, 4 or 5 foot high, devided into very manie 
branches, whereon growe manie pale greene plaine smooth leaves with 
many pricks on the midle ribbe on the lower side and also by the 
edges, the sides or edges are somewhat indented but not at all 
crisped gashed or devided, sometimes 6 or 7 ynches longe and 
3 ynches broad or broader, broadest comonly in the midle and 
narrowe towards the toppe. The flowers are also yealowe like 
those of the lettice, and turne into a small grey seed with downe 
at the toppe which is caried away by the wind, by the fallinge 
whereof it encreaseth and sendeth forth other yonge plants, with 
short tender stalks, which remaine greene all the winter, and in the 
springe growe uppe as aforesaid. The root is hard threddie and 
yealowe without. The whole herbe is also full of white, milk-like 
iuyce and of little or no smell at all, and perisheth when the seed 
is ripe. — MS. f. 100. 

Oenothera biennis L. 
Lysimachia virginiana. 13 Sept. 1621 

This riseth uppe with a stalk about 3 foot high, which is round 
straked firme hard brittle full of pith within, reddish neare the root, 
devided into manie branches, and spotted with very small purple 
spots : whereon growe the leaves out of order without footstalks 
5 or 6 ynches longe and above an ynch broade, smooth sharpe 
pointed verie bluntlie indented about the edges, with a whitish 
midle ribbe, hott in tast and bitinge the tonge. The flowers are 
yealowe and growe forth of the bosomes of the leaves neare the 
topps of the stalk flowringe upwards by degrees, whereby it continueth 
longe in flowringe, and growe uppon longe tender stems everie 



flower havinge 4 broad topped leaves, and a short yealowe pointell 
not appearinge above the topps of the leaves of the flower, devided 
in the toppe into 4 parts, everie part beinge bigger then the lower 
parte of the pointell, and also yealowe cheives growinge from the 
nailes of the inner partes of leaves of the lenght of the pointell, 
which flowers are of a strong fulsome smell, and both they and 
their tender stems fall away, and there groweth uppe greate 
longe blunt topped, round straked codds, without anie footstalks, 
makinge a longe spike of codds, wherein is contayned much small 
round wrinckled seed which when it is ripe the codd openeth 
into 4 or 5 parts at the toppe and the seed falleth forth and at 
the next springe groweth uppe whereby it mightelie increaseth. — 
MS. f. ICQ. 

Nicotiana Tabactim var. hrasilieiisis Comes. 
Petum indicum folio pene obtuso. 13 Sept. i5ai 

Ye figure in Hist. Lug. p. 1895 resembleth it well. Peti primum 
genus Clusii, p. ex: 309. 

This groweth uppe with a greate round stalk devided into many 
braunches, five or six foot high, verie hairie fatt and clammie ; 
whereon growe greate broad leaves, somewhat round towards the 
toppe yet endinge with a sharpe point, narrower & crompled 
towardes the stalkes, without footstalkes, imbracinge or growinge 
2 or 3 ynches downeon both sides of the stalk, belowe the fasteninge 
or growinge of the midle ribbe to the stalke, about 20 ynches longe, 
and above a foot broad, also verie fatt clammie and rough, of 
a yealowish greene color, of a good savor and verie sharpe tast. 
The flowers growe on the toppes of the branches, and are longe, 
hoUowe, in manner of a little pipe or bell, broad at the toppe, 
endinge with corners most comonlie 5 sometimes 4 somewhat 
blunt not verie sharpe, of a pale or whitish purple colour ; which 
fallen there cometh small longe round sharpe pointed heddes or 
seed vessels lesser longer and sharper pointed then those of yealowe 
Henbane, in which is included abundance of exceedinge small 
blackish redd seeds, much lesser then poppie seed. The roote 
is thicke, woodie, branched and yealowish. The whole plant 
perisheth at the first approach of winter, if it be not planted in an 
earthen pott or other fitt vessell, and putt into a close place to 
defend it from the iniurie of the cold. 

The seedes of this Tabacco I receaved Anno 1620 from my 
worthie friend, and most diligent observer and preserver of simples 
Mr. William Coys of North-okington in Essex. — MS, ff. 93^ 114. 



Nicotiajia Tabaciim vd^x. fniticosa Hook. f. 
Petum indicum folio Hydrolapathi acuto. 13 Sept. 1621 

The stalkes are also round and branched, somewhat hairie and 
clammie, the leaves i^rowe also without footstalkes half compassinge 
the stalkes, yet sometimes exceedinge narrowe towards the stalkes, 
generally much narrower and longer then the former, comonly 
2 foot, 2 foot and a half and sometimes 3 foot longe, and usuallie 
6 or 7 ynches broad or broader, not round towards the toppe like 
the former, but verie sharpe and slender pointed, smoother greener 
and nothinge so clammie as the other, also of a sharpe bitinge 
tast, and are in forme like the leaves of the greate water docke, 
the flowers are also of a light purple colour, but smaller endeinge 
with 5 sharpe pointed corners, much sharper then the former. 
The seed is like the former inclosed in the like huskes, but some- 
what sharper pointed. The roote is also like and must be preserved 
from the cold as the other. 

In Anno 161 9 I receaved the seedes hereof from Mr. Anthony 
Uvedale who that yere intended to plante greate store hereof, and 
was hindered of his purpose by a proclamation sett forth by 
Authoritie.— ff. 93, 114. 

Nepeta ttiberosa L. 
Cattaria tuberosa radice Boetica Boelii. non scripta. 

14 Sept. 1621 

Hath 2, 3 or more square upright stalks, somewhat hairie, two 
foot high or higher, sometimes leaninge towards or lyinge flatt on 
the ground, devided into many square branches growing allwaies 
one right against another, whereon growe leaves by cooples one 
right against another, sometimes with short hairie footstalks, but 
most comonly espetially on the upper parte of the stalk, with very 
short or no footstalks at all, full of crumpled vaines or sinewes, and 
large blunt notches by the sides, like those of the comon neppe, 
but not so broad, of the same pleasant smell, but not so stronge, 
and but a little hott and bitinge the tonge, sometimes covered 
all over with a softe hairie cottonie whitenes, as though a white 
frost laie thereon. On the upper parte of the stalks and branches 
growe by certaine distances one from another crownetts or whorles 
of manie small scalie leaves, somewhat reddish at the topps and by 
the sides, compassinge the stalks : whereof two that are lowest and 
biggest, and growe allwaies one right against another, amongst 
which on the upper parte growe many blewish purple flowers 
(those small scalie leaves and flowers makinge the entier whorle 
or crownett) in fashion like those of the comon neppe, but neare as 




bigge againe, of verie little smell : the severall whorles makinge 
a spike sometimes of above a foot longe. 

The seeds hereof I receaved from Mr. Coys in A*'. 1620. — MS. f. 96. 

Nepeta media. — MS. f. 96. (? = Nepeta Cataria L. var.) 
[No description.] 

? Sinapis alba L. 

Sinapi sativum alterum Penae. [? 14 Sept. 1621] 

Adversar, p. 68. Lob. icon. p. 277. pte 2^ 

Hath one stalk growinge from the root, which is round hollowe 
straked hairie or rough 2 or 3 foot high, without knees devided into 
verie many branches even from the root. The leaves are greate 
and growe at the devisions of the stalk, with a verie little roughnes, 
torne and devided into many partes even to the midle ribbe. The 
flowers growe on the topps of the branches floweringe upwards and 
are yealowe, very like those of comon musterd but bigger, and so 
like those of comon cherlock that they are hard to be knowne the 
one from the other, contayninge 4 broad topped shrivelled leaves 
apeece : after the flowers cometh rough hairie codds growinge all 
alongest the upper parte of the stalk and branches, bigger and more 
spreading abroad then those of Cherlock, half whereof in lenght 
towards the toppe is broad and flatt like to the point of a speare 
yet blunt topped, and in the lower parte thereof towards the stalk 
is contayned 2 rowes of seedes, havinge 3 or 4 round seeds in ech 
rowe, either of a white grey or reddish color ; three times bigger 
then comon musterd seed, and sometimes neare as bigge as Radish 
seed, hott and bitinge the tonge like pepper, bunchinge out the 
codd where they lie, and when they are ripe doe fall out with 
a light touch leavinge behind on the stalk the midle (?) devision 
which is a thinn cleare membrane or skinne and the speare like 
point of the codds which continueth on a longe time after. The 
root is small white threddie and perisheth when the seed is ripe, 
and reneweth it self yerelie by the fallinge thereof. — MS. f. 96. 

Blue Fleabane. Erigeron acre L. 
Conyza coerulea acris, C. Bau. Conyza odorata. 20 Sept. 1621 
Hath at the first many hairie leaves 2, 3 or 4 ynches longe, 
spread uppon the ground without footstalks, verie slender and 
narrowe belowe, and half an ynch broad towards the toppe, plaine 
and not indented by the edges, hott in tast and bitinge the tonge, 
of a reasonable good smell: amongest which rise uppe 2, 3 or more 
small round browne redd straked hairie stalks, full of white pith 
within, a foot or a cubite high seldome devided into branches on 



the lower ptc, whereon growe hairy leaves out of order without 
footstalks, like the other but much shorter and smaller, about an 
ynch and a half longe, and a quarter of an ynch broad comonly 
turninge downewards, with other very small short leaves growinge 
forth of their bosomes, or els very short stubbed branches. On the 
upper pte the stalke is devided into many small short branches, 
bearinge at the toppe of ech branch one little head, made on the 
outside of many verie slender narrowe hairie stalks comonly reddish, 
on the upper parte of the head groweth verie manie small narrowe 
short leaves no bigger than cheives of a pale or light purple color, 
seldome spreadinge abroade, but growinge upright, which together 
with the head are about half an ynch in lenght : next within these 
leaves and verie neare of their lenght even at their first openinge, 
appeareth a round circle of pale yealowish downe, which in the midle 
of the flower is of a dark browne color and in the ende spreadeth 
abroad and contayneth underneath much small yealowish seed, 
which together with the downe is caried away with the wind. The 
whole head rubbed betwene the fingers is of a good smell. The 
root is nothinge but small white thredds and dyeth not at winter. 
II I first found this herbe growinge wild on the walls at Winchester 
in Hampsheire, afterwards in other places on dry bancks, but very 
seldome. — 31 S. f. 95. 

Ivy-leaved Toadflax. Linaria Cymbalaria Mill. 
Cymbalaria Italica. 20 Sept. 1621 

Cymbalaria with us in England, where it is so wen runneth and 
spreadeth on the ground and clymeth and hangeth on walls even 
as Ivie or Chickweed doth, the branches are verie small round and 
smooth, limmer and pliant neare like the hampering threeds of 
Cuscuta devidinge it self plentifullie into other branches and 
sendinge forth other small threddie roots takinge hold therewith 
on the earth or walls. The leaves growe on long round footstalks 
and are like those of Ivie smooth and devided into moe corners, 
the flowers growe also on longe footstalks forth of the bosomes 
of the leaves like single violetts but smaller, nearer like the flowers 
of Elatine consistinge of % leaves, whereof the uppermost is on the 
upper parte of a light purple color and devided at the toppe into 
a parte, the lower leafe is three times bigger, of a pale or whitish 
color with a verie light dash of purple, and the midle or chappe is 
yealov/e, devided belowe into 3 pts, with a small purple taile behind 
hanginge downewards, which fallen there succeedeth in the place of 
the flower some little round knappe or button contayninge small seed. 

M % 



II I never saw this growinge but in the garden of my faithful! good 
frend Mr. William Coys in Northokington in Essex, and in my 
garden at Droxford of seeds receaved from him in Anno 1618. — 
MS. f. 95. 

[The first mention of English Cyinbalaria is in Coys' Garden-List 
of 1617, p. 317. It is a pleasure to note that after the lapse of 
245 years the original station for this plant in Great Britain should 
be noted by Gibson, Flora of Essex, 1862, on the authority of Edw. 
Forster, as ' Old wall at Stubbers ', and we ourselves found it there 
in 1921. Parkinson noted the plant 'about Hatfield' in 1640.] 

Scabiosa atropurpiirea L. 
Scabiosa flore rubro. Scabiosa sexta Indica Clusii. 8 Oct. 

Hath one round tender stalk proceeding from the root, about 
3 or 4 foot high, devided into branches ymediately from the root : 
whereon growe leaves by cooples much devided as it were leaves 
sett uppon a midle ribbe and are verie narrowe towards the toppes 
of the stalk and branches, almost smooth yet havinge a little soft 
hairines as have also the stalk and branches, in forme like those of 
Scabiosa minor sive Columbaria lobelii. The flowers growe on the 
toppes of the stalk and branches like the said Scabiosa media, but 
of a delicate redd color like to redd velvett, with many small cheives, 
with quaveringe topps, at the first of a light purple, after of a dustie 
whitish color, ech head beinge composed of many small flowers 
closelie thrust together, and ech flower is devided into 5 ptes or 
leaves those that growe on the outside or border of the head are 
greater and longer then those in the midle, allwaies having close 
underneath ech head, a rowe or circle of small short narrowe greene 
leaves growinge starr fashion. The seed 

The root [MS. incomplete]. 

II This plant I sawe flowringe and bearinge ripe seed in the 
garden of my most worthie friend and diligent preserver of plants 
Mr. William Coys, in Northokington in Essex, the 29 of September 
1622. Seeds hereof I also receaved from him in Anno 1620. — 
MS, f. 94. 


Jacea palustris Baetica Boelii. — MS. f. 94. 10 Oct. 1621 

[No description.] 

Centatirea nevadensis Boiss. & Reut. ? 
Jacea capitulis hirsutis Boelii. 10 Oct. 1621 

This hath many small cornered straked hairie trayling branches 
growing from the root, and those again divided into many other 
branches, trailing or spreading upon the ground three or foure foot 


long, imploying or covering a good plot of ground, whereon grow 
hairy leaves divided or iagged into many parts, like the leaves ot 
lacea maior, or Rocket, of a very bitter taste : at the top of each 
branch groweth one scaly head, each scale ending with five, six, or 
seven little weake prickles growing orderly like halfe the rowell of 
a spurre, but farre lesser: the flowers grow forth of the heads 
of a light purple colour, consisting of many smal flowers, like 
those of the common lacea, the bordering flowers, being bigger and 
larger than those of the middle of the flower, each small flower 
being divided into five small parts or leaves, not much unlike 
those of Cyamis : the seed is small, and inclosed in downe. The 
root perisheth when the seed is ripe. 

II This plant hath not been hitherto written of that I can find. 
Seeds of it I received from M'. William Coys, with whom also 
I observed the plant, lo October. 1621. he received it from Boelitis 
a Low countrey man. — MS. f. 94; Ger. emac, 729. 

Cnairbita Pepo L. var. 
Macocks Virginiani. 10 Oct. 1621 

The Virginian Macocke, or Pompion. 

This hath rough cornered straked trailing branches proceeding 
from the root, eight or nine foot long, or longer, and those againe 
divided into other branches of a blackish greene colour, trailing, 
spreading, or running alongst the earth, covering a great deale of 
ground, sending forth broad cornered rough leaves, on great grosse, 
long, rough, hairy foot-stalks, like and fully as big as the leaves 
of the common Pompion, with clasping tendrels and great broad 
shriveled yellow flowers also like those of the common Pompion : 
the fruit succeedeth, growing alongst the stalkes, commonly not 
neere the root, but towards the upper part or toppes of the 
branches, somewhat round, not extending in length, but flat like 
a bowle, but not so bigge as an ordinarie bowle, beeing seldome foure 
inches broad, and three inches long, of a blackish greene colour 
when it is ripe. The substance or eatable part is of a yellowish 
white colour, containing in the middest a great deale of pulpe or 
soft matter, wherein the seed lyeth in certaine rowes also, like the 
common Pompion, but smaller. The root is made of many whitish 
branches, creeping far abroad in the earth, and perish at the first 
j approch of Winter. — Ger. emac. 919. 

Citrtillus vulgaris Schrad. 
i M clones Aquatici. The Virginian Water-Melon. 10 Oct. 1621 
This Melon or Pompion is like and fully as bigge as the common 



Pompion, in spreading, running, creeping branches, leaves, flowers, 
and clasping tendrels : the fruit is of a very blackish greene colour 
and extendeth it selfe in length neere foure inches long, and three 
inches broad, no bigger nor longer than a great apple, and grow 
alongst the branches forth of the bosomes of the leaves, not farre 
from the root even to the toppes of the branches, containing a sub- 
stance, pulpe, and flat seed, like the ordinary Pompion : the root is 
whitish, and disperseth it selfe verie farre abroad in the earth, and 
perisheth about the beginning of Winter. — Ger, emac, 921. 

Basil. Ocimum Basilicum L. 
Acinos odoratissimum. 11 Oct. 1621 

This herbe hath foure, five, or more, foure square hard wooddy 
stalkes growing from one root, divided into many branches, covered 
with a soft white hairinesse, two or three foot long or longer, not 
growing upright, but trailing upon the ground ; the leaves grow on 
little-short footstalkes by couples of a light greene colour, some- 
what like the leaves of Basill, very like the leaves of Acinos Lobelij, 
but smaller, about three quarters of an inch broad, and not fully an 
inch long, somewhat sharpe pointed, lightly notched about the 
edges, also covered with a light soft hoary hairinesse, of a very 
sweete smell, little inferiour to Garden Marjerome, of a hot biting 
taste : out of their bosomes grow other smaller leaves, or else 
branches ; the flowers also grow forth of the bosomes of the leaves 
toward the tops of the stalkes and branches, not in whorles like the 
said Acinos, but having one little short footstalke growing forth of 
the bosome of each leafe, on which is placed three, foure, or more 
small flowers, gaping open, and divided into foure unequall parts 
at the top, like the flowers of Basill, and very neare of the likenesse 
and bignesse of the flowers of Garden Marjerome, but of a pale 
blewish colour tending towards a purple. The seed I never 
observed by reason it flowered late. This plant I first found 
growing in the garden of M'^' William Yalden in Sheete near 
Petersfield in Hampshire, Anno 1620, amongst sweete Marjerome, 
and which by chance they bought with the seedes thereof. It is 
to be considered whether the seedes of sweete Marjerome degenerate 
and send forth this herbe or not, 11 October 1621. — Ger. emac. 677. 
[See 1620.] 

Jerusalem Artichoke. Helianthus tuber osus L. 
Heliotropium Indicum. 17 Oct. 1621 

Flos soils Pyramidalis, parvo flore, tuberosa radice. 

This wonderful 1 increasing plant hath growing up from one root, 



one, sometimes two, three or more round green rough hairy straked 
stalks, commonly about twelve foot high, sometimes sixteene foot 
high or higher, as big as a childs arme, full of white spungious pith 
within. The leaves grow all alongst the stalkes out of order, of 
a light green color, rough, sharp pointed, about eight inches broad, 
and ten or eleven inches long, deeply notched or indented about 
the edges, very like the leaves of the common flos solis Pervanns^ 
but nothing crompled, and not so broad. The stalkes divide them- 
selves into many long branches even from the roots to their very 
tops, bearing leaves smaller and smaller toward the tops, makinge 
the herbe appeare like a little tree, narrower and slenderer toward 
the top, in fashion of a steeple or Pyramide. The flowers with us 
grow onely at the toppes of the stalkes and branches, like those of 
the said flos solis, but no bigger than our common single Marigold, 
consisting of twelve or thirteene straked sharpe pointed bright 
yellow bordering leaves, growing foorth of a scaly small hairie 
head, with a small yellow thrummie matter within. These flowers 
by reason of their late flowering, which is commonly two or three 
weeks after Michaelmas, never bring their seed to perfection, & it 
maketh shew of abundance of small heads neere the tops of the 
stalkes and branches forth of the bosomes of the leaves, which 
never open and flower with us, by reason they are destroyed with 
the frosts, which otherwise it seemes would be a goodly spectacle. 
The stalke sendes foorth many small creeping roots, whereby it is 
fed or nourished, full of hairie threddes even from the upper part 
of the earth, spreading farre abroad : amongst which from the 
maine root grow forth many tuberous roots, clustering together, 
sometimes fastened to the great root it selfe, sometimes growing on 
long strings a foot or more from the root, raising or heaving up 
the earth above them, and sometimes appearing above the earth, 
producing from the increase of one root, thirty, forty, or fifty in 
number, or more, making in all usually above a pecke, many times 
neere halfe a bushell, if the soile be good. These tuberous roots 
are of a reddish colour without, of a soft white substance within, 
bunched or bumped out many waies, sometimes as big as a mans 
fist, or not so big, with white noses or peaks where they will sprout 
or grow the next yeare. The stalkes bowed downe, and some part 
of them covered over with earth, send forth smal creeping threddie 
roots, and also tuberous roots like the former, which I have found 
by experience. These tuberous roots will abide alive in the earth 
all winter, though the stalkes and rootes by the which they were 
nourished utterly rot and perish away, and will beginne to spring 



up againe at the beginning of May, seldome sooner. — MS, f. ii6; 
Ger. emac. 753-54* 

[For Goodyer's descriptions of The Place and The Vertues which 
follow see p. 24, also p. 109.] 

Yew. Taxus baccata L. 
Taxus gland ifera baccifera. 19 Dec. i6ai 

The Yew bearing Acorns & berryes. 

The Yew tree that beareth Acornes and berries is a great high 
tree remaining alwaies greene, and hath usually an huge trunke or 
body as big as the Oke, covered over with a scabbed or scaly barke, 
often pilling or falling off, and a yong smooth barke appearing 
underneath ; the timber hereof is somewhat red, neere as hard as 
Box, universally covered next the barke with a thicke white sap 
like that of the Oke, and hath many big limmes divided into many 
smal spreading branches : the leaves be about an inch long, narrow 
like the leaves of Rosemary, but smooth, and of a darker greene 
colour, growing all alongst the little twigs or branches close 
together, seldome one opposite against another, often having at the 
ends of the twigs little bunches composed of many leaves like 
the former, but shorter and broader, closely compact or ioyned 
together : amongst the leaves are to be scene at all times of the 
yeare, small slender buds somewhat long, but never any flowers ; 
which at the very beginning of the Spring grow bigger and bigger, 
till they are of the fashion of little Acornes, with a white kernell 
within : after they are of this forme, then groweth up from the 
bottomes of the Acornes a reddish matter, making beautiful reddish 
berries more long than round, smooth on the out side, very 
clammie within, and of a sweet taste, covering all the Acorne, 
onely leaving a little hole at the top, where the top of the Acorne 
is to be scene : these fallen, or devoured by birds, leave behinde 
them a little whitish huske made of a few scales, appearing like 
a little flower, which peradventure may deceive some, taking it to 
be so indeed : it seemes this tree, if it were not hindred by cold 
weather, would alwaies have Acornes and berries on him, for he 
hath alwaies little buds, which so soone as the Spring yeelds but 
a reasonable heate, they grow into the forme of Acornes : about 
the beginning of August, seldome before, you shall finde them 
turned into ripe berries, and from that time till Christmasse, or 
a little after, you may see on him both Acornes and red berries. — 
MS, f. 119; Ger. emac, 1370. 


Male Yew. Taxtis baccata L. o^. 
Taxus tantum florens. The Yew w*** only flowers. 

The Yew which onely beareth flowers and no berries, is like the 

Goodyer's description of the Yew with additions in 
Johnson's hand* *. 

other in trunke, timber, barke, and leaves ; but at the beginning of 
November, or before, this tree doth beginne to be very thicke set or 
fraught on the lower side or part of the twigs or little branches, 



with small round buds, verie neere as big, and of the colour of 
Radish seed, and do so continue all the Winter, till about the 
beginning or middle of Februarie, when they open at the top, 
sending forth one small sharpe pointell, little longer than the huske, 
divided into many parts, or garnished towards the top with many 
small dusty things like flowers, of the colour of the husks ; and if 
you shall beate or throw stones into this tree about the end of 
Februarie, or a good space after, there will proceed and fly from 
these flowers an aboundance of dustie smoke. These dusty flowers 
continue on the trees till about harvest, and then some and some 
fall away, and shortly after the round buds come up as aforesaid. 

The Place, 

Theis trees are both very comon in England, in Hampsheire 
there is good plentie of them growinge wild on the Chalke hills, 
and in Church yards where they have byn planted. 

The Time. 

The time is expressed in their descriptions. — MS. f. 119; Ger. 
emac. 1370-71. 

[The first record of the Male Yew in Hampshire.] 

Calathian Violet. Ge^ttiana Pneumona7ithe L. 
Pneumonanthe. [After 9 Nov. 1621] 

hath a small round stalk 3 or 4 ynches high, on wch growe 
small narrow leaves, half an ynch long, which are curvd in the 
midle very like y® leaves of savery, sett thick but orderly by 
cooples one opposite ye other on y® toppe of ye stalk groweth one 
flower an ynch longe of the fashion of a bell, devided at y® brim 
into 5 sharpe pointed corners of a perfect blewe color, except 5 
plates or strakes wh. are only to be scene before y^ flower openeth, 
extending from y® bottome of ye flower to corner, which are not so 
pleasant a blew color, the seed I observed not. Ye root is small 
divided at ye upper parte into a fewe small (yet of a sufficient 
bignes for ye stature of y® herbe) yealowish lyner branches or 
fibres. Both leaves and rootes are bitter, and ye root more bitter 
than the leaves & bitinge ye tonge. — MS. f. 9 v. 

Marsh Cinquefoil. Poteutilla Comarum Nutt. 
Quinquefolium palustre. [After 9 Nov. 162 1] 

The stalks are lyner bendinge pliant round smooth a foot long 
as bigg as a wheate straw of" a reddish color towards ye root, 
ioynted, at ech ioynt groweth a [leafe] foot-stalk which whooly be- 
clippeth the knott or ioynt, on whose toppe groweth five leaves of 


ye fashion of other cinckfoyles nicket about ye edges, of a mealish 
greene colour above and whitish underneath, ye 5 leaves not 
growing on the very upper parte of the footstalk like ye other 
cinckfoyles, but 2 of them growinge lower about a quarter of an 
ynch from y'' 3 which growe at the extreme part, y^ flowers 
I observed not. The root creapeth in y° water & mire, besett with 
thousand of very small haires, thicker & smaller then the haires 
of ones head. — MS. f. 10 v. 

[Roughly drafted descriptions on back of Laurence Davis' letter 
of 9 Nov. 1 62 1.] 

? \c. 1620-1622.] 

round buttons or knapps, as bigge or little bigger then the 
pease wherein in each button is 2, 3 or 4 3-winded seeds almost 
as bigg as Radish seed. The root is small white, single and 
groweth downright, with a fewe threddie shoots with side branches. 
Both herbe and root doe perish at winter. — Fragment of a 
description^ MS, f. 1 1 v. 

'Capon's Tail Grass.' Not Festuca Myurus L."^ 
Gramen dXeKTpvopvpos. Alectryonurum. 10 Feb. 1622 

[Mentioned with date but without locality. — MS. f. 54.] 
Gramen murorum spica longissima. 

* I cannot omit this elegant Grasse, found by M. Goodyer upon 
the wals of the antient city of Winchester, and not described as yet 
by any that I know of. It hath a fibrous and stringy root, from 
which arise leaves long and narrow, which growing old become 
round as those of Spartum or Mat-weed : amongst these grassie 
leaves there growes up a slender stalke some two foot long, scarce 
standing upright, but oft times hanging down the head or top of 
the eare : it hath some two ioints, and at each of these a pretty 
grassy leafe. The eare is almost a foot in length, composed of 
many small and slender hairy tufts, which when they come to 
maturitie looke of a grayish or whitish colour, and do very well 
resemble a Capons taile ; whence my friend, the first observer 
thereof, gave it the title of Gramen A\€KTpv6vovpo9, or Capons-taile 
Grasse : by which name I received the seed thereof, which so wen, 
tooke root, and flourishes". (Johnson) — Ger. emac. pp. 30, 29. 

^ The correctness of the determination of this grass as Festuca Myurus L. by 
Druce is doubted by D. Stapf. 



Apium crispum. 17 Feb. 1622 

At Idsworth, 17 Feb. 1622. — MS. f. 51 v. 

[Hill in 1574 printed the following prescription for Parsley. 
' If you will have the leaves of the Parcely grow crisped, then before 
the sowing stuffe a tennis ball with the seedes, & beat the same wel 
against the ground, wherby the seedes may so be a little brused, and 
then sowe them in the ground, or when the Parcelye is well come up 
go over the bed with a waighty roller, whereby it may so presse the 
leaves downe, or els treade the same downe with thy feete." Th. Hill, 
Arte of Gardening.] 

Calamagrostis Epigejos Roth. 
Calamagrostis. 27 Apr. 1622 

This sedge sendeth forth many 3 cornered straked stalkes, about 
2 foot high, beareinge at ye toppe a spike or eare about 3 ynches 
longe devided into 12 or 13 lesser scaly eares, and those againe into 
smaller, the whole spike not spreadinge abroad, but growinge neare 
together, so that the thicknes is not above an ynch, of a brownish 
color before the flowers come forth, which appearinge are nothinge 
but an infinite many of small dustie things like cheives, at ye first 
opening whitish afterwards yealowe like ye flowers of other grasses. 

[The seed is small contayned in chaffie scales, of a brownish 
chestnutt color, neare 3 cornered & broad belowe and sharpe 
pointed without any manifest tast. 8 Julii 1622.] 

The leaves are narrowe about 2 or 3 foot longe growinge 
ymediatelie from ye root, as it were 3 cornered, and very rough 
espetially if you slide your fingers from their topps downewards, 
and so sharpe that they cutt one's fingers even as a knife, as doth 
also y® stalk ; which usually is without leaves, yet sometimes hath 
one very small one growinge close belowe ye spike, neare a foot 
longe. The rootes are infinite of the bignes of ye rootes oi gramen 
caninum (couch gras) or bigger of a reddish color without, closely 
mattinge together, and gathering the mudd or dirt amongst them . 
Growinge downeright of a greate lenght, and makinge a great e 
stronge tuft, no herbe or gras like it, for they are so stiffe & 
stronge, that growinge in ye middest of water, a man may goe 
on them & steppe from tuft to tuft, ye water & mud beinge of 
a good depth betwixt them. — MS. f. 121. 

Oak. Qiiercics robiir. 
Cachrys quercus. 28 Apr. 1620 & 9 May 1622 

The Cachryes^ are conceived eyther in a budd with the leaves, or 

^ The term cachrys is one that appears to have been used for the young cone^ 



in a budd alone by them selves. Those that are conceived within ye 
leaves come forth together with them, and growe at the ioynt stoppe 
or knott betweene the last yeres twigge and the newe shoot, some- 
times on the lower part of the newe shoot, those that are conceived 
by themselves, soe come forth without any leaves or shoot, and 
these growe by the sides of y® last yeres shoot. This cachrys is 
composed of small yealowish crudled bunches or clusters grow- 
inge a little asunder, on a footstalk about 2 ynches longe, 3 or 4 
forth of one budd, and some wither and fall away, seldome continu- 
inge above a weeke or two. When there are plentie of these 
cachryes, it is a signe there will followe good store of Acornes. 

9 Maii. Forth of the bosomes of the leaves on the newe shoot 
come forth small foot stalks on y"" toppes whereof growe 2 or 3 or 
more very small redd flowers : ech flower beinge no bigger then 
a small pinnes head, and devided into 3 ptes (not worth the 
name of leves) at the toppe, in the place whereof cometh uppe 
the Acornes. 

4 Maii. In the springe when the leaves first beginn to come 
forth there often groweth from the topps and sides of the last 
yeres shootes certaine swellinges as bigge as little apies, not alto- 
gether round but bunched out here and there, reddish on that part 
towards the sunne, contayninge an austere or harsh spongie matter 

of conifers, for catkins, and for the winter buds of the deciduous trees. Though 
much used by the early botanists, it appears to have dropped out of use at the 
end of the seventeenth century, and is not even included in many later lists of 
technical words. Fuchs in 1542, in his Exphcatio of difficult words, defined the 
term as follows : 

Cachryes sunt oblonga panicularum modo nucamenta, quae squamatim 
compacta propendent e ramis. Crescunt hyeme, vere dehiscunt in flavescentes 
squamulas, et folio prodeunte, decidunt : qualia in abiete, picea et aliis permultis 
videre licet. Plinius pillulas nominat. — Fuchs, Hist. Stirp. f. /3 3. 

* The Birch, the Nut, the Walnut, and the Plane Tree have on them things 
in Greek called Cachryes in English Catkines or Catstailes, if I mistake not 
which are there the most part of the winter. They are of a burning quality 
in Physick' (Coles, Art of Siinpling, 1656). And this is the meaning given in 
the New English Dictionary. According to Parkinson (1642) Cachrys is the 
fifteenth ' Excrescence of the Oke '. It was borrowed from Theophrastus iii. 7 
to mean ' a round conception or gathering together of leaves, growing betweene 
the last yeares shoote, and the young bud for the next to come And they are 
borne on ' the Firre tree, Larch, Pitch, Line, Nut, and Plane trees * as well as on 
the Oak, all of which ' doe beare a Cachrys after the leaves are falne, abiding 
on all the winter '. Elsewhere he defines it as ' a scaly tuft of leaves growing in 
winter, and falling away, say some, in the Spring : but others think that it is but 
the bud, which spreadeth into branches with leaves after Winter, when the 
Spring is come on' (Park. Theatru7n^ 882). 



within, and towards Autumne hath eyther maggotts, flies or some 
livinge creature within it, this hangeth many times two yeres on 
the twiggs, and then also have had maggotts within them as I have 

Gallae foh'orum quercus. 

There is often to be seene in Autumne on that part of the 
leaves which is next the ground a round pill or ball without a foot- 
stalke, sometimes 8, lo or more on one leafe, reddish on that parte 
next the sunne, smooth on the outside, or with little sharpe extuber- 
ances, verie like both in forme and bignes to the trewe galls, onlie 
wantinge hardnes, but contayninge a softe spongious matter within, 
and often a maggott, and a hole by the side. These beginn to 
appeare most comonlie about the middest of July, of the bignes of 
a pease, sometimes by the middest of May of that bignes, as the 
15 of May 1622 when I only sawe them. — MS, f. 85. 

Walnut. Jnglans regia L. 
Cachrys Juglandis. 

The Cachryes beginn to appeare in Aprill a little before the 
leaves are seene, and doe thrust themselves forth of the sides of the 
last yeres shootes, but one in a place, a little above the place where 
the footstalks of the leaves were fastened and are at the first 
closelie compacted and finelie chekered without anie footstalke or 
leaves cominge about or neare them ; afterwards they growe more 
rare or looser, about two ynches in length neare as bigge as the 
little finger, not continuinge two weekes before they wither and fall 
away.— J/vS. f. 85. 

Chestnut. Castanea sativa Mill. 
Cachrys Castaneae. 

The Cachryes begin to springe about the midle of May together 
with the newe shoots forth of the bosomes of the yonge and tender 
leaves, but one out of the bosome of one leafe ; composed of a midle 
ribbe or footstalke about 7, 8 or 9 ynches longe when they are at 
their full growth about July, which midle ribbe is thick sett by the 
sides with small scalelie bunches, which about the middest of July 
open, and there appeareth out of ech bunch many small short 
cheives of a very pale or light yealowish color as are also their 
topps,- they appeare very slender in respect of their length, and 
soone after their cheives open or appeare they wither and fall 
away. These begin to come forth about the beginning of July, 
like rough hedgehog-like pills or husks, without any flowers, only 
bearinge at ye toppe a fewe whitish things like cheives, theis 


husks growe cluster-wise 7 or more together, on one newe shoot. — 
MS. f. 85. 

Alder. Almcs glutinosa Medic. 
Alder. 15 Maii 1622 

The strobilus or fruite of the Alder cometh forth at the beginning 
of the springe when the leaves first appeare, they growe from the 
toppes of the last yeres twigges, clusterwise though not so neare 
together as the berries of the vine, about 8 or 9 in a cluster, at 
the first small, yet of their full length which exceedeth not half an 
ynch, in shewe like Cachryes, afterwards growinge like in fashion to 
an olive not fullie so bigge as a sparrowes egge, composed of many 
brownish scales standinge verie neare one another betwene which 
the seed lieth. These usuallie hange on a yere or more. — MS. f. 86. 

B i r c h.^ Betula alba L. 
[Unnamed by Goodyer.] Undated. 

Ye leaves are small, smooth broad below, growing to a large 
point nicked by the sides, in some like those of the black poplar but 

At y® very first coming forth of the leaves, there cometh forth 
with them a round thinge like a Cachryes, but is indeed the fruite, 
about 3 quarters of an ynch longe, and nere a quarter of an ynch 
over, composed of flatt scales closely sett together, each scale con- 
tayning one seed of a browne color with a white kernell within. 
The scales with a light touch fall apart when y® seed is ripe, the 
seed being neare ripe then cometh forth at y® toppe and by the 
sides of y® same yeres shoot small Cachryes. 


The leaves and fruite come forth towards y*" later end of Aprill, 


the seed is ripe at ye later end of July, the Cachryes beginn to 
appear at ye begining of July. — MS. f. 3 v. 

Tribulus. 2 June 1622 

[The year * 1622 ' may be an error of Johnson. Goodyer's own 
MS. has * 2 June 162 1 ', which see.] 

Wood Club Rush. Scirpus sylvatictts L. 
Cyperus gramineus Lobelii. 8 Julij 1622 

• This hath about 7 or 8 smooth leaves growinge from y® roote 
3 foot longe, half an ynch broad, as it were 3 cornered, sharpe on 
ye edges especially, if you drawe your fingers on them downewards, 
amongest which growe uppe one ioynted smooth stalk, belowe neare 
bigge as ye little finger, three cornered, but obtuse, blunt or 

^ Identified by A. H. C. 



roundish, not sharpe cornered like galangall. Whereon at everie 
ioynt is placed one leafe cloathinge or inclosinge ye stalk upward 
above ye ioynt an ynch and a half or more, about a foot and a half 
longe, and somewhat broader then y® former, at ye toppe of which 
stalks growe usually 3 like leaves but much shorter, from which 
spring forth 6 or more little stalks or branches, after ye manner of 
galangall, 4, 5 or 6 ynches long except ye midle branch which 
usually growes not an ynch above ye divison, and all these are 
againe at their toppe diversly devided into many parts, bearinge 
little knobbs, scales or buttons very like those of Rushes, contayn- 
ing very small yealowish 3 cornered seeds sharpe pointed at both 
ends, which together with ye little buttons in ye beg[inninge] of 
July fall off. The rootes at ye upper parte next ye leaves, are 
infinite of small white threddy strings, sendinge forth underneath 
other rootys (?) bigger then wheate strawes like those of Arundo 
vallatoria ioynted, white at ye first after of a brownish yealow, 
without smell, by which the plant exceedingly increase, growing 
high in aboundance together. — MS. f 7 v. 

On ye west parte of Gloster Hall by Oxford. 5 Julii 1622 

The stalk is round rough or hairy, ioynted, neare as bigge on ye 
lower parte as ye little finger devided towards the toppe into a 
fewe branches, bearinge at everie ioynt one sharpe-pointed leafe 
without or with a very little footstalk about 5 ynches long and 
an ynch and half broad or hairy like ye stalk, not indented 
by ye sides, but sometimes with small excrescens as may be 
seen on ye leaves of Plantans stand inge farr apart. Ye flowers 
growe at ye topps of ye stalks & branches on long slender foot- 
stalks, of a yealowe color, ech flower beinge composed of 5 
greate broad topped leaves, which beinge full blowne is neare 
2 ynches broad, contayning within many small yealowe chives. 
The roots growe forth at certaine ioynts on ye lower parts of ye 
stalks within ye water and mudd, made of many small hairy 
strings. This herbe at ye first tastinge seemeth not to be hott, 
but beinge held in a little space in ye mouth heateth & burneth 
little inferior to ye rest of his kind. — MS. f. 7 v. 

Great Water Parsnip. Sium latifolium L. 
Pastinaca aquatica latifolia at Oxford. 5 Julii 1622 

[Rough draft for the next description.] — MS. f. 7 v. 

Pastinaca aquatica maxima. 5*° Julii 1622 

Sium maius Gerardo Phyto. p. 270. N°. 11. 

The stalkes are greate upright straight and tall, not inferior to 



the garden parsneppe beinge neare as bigge as a mans arme, and 
as high as a tall man, with greate corners deepe chamfers, and 
hoUowe within, devided into many braunches ; whereon growe 
greate broad leaves like those of the garden parsneppe, composed 
of 5 or 6 sometimes 7 or 8 indented smooth leaves sett on ech 
side of a longe midle ribbe, and one at the toppe, of a stronge 
smell. The flowers were not come forth. 

[Two lines left blank, perhaps for a description of the flowers.] 

The rootes are infinite growinge at the lower ptes of the stalkes 
within the water and mudd, white, as bigge as wheatestrawes, and 
they againe sendinge forth abundance of threddy strings, by which 
rootes the plant encreaseth, usuallie 3 or 4 stalkes together from 
one tuft. This I found growinge wild plentifully by the Rivers 
sides and in the water diches about Oxford, 5*° Julii 1622. — MS. 
f. 82 v. 

Stachys germanica L. 
Stachys. Wild Horehound. [? 8 Julii 1622] 

564 Stachys. — Wild Horehound is also like to comon horehound. 
There rise from the root hereof a greate number of stalks high 
or ioynted, and out of everie ioynt a coople of leaves, opposite 
or sett one against another, somewhat hard, a little longer than 
those of comon horehound and whiter, as also ye stalks are sett 
with soft haires and of a sweet smell. Ye flowers doe compasse 
ye stalk about as those doe of comon horehound, but they are 
yealowe and y^ whorles be narrower. The root is woodie and 
durable.— f. 7. 

Calamagrostis. 8 Julii 1622 

[See 27 Apr. 1622.] 

Sweet Flag. Acorus Calamus L. 
Acorus legittimum Clus. 231. Acorus, Ger. 56. 6 Julij 1623 

Acorus hath the leaves all most of the greater narrowe leaved 
Iris \Iris angiistifolid\, but much longer, and of a most pleasant 
greene, the midle nerve or rib somewhat appearinge forth on 
both sides as in ye leaves of Xiphium whose forme they 
sufficiently resemble ; and like them or that moorish plant which 
brings forth yealowe flowers like ye flowers of Irisy which some 
call Iris palustris^ the better skilled more trulie Butomiis. 
They come one out of another, but the midle leafe is most 
comonlie longer than the rest ; but although they be of a tast 
somewhat bitter, yet not unpleasant, and beinge crushed they 
yeld a pleasant and aromaticall smell, which also they retaine 



manie yeres after beinge dryed and without iuyce. About the 
beginning of winter they wither and are dryed, but in the 
beginninge of springe they shoote anewe as in narrowe leaved 
Iris, moreover it produceth not a stalk betwene the leaves 
as the Irtdes, but out of the side of y^ root comes a leafe * 
stalk of the same lenght with y^ other leaves, that is sometimes 
from the midle unto y® toppe is plaine and like the rest, but 
and narrower, and as it were fashioned into a triangular stalk 
it beginns to be extenuated and made plaine it sends forth out 
(sometimes but very seldome two) not greater in ye beginning 
appearinge and stanndinge up a pright [little 
partinge (or cutting) themselves acrosse when it opens itself full of 
consistinge of fower small leaves, 
afterwards untill it gett the lenght and thic 
greene knobbes, in such a comelie order 
cone of the wild pine. It hath 
upper parte when it lies hid in ye earth, 

exceedinge white in the inner parte, distinguished * 
stronge, of a good smell, of a somewhat bitter and sharper tast, 
endewed with many and whitish and sweet smellinge threeds 

growinge to it in ye lower parte, but it creeps and spreads 
itself on the toppe of the earth, sendinge forth from the sides and 
almost everie ioynt or knott yonge ones, one after another, 
obliquely (or crookedlie) so that in a short time it takes uppe 
a greate space. 

a I Julij [161^4] 

a. two corners standing so neare together that they make a 

hollowe like a furrow. 

b. at the upper end of the furrowe. 

c. without any footstalk. — MS, f. 12^5. 

* [Page torn.] 

[The date shows that this description was made from the Acorus 
' in flower in Mris. Mervin's garden 6*^ Julii 1623'. — MS. f. 51.] 

Papaver Argemone L. 
Argemone capitulo longiore Ob. p. 144. 24 Julii 1623 

In Durford garden. 

S a n f o i n. Onobrychis sativa Lam. 
Caput Gallinaceum Belgarum. 24 Julii 1624 

In flower 24 Julii 1624 between Langford & Stapleford in Wiltes 
by ye way on ye south side of ye river. — MS. f. 52. 



Shrubby S u a e d a. Suae da fruticosa Forsk. 
Chamaepytis vermiculata. 10 Sept. 1624 

The stalks are woodie not fuller of a finger bignes, a cubite or 
2 foot high of a blackish or dark ash color devided into many 
branches whereon grow multitudes of small round fatt leaves of 
y® fashion of w . . es very like those of comon stone croppe full of 
iuyce, of a salt tast, of a darke green colour. The rootes are also 
woodie branched of a blacker color then ye stalks. This plant 
continueth greene continually as it seemeth, and increaseth by the 
root growinge in thick tuffets close together. I observed no flowers 
nor seed.— f. 127. 

[A roughly written note on the back of the statement of ' Tenth 

mony ' received by Edward Cole in 1608. See p. 373.] 

Common Spleenwort. Aspleitiiim Trichomanes L. 
Trichomanes mas. — Jan. 1624 

* Mr. Goodyer saith that in January 1624, he saw enough to lade 
an horse growing on the bancks in a lane, as he rode between 
Rake and Headly in Hampshire neere Wollmer Forest' — Ger. 
emac, 11 46. 

C o w b a n e. Cicuta virosa L. 
Sium alterum olusatri facie. 16 Sept. 1625 

Found by Mr. Goodyer in the ponds about Moore Parke [Ger. 
emac. 257) and at Denham in Hertfordshire in standinge motes sine 
caule.— f. 58. 

Knotted Pearlwort. Sagina 7iodosa Meyer. 
Alsine palustris foliis tenuissimis. 12 Aug. 1626 

This hath a great number of very small grasse-like leaves, 
growing from the root, about an inch long, a great deale smaller 
and slenderer than small pinnes ; amongst which spring up many 
small slender round smooth firme branches some handful! or 
handfull and halfe high, from which sometimes grow a few other 
smaller branches, whereon at certaine ioynts grow leaves like the 
former, and those set by couples with other shorter comming forth 
of their bosomes ; and so by degrees they become shorter and 
shorter towards the top, so that toward the top this plant somwhat 
resembleth Tkymum durius. The flowers are great for the slender- 
nesse of the plant, growing at the tops of the branches, each flower 
consisting of five smal blunt roundish topped white flowers, with 
white chives in the middest. The seed I observed not. The root is 
small, growing in the myre with a few strings. This groweth 
plentifully on the boggy ground below the red Well of Welling- 

N 2 



borough in Northampton shire. This hath not beene described 
that I finde. I observed it at the place aforesaid, August 12 
1626. — Ger. emac. 568. 

Grass of Parnassus. Parnassia palustris L. 
Gramen parnassi. 12 Aug. 1626 

In the boggy ground below the Red Well of Wellingborough in 
Northamptonshire. — Ger, emac, 840. 

Cerinthe minor L. 
Cerinthe minor flore albo veris luteis. 23 Sept. 1628 

This in stalks and leaves dififereth verie little from the other, the 
flowers in shape are like, the color from the midle to the brim 
is of a whitish or pale yealowe, the brim itself a much deeper 
yealowe, the midle hath a ringe or circle of a reddish purple from 
that circle backward that is to the fasteninge of the huske, of a 
deepe yealowe, the seeds are like the other but as small againe. — 
MS, f. 120. 

[The 'other' is Cerinthe flore rubro, 9 July 1621.] 

Golden Lungwort. Hieraciiim murorum L. 
Pulmonaria Gallica sive aurea latifolia. 27 May 1631 

' I received some plants of this from Mr. John Goodyer, who first 
found it May 27, 1631 in flower; and the 3 of the following May 
not yet flowring in a copse in Godlemen in Surrey, adioyning 
to the orchard of the Inne whose signe is the Antilope.' — Ger. 
emac. 305. 

Triticum vulgare L. 
Wheat ear with Oats. — Ger. emac, 65. See p. 62. 1^32 

Water Plantain. Damasonium stellatum Thuill. 
Plantago aquatica stellata. 2 Julij ^()'^'^ 

The roote is nothinge but a multitude of very small white 
thredds like hairs growinge in the myre amonge which springe the 
leaves, their footstalks are about 3 ynches longe, at the toppe of 
ech groweth igrosse plaine smoth leafe, not indented, an ynch long, 
a quarter of an ynch broad or somewhat broader, sharpe pointed, 
with two eares belowe sometimes, but most comonly without. 

The stalks growe uppe amongest them, in number 5 or 6 plain 
smooth round firme not hollowe, small, as bigge as a small straw, 
on ech stalk groweth an umbell, consisting of 7 footstalks, 6 of 
them having at the toppe of ech a starr-like fruite, of six sharpe 
pointed husks like the rowell of a spurr, the seaventh footstalk 
beareth an other umbell, with 3 or 4, 5 or 6 footstalks & starr-like 
husks like the former. 



Neare London highwaie in the watery plashes at the east end of 
the greate Comon bctweene Sandie Chappell and Kingston, neare 
the bridge as you ride out of the Comon by a small Cottage there. 
I saw no flowers. — MS. f. 137. 

[A note scribbled on the back of a list of men of the Tithing of 
. . . [name obliterated], p. 381.] 

[Goodyer first found this plant in 161 8 growing on Hounslow 
Heath, the station quoted by Johnson. — Ger. emac. p. 418.] 

Fern s. 

Filix mas varietates & difTerentiae. 4 Julii 1633 

I have observed foure sorts of Ferne, by most writers esteemed 
to be the male Ferne of Dioscorides : by Anguillaria, Gesner, 
CcEsalphius, and Clnsius, accounted to be the female, and so indeed 
doe I thinke them to be, though I call them the male, with the 
multitude. If you looke on these Femes according to their severall 
growths and ages, you may make many more sorts of them than 
I have done ; which I am afraid hath beene the occasion of 
describing more sorts than indeed there are in nature. These 
descriptions I made by them when they were in their perfect 
growths. — MS. f. 138; Ger. emac. 11 29. 

Broad Shield-fern. Aspidium dilatatum Sm. 
Filix mas ramosa pinnulis dentatis. 4 Julii 1633 

The roots are nothing but an aboundance of small blacke hairy 
strings, growing from the lower parts of the maine stalkes (for 
stalkes I will call them) where those stalkes are ioyned together. 
At the beginning of the Spring you may perceive the leaves to 
grow forth of their folding clusters, covered with brownish scales 
at the superficies of the earth, very closely ioyned together: 
a young plant hath but a few leaves ; an old one, ten, twelve, or 
more : each stalke at his lower end neere the ioyning to his 
fellowes, at his first appearing, before he is an inch long having 
some of those blacke fibrous roots for his sustenance. The leaves 
being at their full growth hath each of them a three-fold division, 
as hath that Ferne which is commonly called the female : the 
maine stalke, the side branches growing from him, and the nerves 
growing on those side branches bearing the leaves : the maine 
stalke of that plant I describe was fully foure foot long (but there 
are usually from one foot to foure in length) full of those brownish 
scales, especially toward the root, firme, one side flat, the rest 
round, naked fully one and twenty inches^, to the first paire of side 
branches. The side branches, the longest being the third paire 
from the root, were nine inches long, and shorter and shorter 


towards the top, in number about twenty paire ; for the most part 
towards the root they grow by couples, almost opposite, the neerer 
the top the further from opposition : the nerves bearing the leaves, 
the longest were two inches and a quarter long, and so shorter and 
shorter toward the tops of the side branches ; about twentie in 
number on each side of the longest side branch. The leaves grow 
for the most part by couples on the nerve, eight or nine paire on 
a nerve ; each leafe being gashed by the sides, the gashes ending 
with sharpe points^ of a deep green on the upper side, on the under 
side paler, and each leafe having two rowes of dusty red scales, 
of a browne or blackish colour : toward the top of the maine stalke 
those side branches change into nerves, bearing only the leaves. 
When the leaves are at their full growth, you may see in the 
middest of them at their roots the said scaly folding cluster ; and 
as the old leaves with their blacke threddy roots wholly perish, 
they spring up ; most yeares you may finde many of the old leaves 
greene all the Winter, especially in warme places. This groweth 
plentifully in the boggy shadowie moores neere Durford Abbey in 
Sussex, and also on the moist shadowie rockes by Mapledurham 
in Hampshire, neere Petersfield ; and I have found it often on the 
dead putrified bodies and stems of old rotten okes, in the said 
moores ; neere the old plants I have observed verie many small 
yong plants growing, which came by the falling of the seed from 
those dusty scales : for I beleeve all herbes have seeds in them- 
selves to produce their kindes, Gen. i. ii. & 12. — MS. f. 138-9; 
Ger. emac. 1129. 

[I thought to have called this Dryoptei^is^ but that is described by 
Cordus and Tragus to be a very small tender ferne not above 
9 inches high with creeping roots like those of Polypodium 
(^r^Wj.]— MS. f. 138. 

The three other have but a twofold division, the many stalks and 
the nerves bearing the leaves. The roots of them all are blacke 
fibrous threds like the first, their maine stalks grow many thicke 
and close together at the root, as the first doth : the difference is 
in the fashion of their leaves, and manner of growing, and for 
distinctions sake I have thus called them : 

Male Shield-fern. A spidium Filix-mas S w. 
Filix mas non ramosa pinnulis latis densis minutim dentatis. 

4 Julii 1633 

The leaves are of a yellowish greene colour on both sides, set 


very thicke and close together on the nerve, that you cannot see 
betweenc them, with marvellous small nickes by their sides, and on 
their round tops : each leafe hath also two rowes of dusty seed 
scales ; the figures set forth by Lobel^ Tabern., and Gerard^ under 
the title of Felix mas, do well resemble this Ferne. This growes 
plentifully in most places in shadowie woods and copses. — MS. 
f. 139; Ger.emac. 1129-30. 

Nephroditim Filix-mas, Sw., var. affinis (Newm.). 
Filix mas non ramosa pinnulis angustis, raris, profunde dentatis. 

4 Julii 1633 

The leaves are of a deepe greene, not closely set together on the 
nerve, but you may far off see betwixt them, deeply indented by 
the sides, ending with a point not altogether sharpe : each leafe 
hath also two rowes of dusty seed scales. I have not scene any 
figure well resembling this plant. This groweth also in many 
places in the shade. — MS. f. 140 ; Ger. emac. 1 130. 

Prickly Shield-fern. Polystichum aculeatum S w. 
V2ix. lobatum Sym^', or Angular Shield-fern. P. 
angulare Presl. 
Filix mas non ramosa pinnulis latis auriculatis spinosis. 

4 Julii 1633 

The leaves are of a deeper greene than either of the two last 
described, placed on the nerve not very close together, but that 
you may plainly see between them ; each leafe (especially those 
next the stalke) having on that side farthest off the stalk a large 
eare or outgrowing ending, with a sharp pricke like a haire, as doth 
also the top of the leafe : some of the sides of the leaves are also 
nicked, ending with the like pricke or haire. Each leafe hath two 
rowes of dusty seed scales. This I take to be Filix mas aculeata 
maior Bauhini. Neither haue I seene any figure resembling this 
plant. It groweth abundantly on the shadowie moist rockes by 
Mapledurham neere Petersfield in Hampshire. — MS. f. 140 ; Ger. 
emac. 1130. 

Marsh Shield-fern. Dryopteris Thelypteris Asa Gray. 
Dryopteris Penae & Lobelii. 6 Julii 1633 

The roots creepe in the ground or mire, neere the turfe or upper 
part thereof, and fold amongst themselves, as the roots of Poly- 
podium do, almost as big as a wheat straw, and about five, six, 
or seven inches long, coal blacke without, and white within, of 
a binding taste inclining to sweetnesse, with an innumerable com- 


panie of small blacke fibres like haires growing thereunto. The 
stalkes spring from the roots in severall places, in number variable, 
according to the length and encrease of the root ; I have seene 
small plants have but one or two, and some bigger plants have 
fourteene or fifteene : they have but a two-fold division, the stalke 
growing from the root, and the nerve bearing the leaves : the 
stalke is about five, six, or seven inches long, no bigger then 
a bennet or small grasse stalke, one side flat, as are the male 
Femes, the rest round, smooth, and green. The first paire of nerves 
grow about three inches from the root, and so do all the rest grow 
by couples, almost exactly one against another, in number about 
eight, nine, or ten couples, the longest seldome exceeding an inch 
in length. The leaves grow on those nerves also by couples, eight 
or nine couples on a nerve, without any nickes or indentures, of a yel- 
lowish greene colour. This Feme may be said to be like Polypodiiim 
in his creeping root, like the male Feme in his stalke, and like the 
female Feme in his nerves and leaves. I could finde no seed-scales 
on the backesides of any of the leaves of this Ferne. Many yeares 
past I found this same in a very wet moore or bog, being the land 
of Richard Austen^ called Whitrow Moore, where Peate is now 
digged, a mile from Petersfield in Hampshire ; and this sixth of 
luly, 1633, I digged up there many plants, and by them made this 
description. I never found it growing in any other place: the 
leaves perish at Winter, and grow up againe very late in the 
Spring. — MS. f. 340 ; Ger, emac. 1135-6. 

[There is a sketch by Goodyer of a fern on the same page as this 

Ulmus campestris Sm., U. moiitaiia Stokes, U. glabrayWW^x^ 
U. minor Miller. 

Elms. 1633 
[For Goodyer's descriptions of the four species of Elm see p. 38.] 
Among the undated notes and species contributed by Goodyer 
to Johnson's second edition of Gerard were the following. The 
descriptions must therefore be earlier than 1633 several may 
date from c. i6ai. 

Marsh Helleborine. Epipactis palustris Crantz. 
Palma Christi, radice repente. [Before 1633] 

' It growes also plentifullie in Hampshire within a mile of a 
market Towne called Petersfield, in a moist meadow named Wood- 
mead, neere the path leading from Petersfield, towards Beryton.' 

[Johnson [Ger. emac. 227) prints this locality without acknowledge- 
ment, but it was doubtless communicated to him by Goodyer. The 


description of the species is unfortunately illustrated by a wood-block 
of Goodyera repens, an orchid of a genus named by Robert Brown in 
honour of Goodyer, thus unfortunately connecting his name with a plant 
which he had probably never seen. Goodyer's ' Palma Christi ' or 
* Creeping-rooted Satyrion ' has been identified by Canon Vaughan as 
Epipactis palustris, a species to be found in boggy situations in several 
parts of Hampshire. Brown, thinking that it was the same as a rare 
northern orchid, found in certain fir-woods in Cumberland and Scotland, 
gave it the name of Goodyera repens in honour of our Hampshire 
botanist, who, it is suggested, might possibly have met with a specimen 
of this rare northern plant in the low-lying grounds between Petersfield 
and Maple-Durham.] 

R a m p i o n s. Phyteuma orbiculare L. 
Rapunculus corniculatus montanus. [Before 1633] 

Johnson ' received seeds and roots hereof from Mr. Goodyer who 
found it plentifully growing wilde in the inclosed chalkie hilly 
grounds by Mapledurham '. — Ger. emac. 455. 

Sea Bindweed. Convolvulus Soldanella L. 
Soldanella marina. n. d. 

[The local Isle of Wight name, 'Scurvy Grass,' given to this 
plant, supports the truth of the following remark of Johnson :] ' My 
friend Mr. Goodyer hath told me that in Hampshire, at Chichester, 
and thereabout, they make use of this for Scurvie-grass, and that 
not without great errour, as any that know the qualities may easily 
perceive. — Ger. emac. 839. 

Golden Saxifrage. Chrysospleniiim oppositifolium L. 
Saxifraga aurea. [Before J 633] 

Mr. Goodyer hath also observed it abundantly on the shadowie 
moist rockes by Maple Durham in Hampshire. — Ger. emac. (S42. 
[The first record for Hants.] 

Geranium lucidum L. 
Geranium saxatile, Thalii. [Before 1633] 

Master Goodyer found it growing plentifully on the bankes by 
the highway leading from Gilford towards London neere unto the 
Townes end. — Ger. emac. 938. 

[First record for Britain.] 

Phyllitis Scolopendrium, Newm., var. multifida, 
Phyllitis multifida. Finger Harts-tongue. [Before 1633] 

Mr. Goodyer found it wilde in the banks of a lane neere 
Swaneling, not many miles from Southampton. — Ger. emac. 1139. 


Digitalis ferrtiginea L. 
Digitalis ferruginea. 21 Sept. 1633 

This is a verie comely plant growinge like a pyramide. 

The maine stalk is 3 or 4 foot high, greene, smooth, with some 
edges, not hollowe but filled with a white spungie pith, growinge 
upright as strait as an arrowe, not farr from the lower part it 
sendeth forth many branches, not growinge so high as the stalk. 

The leaves are many, & spread uppon the ground before the stalk 
groweth uppe, greene & smooth on both sides, without nicks by the 
sides, usuallie with 5 ribbes, like those of quinque nervia plantayne, 
about — ynches long & — ynches broad. Also such leaves growe 
on the stalks and branches, but small and shorter towards the toppe, 
not by cooples but heare and there. 

The flowers make a comely spike, & as the stalk and branches 
growe so they flower still upwards nere their topps hollowe, of the 
bignes of the toppe of the little finger, the upper side half an ynch 
longe, the lower side hath lipps stickinge forth of a quarter of an 
ynch, & on ech side of the flower ther is one excrescence or — 
like the toth of a sawe, in the inside there is usually 4 cheives 
growinge to the upp part of the flower, the whole is of a rustic 
iron color, with many purplish strakes, & somewhat hayrie both 
without & within. 

The flowers fallen, the seed vessels playnely appeare makinge 
a longe spike, besettinge the stalks and branches round about, in 
forme round and sharpe pointed, but half as bigge as the flower 
half an ynch large at the lower part of ech seed vessell groweth 
fower scalie leaves, half as bigge but fully as longe as the nayle of 
the little finger. — MS. i. 137 b. 

Tooth cress. Dentaria bulbifera L. 
Dentaria baccifera v. bulbifera. 6 Aug. 1634 

At May field in a wood of Mr. Stephen Penckhurst called High- 
reed and in another wood of his called ffox-holes. — MS. ff. 53, 62. 

Procumbent Pearl wort. Sagina apetala L. 

20 June 1634 

Perianthos 4 greene blunt-topped leaves hollowed sherie fashion, 
spreading open, one opposite against another crosse- 

I'he flower 4 very small white blunt-topped leaves, not so bigg 
as a small pinnshead a quarter as bigg as ye 
perianthos spreading iust between them, making 
a duble crosse. 



pointell Small white & short open at y** toppc into 4 pts, one 

parte lyenge iust over ech flower. 

chives 4 white chives standing just as farr out as the top of 

ye pointell and ech pointell standinge iust opposite 
to ech leafe of ye perianthos. 

pericarpium hath 4 greenish leaves in form of those of the 
periantos, closed fast together till the seed is ripe. 

seed the seed is small, smaller than that of sweet margerom 

and ... of colour like it, many lyeng in one peri- 
carpium. — MS. f. 14. 
[The identification of this unnamed description has been due to my 
friend Mr. A. H, Church. It is the earliest English account of the plant.] 

Horse-shoe Vetch. Hippocrepis comosa L. 
Ferrum equinum Germanicum siliquis in summitate. 9 Aug. 1634 
On Buttersworth Hill, 9 Aug. 1634 : ripe seed. — MS. f. 53 V. 

Marsh Isnardia. Litdwigia pahistris Ell. 
Herba aquatica rubescens, facie Anagallidis Acre luteo. 

39 Aug. 1645 

The stalks are smooth almost round, sometimes some parts of 
them a little square, reddish, firme within, not hollowe, sometimes 
allmost a foot longe, of the bignes of those of orgamen. 

The leaves growe by cooples, on the stalkes & branches, on short 
footstalks somethinge like those of Anagallis Jio. hiteo} The 
biggest are nere 3 quarters of an ynch longe & half an ynch 
broad, also reddish, smooth, nothinge at all indented by the 
edges ; those on the toppes of the stalkes & branches are 
shorter and smaller ; the ioynts about the middest of the stalkes 
are allmost an ynch apart but towards the topps of the stalks & 
branches, they are very neare together. The branches come forth 
at the bosomes of the leaves, & thereby increase very much. The 
roots are like small threeds & come forth at the ioynts of the stalks 
& branches, & take hold in the mudd. 

The flowers come forth at the bosomes of the leaves towards the 
toppes of the stalks & branches, usually forth of ech bosome but 
one, sometimes two, in one bosome & but one on that opposite to 
them ; they are small, scarce to be called flowers, but are like the 
huskes of many herbes that containe the flowers before they be 
opened, this huske or flower is not half a quarter of an ynch longe, 
and is divided into 4 parts, or leaves at the toppe, ech leafe beinge 
sharpe pointed & little bigger then a small pinnes head of a greenish 

* Lysimachia nemoru7n L. 



colour, & does not fall offe as the leaves of other flowers doe but 
continue on till and after the seed is ripe. 

The seed is contayned in that huske, & is white & as small as 

The whole herbe is of a reddish colour, and flotes in or uppon 
the water and prospers well when all the water is dryed from it, 
& then flowers, seldom before. I could never observe any flowers 
but on those plants from which the water was dryed away, and that 
in August. 

I have long observed this plant, as I found it growinge in the 
rivulett on the east side of Petersfield, runinge and a heathy comon 
about the middest thereof. I cannot yet tell what genus it is, nor 
what name is most proper for it. — MS. f. 141. 

[The Marsh Isnardia is one of the very rarest of Hampshire plants, 
and Goodyer's description has not been printed before ; indeed it was 
not known that he had noted it about a quarter of a century before 
the date of the first ' record ' given by Townsend. After Merrett had 
recorded Goodyer's discovery in 1666, the plant does not appear to 
have been seen again until about 1835 ? when it was rediscovered by 
Miss Rickman and J. Barton; 'and in the moist summer of 1848, 
Dr. Bromfield found it plentifully (he had searched for it unsuccess- 
fully in previous dry summers) in marshy spots, into which expanded 
at intervals the shallow stream which drains the great pond at Peters- 
field. I am not aware of the plant having been found at Petersfield 
since 1848, though it has been repeatedly searched for. The shallow 
stream above described is now so circumscribed that even during the 
wet summer of 1S79 it expanded into no marshy spots in which Isnardia 
could have a chance of growing. I searched the stream through the 
Common and along its course downwards for about a mile, but without 
success. The plant is now extinct in Sussex, the only other county in 
which it has been found in Great Britain.' ' Mr. Bolton King's patient 
determination to rediscover the plant [in the Brockenhurst neighbour- 
hood, where it had been found by Borrer in 1843] was rewarded by 
finding it abundantly in 1878 in another spot in the neighbourhood.']^ 

Beech. Fagus sylvatica L. 
Fagus. Before 1650 

I found one much varying in his leaves, some were whole as those 
of the ordinary, others much jagged or divided. — Goodyer quoted 
by How, Phytologia, p. 40. 

I 650-1 656 

The notes on the following nine plants occur in How's handwriti7ig 
in his interleaved copy of the Phytologia Britannica. They must 
therefore have been written between i6jo., when the book was 
published, and 16^6, when he died, 

^ Townsend, Flora Hampshire^ p. 158. 




Cardamine ivipatiens L. 
Cardamine flosculis minoribus, sive impatiens. 
From rills and ditch sides about Bath. 

Dr. Johnson was mistaken in saying yt this was Sitmt minimum, 
Alp. I have both ye plants. I admonished him of this error but 
he lived not to amend it. J. Goodyer. — p. 21. 
[Johnson died in 1644.] 

Polypodium Dryopteris L. 
Dryopteris, Trag. Tree-fern. 

It growes on a bottome called Rogers Deane in ye parish of 
Faringdon in Hampshire, about a mile and a half from ye church, 
a furlong from one John Trybes dwelling house on ye north east 
part of ye house about 2 miles from Alton about a mile north east 
from Dogford Wood. Great antient beeches kept ye sunne from 
shining on ye Plants. Ann. 1654 many of those trees were cut 
downe. The Plants ye sunna shone on y* summer '54 were short, 
ye leaves growing on short stemms neere ye earth as Tabernaemont 
pictureth it, p. 501 tom 2 under ye title of Filicula petraea fem. 3. 
Those yt grew under ye trees were much higher agreable to Tragus 
figure p. 538. John Goodyer.' — p. 35. 

Ye least Furze. Ulex nanus Forst. 
Park. des. of Genista spinosa minor p. 1003 accords not with 
ye Least Furze ; ours beares no leaves at all. They are but ye first 
sproutings of ye thornes or prickles, even as of ye great furze (bee 
hee what hee will y* willes ye contrary) ye cods have furze, even as 
ye cods of ye greater furze. I cannot find from whence Park, rec** 
his fig. I suppose it was made by imagination. J. Goodyer. — 
P- 45- 

[Dr. Stapf, who has kindly assisted in the determination of Goodyer's 
furzes, writes that in his opinion and in that of Mr. Sprague Genista 
spinosa minor Park., p. 1003, is entirely dubious. The figure in 
Parkinson goes back to the 1588 edition of Tabernaemontanus, where 
it is meant to illustrate Nepa Theophrasti of Pena and Lobel, but 
Tabernaemontanus himself says he is not sure whether it fits that plant. 
There is no indication where it was drawn from. Lobel's Nepa Theo- 
phrasti is evidently Ulex parvifiorus^ and it may be that the figure is 
just a very bad illustration of that species. This UleK would probably 
not be hardy in England.] 

Gorse. Ulex Europaeus L. 
Genista spinosa flore albo Park, j 003. 
[A whitish flowered variety.] 


Ulex parvifloTus, 
Genista spinosa major brevibus aculeis Bauh. Pin. p. 394. 

This I suppose groweth not in England. Pena and Lobel in 
Adv. p. 354 had seene it nowhere but in Province wch is a hott 
country, and Lob. lived time enough in England before ye Adv, 
was vi^ritten to have observed it if it had growne but half so common 
as ye lesser Furze. ^ Cam[erarius] in hort. med. pag. 106 saith ' in 
fichlibus asservanda' wch argues yt it will not endure abroad in 
a cold countrie in ye winter. The Icons yt were made for Nepa 
in Adv. p. 354, in Tabern. Ic. p. 408, in Hist. Lugd. p. 164 agree 
not with ye lesser Furze. Parkinson sayes yt his Genista spinosa 
minor p. 1003 is ye Nepa of Lob. This duly considered I am 
confident to affirme yt our lesser Furze is not yet described. John 
Goody er. — p. 45. 

[Druce [Goody er^ p. 26) is all at sea in the transcription of this 
paragraph. Dr. Stapf writes, *The Bauhinian species is evidently 
a mixture. To judge by the first synonyms (Anguillaria and Pena and 
Lobel) it was very probably meant for Ulex parvijiorus, but through 
the additions (Tabern. &c.) it got confused. See my observations sub 
U. nanus. ^\ 

Toad rush. Junciis bufofiius L. 
Gr[amen] holosteum Alpinum minimum. Bauh. Prod. 

' Male a Johnsono Holosteum pumilum non descriptum, pervenit 
in ericetis. Job. Goodyer.' — p. 53. 

? {See p 171.) 

Gramen murorum spica longissima. Capons taile-grasse. 
* Mr. Goodyers upon ye walls of Winchester.' — p. 54. 

Oenanthe angustifolia. — p. 81. {See under 18 June 1620.) 

Pulmonaria angustifolia L. 
Pulmonaria maculosa. 

How substitutes the name of Goodyer for that of Loggins as the 
authority for the locality. 'Neer Kings-wood in Hampshire.' — p. 100. 
[See under 25 May 1620.] 

Vicia sylvatica L. 
Vicia maxima sylvatica. 

Great wood Vetch from a wood nigh Bath. 

How has changed name to V. max. sylvatica ' spicata Bathoniensis 
Goodyeri — p. 129. 

[How's MS. note in his Pkytologia.] 

^ Ye lesser furze. Parkinson uses the term ' lesser furse bush ' for Genista 
spinosa minor. Does not Goodyer use it in the same sense, just as an English 
translation of that name ? — O. S. 



Geraniitni coltnnbimim L. 
Geranium columbinum foliis magis dissectis, pediculis longissimis. 

Aug. 1654 

I found it wild in ye beginning of August 1654. It is not 
described or pictured yt I find. John Goodyer. 

Ou[ery] ye place of growth and des[cription] for this and [the 
next plant] following. 

^ In several places of Hampshire. J. Goodyer.' Merrett, Pinax 45. 

[Druce's reading of the passage giving the locality as White 
Chapell is not justified.] 

Sisymbrium Irio L. 
Erysimum ii Tab. Ou[aere] locum. [Before 1656] 

Grows in ye streets near White Chappell east from Aldgate, 
London. J. Goodyer. 

[Note in How's handwriting at end of his Phytologia.] 

Buiiias orientale L. 
Rapistrum aliud non bulbosum. P. 862. [Before 1656] 

' In the broad street by White Chappel, Mr. Goodyer.' Merrett, 
Pinax 103. 

[Although this record was not printed before 1666, it is probable 
that Goodyer found the plant with ' Erysimum ii * on the same visit to 
London. If this be so, it must have been before the date of How's 
death in 1656.] 

Wild Madder. Rubin peregrina, 
Rubia sylvestris. 12 Aug. 1655 

[Recorded by Turner, 1551-68.] 

The stalks are fower square, hollowe within smooth, one, two, 
three foot high, sometimes higher, with ioynts three or fower 
ynches apart : at the ioynt somethinge about the ground growe 
forth two side branches & the like side branches at everie ioynt 
upward on the maine stalk, and those branches at the ioynts send 
forth other side branches after the same manner. At each ioynt 
of the greater stalk growe the leaves in a circle which are smooth, 
6, 7, 8 sometimes 9 at ech ioynt, the biggest leaves sometimes are 
about 3 quarters of an ynch longe, and broad, at ech ioynt 

also of the branches growe such leaves, but are smaller & smaller 
towards the toppes of the stalkes & branches. 

The flowers growe abundantlie neare the toppes of the stalkes 
and branches, racematim, and are white, everie flower havinge 4 small 
sharpe pointed leaves. The seeds are small, round, manie times 
two growinge together. The rootes are small, with some threeds. 



creepeth farr in the earth, the bai ke thereof beinge of a yealowish 
redd color, & stickie hard in the midle. 

The stalks & branches die everie yere, the rootes continue manie 

It usuallie growes in drie chalkie grounds, in barren places the 
stalks are short, a foot or little longer, & needes no supporter, in 
richer grownds they are much longer, in hedges & amongest bushes, 
longest and needs supporters, as doe Gallium albttni. — MS. f. 142. 

Apium inundatum Reichb. f. 
Sium pusillum foliis variis. 2 Junij [656 

The leaves before the plants have stalkes are like those of fennell 
but much smaller, growinge in abundance in the mudd within the 
water. The stalkes are hollowe as bigge as a wheate strawe, greene 
for the most parte sometimes reddish & a foot long or longer & 
growe uppe amongest the leaves not upright but swimming sidelonge 
in the water, the toppes only appearinge above it, wch at the ioynts 
devides into severall branches. At each ioynt on the stalk within 
the water growes one leafe, like fennell as the former, but shorter 
& smaller, towards & on the toppes of the stalkes & branches with 
eyther and a little above the water, or swimminge on it are leaves 
much broader then the former, in forme & fashion to those of 
Eruca pahistri's minor [Water-Rocket^]. Tab[ernaemontanus] 
pictured in his Icons p. 447 ; only these have not above 2 or 3 paire 
of small leaves on the midle ribbe of ech leafe, & that hath 4, 5 or 

At the ioynts of the stalks towards their toppes growe the foote- 
stalks about an ynch of length, ech footstalk for the most parte 
devided towards the toppe into 2 parts, on ech of which parts 
comonly groweth 2, 3, 4 or 5 small white flowers, clusterwise 
together, ech flower havinge 4 small sharpe pointed leaves, ech leafe 
beinge no bigger then a small pins head. 

In their places come 2, 3, 4 or 5 seeds as bigge, and of the forme 
of Caraway or parsley seeds clusteringe also together. 

The rootes are as small as threeds & growe at the ioynts of the 
stalks & fasten them selves in the mudd whereby it mightelie 
increaseth. It flowers about the beginninge & midle of May. 

This plant growes comonly in small lakes, & water plashes, but 
not described before that I know of. 2 Junij 1656 I made this 
description when the plant hadd almost done floweringe, & much 
of the seed was of its full growth. — MS. f. 143. 

^ Nasturtitwi sylvestre R.Br. 



Holosteum. 2 Junii 1656 

See ' Herba aquatica' 19 Aug. 1645. 

Marsh Ragwort. Se^tecio paludostis, L. 
Conyza aquatica laciniata. 19 July 1656 

Growes in greate plentie in the fenns in Norfolk near Downam 
marjcett neare Linn, by the relation of John Header of Downam 
markett, a grocer. — MS. 9, f. 186 a. 

Samphire. Crithmum maritimum L. 
Crithmum chrysanthemum Ger. em. [i^5^] 
Grows by Hurst Castle, Hants, by relation of John Meader of 
Downham. — MS. 9, f. 201 a. 

?Smooth Tare. Vicia tetrasperma Moench. 
Viciae sive Craccae minimae species cum siliquis glabris Joh. 
Bauhini. Tom 2, p. 315. JG. 626. An Vicia segetum singu- 

laribus siliquis glabris. Pin. C. Bauh. p. 345 (b. 3). 4 Junii 1657 
The stalk, a verie little above the ground & so upward sendeth 
forth at the bosomes of the leaves severall other stalkes or branches, 
angular not round, a foot, a foot & half high or longe, little more 
or lesse. 

The Leaves growe on the stalkes or branches, about an ynch 
apart not by cooples, but one in a place, ech leafe beinge composed 
of a midle ribbe, endinge with a tendrell with which it taketh hold 
of what groweth neare it and on ech midle ribe 3 or 4 paire of 
leaves, ech leaf being about half an ynch longe and not fuUie 
one eight part of an ynch broade. 

The flowers growe on footstalks forth of the bosomes of the leaves, 
usuallie one footstalk out of ech bosome & no more, ech footstalk 
beinge about an ynch longe as small as a small threed. The flowers 
come forth in May & June & growe on the toppes of the footstalkes, 
one, two or three at the most, yet seldome above one on ech footstalk, 
a quarter of an ynche longe, of a blewish or purple violett color, 
of the fashion of those of Aracus sive Cracca minima Lobelij. 

The codds succeed the flowers, ech codd beinge about half an 
ynch longe, half a quarter or the eight part of an ynch broad, & are 
smooth not hairie or woollie. 

The seeds are contained in the codds, 2, 3 or 4 seeds in ech codd, 
and are [unfinished]. 

The roote is small accordinge to the proportion of the plant 
devided into severall strings or thredds & perisheth when the seed 
is ripe.— 7^/5. f. 145. 

[? First evidence for Hants.] 



The 7text seven records are from Goodyers MS. entries in How's 
interleaved copy of his Phytologia {MS. i8) received by Goody er 
on 30 Apr. 1659. 

Rumex Acetosa L. 
Acetosa maxima After 30 Apr. 1659 

Goody er MS. iti How, Phyt. MS. 18, p. 2. 

Alsine aquatica verna. Springe chickweed. 
MS. 18, p. 4. 

Arctium Lappa L. 
Arctium montanum et Lappa minor Galeni Lob. Button Burre. 
Mangerfield in Master Langlie's Yard.^ MS. 18, p. 10. 

Galeopsis Tetrahit L., var. bifida Boenn. 
Cannabis spuria altera flo. purp^ Netle Hempe. 

C. spuria altera sylvestris, Lamium quorundam Lob. Icon. 537. 
In agris. — MS. 18, p. 20. 

Carex vulpina L. 
Gramen palustre Cyperoides Lob. Ger. Great Cyperus Grasse. 
MS. 18, p. 54. 

Viola tricolor L. 
Viola sive Jacea tricolor sylvestris parva. Wild Pansies. 
In agris. — MS. 18, p. 130. 

Common Ragwort. Senecio Jacobaea. 
Jacobaea Pannonica 2 Clus. 4 June 1659 

Mr. Tho. Bartar^ of Petersfeild, schoolemaster gathered this 
imagined Pulmonaria Gallica Lobelii, on Ladle Hill in flower and 
brought it to J. G. the 4 of June 1659. 

^ Druce, Goodyer, p. 25, notes that this- record is not included in the Flora of 
Hampshire. Why should it be The Manor of Alangotsfield was purchased 
in 1612 by Mr. Philip Langley who lived in Rodway Hill Manor House, still 
a fine survival of the time of King Henry VHI, three of whose wives may 
have visited it (Emlyn Jones, Oiir Parish : Mangotsfield). It was here that 
Johnson and his socii were entertained in so grand a manner by ' that truly 
noble and generous man Philip Langley ' when on their herborizing journey in 
July 1634. Evidently finding his own words inadequate to describe the luxury 
of the house and the sumptuous meal provided for his company, Johnson fell 
back on Virgil, and quotes a passage descriptive of some similar occasion when 
' laden tables crowned with wines huge goblets, drinking cups, &c., marked the 
feast (White, Flora of Bristol, p. 54). 

2 Druce has misread this name as ' Geo. Burton', in the Rep. Bat. Exch. Club 
SuppL 191 6, p. 23. 



It is Jacoboea Pannonica 2 Clus. C. Bauh. p. 131 (b. ^) & it is 
Jacoboea angustifolia in this booke^ p. '2(So. — MS. 18, p. 10. 

[Then follows a recipe taken from Parkinson, Theairum^ p. 518, 
for an Alkanet ointment prepared by boiling 20 earthworms in good 
sallet oil. — MS. in How, Phytologia^ p. 10. 

Ladle Hill, crowned by a circular camp, is near Burghclere in the 
north of Hampshire.] 

Cloudberry. Rubtis Chamaemorus L. 
Cloudberry. 15 Apr. 1663 

Mr. Tho. Thornton parson of Sutton ats Sulton in Sussex in 
Arundel Rape, borne at Bentham in Yorkshire, 2 miles from 
Yngleborowe hill, 15 Apr. 1663 promised Cloudberry. — Goodyer's 
MS. note in his copy of Ray, Catalog2is Plantarum circa 
Cantabrigiam nasc. 

Species of plants described in Goodyers MS. and included by Merrett 

in his Pinax by permission of Edmund Yalden in 1666. 
Alsine flosculis conniventibus. Montia fontaria L. 

Anagallis aquat. flore parvo viridi caule rubro. Ludvigia palustris 


Aria Theophrasti fol. obtusis. Pyrus Aria L. 

Caucalis pumila segetum. Caucalis arvensis Huds. 

Geranium columbinum fol. magis dissectis. Ger. columbinum L. 
Gramen Paniceum. Bearded Panick grass. Panicum Crus-galli L. 
Juniperus sterilis. Juniperus communis L. 

Lathyrus maior angustifol. fl. pallide rubro. Lathyrus sylvestris L. 
Lychnis sylv. flore carneo odorato. Lychnis dioica L. 

' Ex Misto Gooderiano.' 
Nidus avis. Neottia Nidus-avis Rich, 

^enanthe angustifolia, Lob. Oenanthe Lachejialii Gmel. 

Pulmonaria foliis Echii. Ptdmonaria angustifolia L. 

Quercus serotina, procerior foliis fructuq. minoribus, Dor-Oak. 

Linwood Hill, Bramshaw, Wilts. Quercus robur L. agg. 

Rapistrum aliud non bulbosum. Bunias orientate L. 

Rapunculus sylvestris flore rubro albescente. Campanula patula L. 
• In the pastures & hedgesides on the North-west of the Moor 

not far from the great bog neer Petersfield, Mr. Goodyer' 
Sedum Divi Vincentii, ND. Sedum rupestre L. van minus. 

Serpyllum foetidum. Thymus Serpyllum L. 

Slum umbellis ad caulium nodos. Apium nodiflorum Reichb. 

Taxus tantum florens. Taxus baccata L. 

^ Gerard emacidatus. 
O 2 



Veronica mas recta. Veronica officinalis L. 

Vicia Bathoniensis vel maxima sylvatica. Vicia sylvatica L. 

Merrett also notes the following nine species as occurring in or near 

Petersfield, a locality possibly supplied by Goodyer. 
Caryophillus saxatilis Ericae fol. umbellatis corymbis, C. B. 

Probably Arenaria tenuifolia L.^ 
In the middle way betwixt Lippock and Petersfield. 
Chamaepeuce foemina seu polyspermos. Lycopodium clavatum L. 

A mile on this side Lippock in Hampshire. 
Esula minor seu Pithusa G. 502. Euphorbia sp. 

In divers corn fields near Petersfield. 
Fungus corallinus ad antiquarum arborum radices. 

Clathrus cancellatus L. 

In the Woods near Peters Field. 
Gramen Paniceum procumbens. Panicum sanguinale L. 

In a Lane & watery places and Ditches near Petersfield. 
Gramen Piperinum, Pepper-grass. Pilularia globulifera L. 

Near Petersfield. 

Gramen Secalinum maximum. The greatest Rye grass. P. 1144. 

Hordeum sylvaticum Huds. 
In the Woods a mile west from Petersfield. 
Holosteum repens junci folium. Probably Scirpus fluitans L.^ 

At the bottom of the Moor on the East side of Petersfield. 
Rapunculus corniculatus montanus. Ger. em. 455. 

Phyteuma orbiculare L. 
Between Selbury Hill and Beacon Hill in the way to Bath, and 
in the Chalkey hills by Maple-Durham, Hampshire. 

Species attributed to Goodyef^ by Ray, and not included in preceding 


' Flea-grass.' Carex pulicaris L. 

Cyperoides pulicare Merret, Pinax, 'observed first by Mr. Goodyer 
and by him named Flea-grass, from the likeness of its seeds, both 
for figure and colour Ray, Synopsis. The locality is given as 
* a mile East of Oxford but whether Goodyer himself found it 
there is not stated. 

^ Species determined by B. D. J. 


At his death in 1664 Goodyer bequeathed his collection of 
books de Plantis to Magdalen College in Oxon, * to be kept 
entirely in the library of the said College for the use of the said 
College ' ; and one Compton, described in the College Accounts as 
* auriga de Petersfield was paid £% for bringing the books to 
Oxford. The librarian,^ who incorporated the bequest, inscribed 
the greater number of the volumes with the words * Ex dono Joh. 
Goodyer, generosi ', and entered a list of them in a Book of Bene- 
factors : a few volumes were, however, left unmarked. At first 
the books were more or less kept together, but the changing needs 
and views of successive generations led to their being scattered 
throughout the library, some being removed to a distant room in 
the Founder's Tower. In about 1909 Canon Vaughan, the dis- 
tinguished Hampshire botanist, when preparing an article on John 
Goodyer, entitled 'A forgotten Botanist of the Seventeenth Century', 
could get no adequate idea of his predecessor's library. Eventually, 
however, the original list was discovered and copied. It is headed 
thus : 

' A. D. 1664. Johannes Goodyer generosus idemque Botanicus 
celeberrimus libros sequentes (qui fere universes de re herbaria 
tractantes complectuntur) ad valorem plus minus i:zo^^^ amoris 
ergo moriens CoUegio Magdalenensi Legavit ', 

which may be translated as follows : ' John Goodyer, gent., and 
a most distinguished Botanist, bequeathed at his death to Magdalen 
College as a token of his affection the following books (which com- 
prise almost all the authorities on botany) to the value of about 

Canon Vaughan at once realized the value of the books. But let 
him speak for himself. ' The names and descriptions of the volumes, 
reveal a most splendid legacy of botanical treasures. I had already 
recognized in Mr. John Goodyer a botanist of high repute, but that 
he possessed such a library I never for a moment suspected. The 
discovery came to me as a revelation. With the exception 
perhaps of the British Museum, the Bodleian Library, the Cam- 
bridge University Library, and the Library of the Linnean Society, 

^ In 1664 Trebbecke, a chaplain, was paid £(i io« 'pro cura Bibliothecae ', 
and John Clitheroe received the customary salary of 'pro supervisione 
Bibliothecae '. 



there can be few, if any, such collections of botanical works of the 
sixteenth and first half of the seventeenth centuries in this country.' 

When appointed to the charge of the library in 19 19 I was 
quite unaware of Canon Vaughan's correspondence with my pre- 
decessor, and the transcript of the list of the Goodyer books was 
not in the library. Using the old list in the Book of Benefactors 
as a guide, the work of bringing the scattered volumes together 
was begun, and with it the compiling of a new catalogue of those 
works which are still in the library. It is a matter for congratulation 
that the collection is far more extensive than a somewhat imperfect 
list printed in the Supplement to the Botanical Exchange Club 
Report for 1916 would lead one to expect, and that with few 
exceptions most of the volumes mentioned in the original list can 
be identified. All the books in the collection have now been 
marked with serial numbers and with the canting crest of the 
Goodyer family. There are about 239 separate printed treatises 
bound up into 134 volumes which in size are about equally divided 
into folio, quartos, and octavos. Of incunabula or works printed in 
the fifteenth century there are a few examples, chiefly from the 
famous press of Aldus in Venice ; about a hundred of the treatises 
belong to the sixteenth, and the rest to the first half of the 
seventeenth century. 

The wealth and variety of the collection is clearly shown by the 
catalogue, but the personal associations of particular volumes with 
contemporary botanists, as well as the marginal annotations, indexes, 
and notes, which Goodyer so freely added to the works he used, 
give a unique value to many of the books. 

Some sixty-four of his books have the day of their acquisition 
and the price paid clearly written on the first fly-leaf. It is 
moreover a matter of interest that of the twenty works published 
and purchased by him between 1650 and 1660 no less than seven 
were acquired by Goodyer in the year before publication : a clear 
proof that his enthusiasm for his science led him to keep in the 
closest touch with the booksellers. 

He appears to have started the practice of dating his books on 
31 January 16 15 when he acquired Bauhin's 1598 folio edition of 
Matthiolus for 2Qs. The subsequent dated additions to his library 
were as follows : 

Date of acquisition. 

Price. Title and Year of Publication. 

s d 

2 6 Clusius, Curae posteriores, 1611. 

16 o J „ Rariorum plantarum, 1601. 

13 Novemb. 1616 
12 Decemb. 1616 

\ Pona, Monte Baldo, fol. 1601. 



Date of acquisition. 

15 fteb. 1616 
28 tTeb. 1 6 16 

10 Marcii 1616 

12 Mar. 1616 

17 Mar. 1616 
9 April 1620 

18 May 1623 

7 September 1623 

13 October 1623 
30 Oct. 1623 
30 Novemb. 1623 
26 Junii 1624 

17 Novemb. 1627 
10 Novemb. 1627 

18 April 1629 
ID Novemb. 1631 

14 Novemb. 1631 
13 Novemb. 1632 

2 October 1632 
10 Octob. 1632 
18 Maij 1633 

28 Oct. 1634 

s d 







Title and Year of Publication. 

Clusius, Exoticorum, 1605. Paged by G. 
Bauhin, Phytopinax, 1 596. Full of G.'s notes. 
Lobel, Plantarum, 1605. 

2^'^ part. ) 

l^t part [98 6d 

the binedinge them together. ) 
Dodoens, Stirpium, 1616. 

2 o. Sprecchis, Antabsinthium, 1611. 

Theophrastus, Opera, 1541. 
Columna, Minus cogn. stirpium, 1616. 
Lobel, Kruydtboeck, 1581, 

30 April 1634 4 
24 Aug. 1640 36 
In quires 

The bindinge 3 
27 April 1641 
? 1648 

19 ffeb. 1651 5 
15 March 165 1 


22 March 165 1 32 

receaved this booke from bindinge. Bauhin, Pinax, 1623. 

3 6 Bauhin, Prodromus, 1620. 

4 o Caesalpinus, De Plantis, 1583. 
10 o de Passe, Hortus Floridus, 1615. 

9 o Pona, Monte Baldo, 1617. 
o 18 Dioscorides, de curationibus, 1 565. 
o 12 Thevet, Amerique, 1558. 
o 6 Plat, 1608. 

20 o Matthiolus, Comment. 1583. 
4 o Matthiolus, Compendium 1571. 
4 6 ) 48 7^1. Donati, de semplici di Venetia, 
o I i 1631. 

Johnson, Mercurius, 1634, ex dono Th. 

Dodoens, De Frugum. 1552. 

15 July 1652 
I Decemb. 1652 

5 10 

3 6 
14 o 

II Aug. 1653 

ID Feb. 1653 
7 Septemb. 1654 
7 Septemb. 1654 

19 Februarij 1654 

15 June 1654 

16 Apr. 1654 

30 Marcii 1654 

31 Augusti 1634 
7 Sept. 1654. 

14 „ „ 3 

20 Marcij 1655 I 
4 Aprill 1655 25 

19 Aprill 1655 3 

4 6 

10 o 

7 6 

8 6 

2 6 

39. Parkinson, Theatrum, 1640. 

Johnson, Mercurius Pars altera. 
Thurneiser, 1578, bound. 
Culpeper, English Physician, 1652. 
Bauhin, Historia plantarum. 

Sent Dr. Dale for Johes Bauhin 3 volumes, 
for the portage to & from Dr. Dales, 
to John Symonds to carry up the money, 
to William Mychell for bringing the 
bookes down. 

Pemel, Simples, 1652. 

Hernandez, Planta Mexicanorum, 165 1. 

' to a porter for carriage to Dr. Dale. 
Portage down in Mris Elz. Heathes 
Trunck.'— II Dec. 
Renealmus, Specimen, 161 1. [Purch. by 

Bauhin, Theatri botanici, 1658. 
Duval, Phytologia, 1647. 
Laurenberg, Horticultura, 1654. 
Lobel, Stirpium illustrationes, 1655. 
Dioscorides & Nicander, 1499. 
Lonicer, (imp.). 

Matthiolus, Les Commentaires, 1566. 
Aristotle & Theophrastus, 1552. 
Amatus in Diosc. 1558. 
Binding Dioscorides MS. 
Coles, Art of simpling, '56. 
Matthiolus, Kreutterbuch, 1590. 
Brunyer, Hort. Blesensis, 1653. 


Date of acquisition. 

19 Aprill 1655 

5 Aprill 1655 

1 Junij 1655 

10 May 1655 
25 May 1655 
25 May 1655 
25 May 1655 

25 May 1655 unbound 
28 Junij the bindinge 

25 May 1655 in quires 

28 Junij 1655 the bindinge 

6 Sept. 1655 2 
15 Julij 1657 

15 Julij 1657 

16 Decemb. 1657 
16 Decemb. 1657 

11 Mar. 1658 

2 Dec. 1658 
30 Apr. 1659 
30 Apr. 1659 

21 March 1660 
10 May 1660 

26 Sept. 1661 














































Zi//^ and Year of Publication. 

Vigna, Animadversiones. 
Cooke, Chirurgery, 1648. 

„ Supplement, 1655. 

Muffet, Health, 1655. 
Troxiten, 1595. 

Dioscorides, Laguna transl. 1555. 
Curtius, 1560. 

5s 8^. Guilandinus, Theon, 1558. 

15^ 4^^ Lonicer, Kreuterbuch, 1630. 

Tabernaemontanus, 1625. 

Theophrastus, ed. Gaza, 1644. 

Moscardo, 1656. 

Langham, 1633. 

Coghan, Health, 1636. 

Neander, Tobacologia, 1626. [Ex dono 

R, Downes.] 
Everartus, Panacea, 1659. 

Dodoens, Herbarius, 1563 | ^ Basingstoke.' 

Dorsten, Botanicon, 1540 ) ° 

[How], Phytologia, 1650. 

Lovel, Hist. Animals, 1661. 

Ray, Cat. PI. Cantabrigiensis, 1657. 

Binding Theophrastus MS. 

Signatures or Personal Memoranda in Goodyer's 


The numbers are the reference numbers stamped on the backs of the volumes. 

Hendrik Alberts. 
Guilielmus Barloits Anghis. 
JB ex dono CB coitsmig. 

Evidently a gift from Caspar 
O. Bilson.'' 
He7iry Blount. 
Magister Bowden. 
De Brina 

Lancelot Browne^ M.D., Ijg8.^ 
F. Bust IS77' 
Jacob ColeJ^ 

D. Daile in Long Aker. 
Dr. Dale.'' 

Dodoens. 11. 
Dioscorides. 113. 
Thurneiser. 37. 
to Jean Bauhin.^ 
Turner. 13. 
Neander. 67. 
Dodoens. 11. 
Clusius. 106. 
Caesalpinus. 59. 
Joubert. 128. 
Dodoens. 96. 
Hernandez. 26. 
Hernandez. 26. Bauhin. 43. 

^ Jean Bauhin, 1541. Caspar Bauhin, 1560-1624. Converted the chaos 
of plant nomenclature into order in 1623. Goodyer entered biographical notes 
on Bauhin on a fly-leaf of his Phytopinax. 

2 O. BiLSON. See p. 96. 

3 Lancelot Browne, M.D. Fellow of Pembroke Hall and of the College 
of Physicians, 1584 ; first physician to Queen Elizabeth. He is quoted on the 
subject of the Balsam tree by Gerard, to whose Herbal 1597 he contributed a 
eulogistic epistle. He died in 1605. 

* James Cole. Son-in-law of Lobel, see p. 247. 
^ Dr. Dale. See p. 294. 



Neander. 67. 
Kyber. 105. 
Caesalpinus. 59. 

Caesalpinus. 59. 
Dioscorides. 5. 
Dodoens. 11. 
Porta. 130. 
Lonicer. 14. 
Monardus. 126. 
Passe. 81. 
Turner. 13. 
Stephanus. 95. 
Cooke. 118. 

Matthiolus. 38. Renealmus. 14. 
Johnson. 99. Tabernaemonta- 
nus. 46. How MS. 18. 

Dodoens. 97. 

Brunfels. 29. 

Ric. Dozvnes} 
Joaimes Freame. 
Ricus Garth.'^ 

Rob. Garth, Juris Nat. Consult. 

2^ Martij i^gS. 
Alexis Gaicdin. 

Rich. George, pharm. of Reading. 
JL Gilbou\rne'\> . 
John Gooche. 
Jo: Gceoodier. 
Jo lies Goodyer. 

E. Gray, * heboriste \^ 
Hen. Harvey et amic. 
Tho. henry. 

W. Howe. 

R. Huchenson. 
Susa7i Ironsmitk. 
Thomas Johnso7t.^ 
Johan Jul. ? 
Bartho: Kempe. 
G. Le Fevre.^ 
Matth. de Lobel. ^ 
Alexander Massa. 
Geo. Medeleye. 
W. Motmt? 

Dr. Martin Ramerius.^ 

G. Rondelet. 
Anth. Rous. 
Antony Swalms. 

H. W. (? Henry Wotton, M.D.^) 
John Yates, barber & chirurgion. 

^ The Samuel Downes, M.D., who made the collection of dried plants 
presented by J. Downes in 1731 to Shrewsbury School, may have been related 
to Richard Downes. 

^ Richard Garth. See p. 237. 

^ E. Gray, * heboriste'. It would be interesting if he should turn out to be 
Gray the apothecary (fl. 1570), who introduced Pistacia officinalis (Lobel, Adv. 
413) and had trees of Diospyros Lotus L. and of Celtis aiistralis L. in his 
garden under London Wall {Ger. 1308, 13 10). 

* Thomas Johnson. See p. 273. 

G. Le Fevre. At a later date two of this name appear on the Roll of the 
R. College of Physicians. Sebastian Le Fevre, L.R.C.P., 1684, Joshua Le Feure, 

F. R.C.P., 1687. 

^ Lobel. See p. 246. ' W. Mount. See p. 253. 

* Martin Rhamneirus, M.B., a Spaniard, a native of Cordova and 
a Bachelor of Medicine, was admitted a Licentiate of the R. College of 
Physicians, 1584. 

^ Henry Wotton, M.D., Student of Christ Church and Fellow of Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, F.R.C.P., 1571-2. 

Matthiolus. 32. 
Johnson. 105. 
Fuchs. 35. 
Dodoens. 12. 
Hess. ICQ. 
Lobel. 17. 
Fuchs. 112. 
Dorsten. 9. 
Lobel. 79. 
Lobel. 17. 
MS. 13. 
Soranus. 6. 
Fuchs. 8. 
Ruellius. 34. 
Dodoens. 10. 


Persons from whom Books were Acquired. 

Dr. Dale 

Humphrey Robinso7t^ \ ^ ^/'^^^!f^ Mychell 
Bernard Robinson I ^"'"^ ^y""""^' 
John Martin 
Octavian Pulleyn ^ 
William Wells 
Mr. Allestre 

Eliz. Heath 

Richard Downes 

Dr. William How 
Perhaps a vendor 

Thomas Johnson 

Na77ie of work. 
Hernandez. 26. 

Bauhin, Hist. PL 43-45. 

Bauhin, Theatr. 52. 
Tabernaemontanus, 46-47. 
Matthiolus. 38. 
Renealmus. 68. 

Neander. 67. 

I Renealmus. 68. 
Tabernaemontanus. 46-47. 
Matthiolus. 38. 
How & Lobel. 72. 
How, Phyt. MS. 18. 
Johnson, 99. 
Mercurius. 105. 

Books CoNTAiNirNTo Goodyer's Notes. 
Goodyer wrote notes in almost all the books with which he 
worked. Chief of these were 

Tabernaemontanus, Eicones, 1590. 
[Lobel], Icones, 1591. 
Bauhin, Phytopinax, 1596. 
And doubtless his copy of Gerard's Herbal.^ ^597, was similarly 
annotated and corrected, but it is unfortunately no longer in the 
Library.^ He numbered the pages or chapters of 

Bauhin, Hist, plantarum, 1650. G. numbered 6524 columns. 
Besler, Hort. Eystettensis, 1613. To p. '854'. 

„ Fasc. rariorum, 1616. 
Clusius, Exotica, 1605. 
Dioscorides, 1499. 
Theophrastus, 1497. 
He numbered or named plants described or figured in 
Bauhin, Animadversiones, 1601. 

^ Humphrey Robynson of London appears in a book of Richard Napier's 
astrological practice in 1606. MS. Ashmole 181. 

^ Octavian Pulleyn described himself as inercator libroriim Italicoriijn 
in an inscription inside the cover of a book (Tower F. l) given by Sam. Lee to 
the Wadham library. An Octavius Pullin (? the same man) had been a student 
at Padua in 1638-9 (Andrich, Be Natione Ajtglzca, Pataviis 1892). See p. 294. 

^ I shall be most grateful for any information which will enable me to trace 
the whereabouts of the lost volume. It should be readily recognizable by 
Goodyer's notes. 



Johnson, Iter, 1629. de Passe, Hort. Horidus, 1615. 

„ Mercurius, 1634. Thalius, Sylva Hercynia, 1588. 

1641. Tragus, 1552. 

Goodyer was an indefatigable indexer. In some cases, in which 
several works are bound up together in the same cover, he not only- 
corrected the pagination of the separate works, but carried the 
page-numbers right on. He made indexes to the combined works 
of Turner (No. 13), to de Bry's Anthologia^ 1626, and to Clusius, 
Rariorum Plantarum (MS. 8. iii). His index to Gerard's Herbal 
(1597) is in a small 8vo parchment -bound volume (MS. 16). The 
manuscript indexes to the following works are bound with MS. 11. 
Johnson, Mercurii i and 2, MS. 11, ff. 29-32. 
How, Phytologia, MS. 11, fif. 33-7. 

Catalogue of the Goodyer Library. 

The notes quoted in small type are mostly in Goodyer's hand. 


6 Libri tres Chirurgicorum. fol. Argent. Schott 1532 

Bound with Horatianus. 

Alpinus, Prosper. 
^ j De plantis Aegypti. ^ ^ 
^ i De balsamo dialogus. ^' ^^^'^ 

With notes to plates. 
62 De plantis exoticis, libri duo ; ed. ab Alp. Alpino auctoris 
fil. 4. Ven. 1627 

With G.'s references to Parkinson. 
92 De rhapontico disputatio. 4. Patav. 1612 

* Bauhinus transmisit nova Pipera Indicam — Pinax 103 (a 7).' 

Amatus, Lusitanus. 
82 In Dioscoridis . . . de Materia Medica. 8. Lugd. 1 558 

'7 Septemb. 1654— 5s.' 

Apuleius, Lucius. 
86 De medicaminibus herbarum, lib. i. Edited with a com- 
mentary by Gabriel Humelberg. 4. Isinae 1 537 
De herbarum virtutibus historia ; at end of SORANUS, q.v. 

[fol. Basil. 1528] 


2 Problemata, Mechanica, Metaphysica. fol. Aid. 1497 

Bound with Theophrastus, De historia plantarum. 
138 Historia animalium etc. 8vo. Lugd. 1552 

Alexander Aphrodisiensis. 
2 Problemata. fol. Aid. 1497 

Bound with Theophrastus, De historia plantarum. 




Bauhinus, Caspar. 

55 ^vTOTTiva^, seu Enumeratio plantarum ab herbariis nostro 

saccule descriptarum cum earum differentiis etc. et cum 
iconibus ; [libri octo]. 4, Basil. 1 596 

'28 ffeb 1616— 3« 6^.' 

Numerous notes by G., including notes on Bauhin's life. 
/ Animadversiones in historiam generalem plantarum Lugduni 
editam. Catalogus plantarum circiter quadragintarum eo 
in opere bis terve positarum. 4. Francof. 1601 

,De homine oratio in medicorum Lycaeo 1614. 

4. Athen. Rauracis [16 14] 

Plants numbered by G. 
IC9 De remediorum formulis Graecis, Arabibus et Latinis usi- 
tatis. J 2. Francof. 1619 

De corporis humani partibus externis. 12. Basil. 1588 

69 Ylpobpofxos theatri botaniqi. 4. Francof. 1620 

' 26 Junii 1624— 6^' 

56 ritmf theatri botanici ; sive index in Theophrasti, Dioscori- 

dis, Plinii et aliorum qui de plantis scripserunt ; [libri 
duodecim]. 4. Basil. 1623 

' Receaved this booke from bindinge 30 Novemb. 1623.' 
Interleaved. A few notes on pp. 2, 52, 96, last leaf. 
123 Catalogus plantarum circa Basileam sponte nascentium. 

8. Basil. 1622 

52 Theatri Botanici, sive historiae plantarum liber primus. 

fol. Basil. 1658 

, ' 10 ffeb. 1653 — iqs a Johanne Martin.' Marginal references by G. 

Bauhinus, Joannes. 

J De plantis a divis sanctisve nomen habentibus. 8. Basil. 1591 

\ De plantis absynthii nomen habentibus. 8. Montis Belg. 1 593 

^„ f De aquis medicatis libri quatuor. 1 . ^ , 

88 \^ . .... ^. . 4.MontisBelg.i6i2 

i De varus fossilibus, stirpibus et msectis. ) ^ ^ 

Reference on p. 194 by G. 

71 Historiae plantarum generalis prodromus. 

(With Cherler, J. H.) 4. Ebrod. 161 9 

Reference on p. 71 by G. 

43-5 Historia plantarum universalis, quam recensuit et auxit Dom. 

Chabraeus, juris publici fecit Fr. Lud. a Graffenried. 

3 vols. fol. Ebrod. 1 650-1 

* March the 15*** 165 1 
bought of my Master Humphrey Robinson 
the 3 vollumes of J. Bauhinus which I do warrant 
to be pfect per me Bernard Robinson.' 
Columns numbered i to 2064 and i to 2172 and i to 2288. 


Inscription by Goodyer 
1651 22 March 

sent Dr. Dale for Johes Bauhins 3 volumes 3^' 2^ 6^ 

for the postage to and from Dr. Dales 010 

to John Symonds to carry up the money 010 

to William Mychell for bringing the bookes down 014 

Bayfius, see Stephanus, C. 
Bellonius, p. 
41 Observationes. 

Translated & edited by C. Clusius. fol. Plantin, 1605 

Bellus, Honorius. 
39 Epistolae de rarioribus quibusdam plantis agentes. fol. i6ot 
(With Clusius, No. 39.) 

Besler, Basil. 

29* Hortus Eystettensis. large fol. s. 1. 1613 

Paged by G. to 854. Plant names written on some plates, e.g. 540. 
80 Fasciculus rariorum et aspectu dignorum, varii generis etc. 

fol. Norib. 161 6 

Pages numbered. 

Blesensis, see Brunyer. 

Bock, H., see Tragus. 

Brasavolus, Ant. Musa. 
103 Examen omnium simplicium medicamentorum ; with Aris- 
totle's Problemata quae ad stirpium genus et oleracea 
pertinent. 8. Lugd. 1537 

86 De herba Vetonica ; with a commentary by Gabriel Hum- 
melberg; with L. Apuleii libro De medicaminibus 
herbarum. 4. Isin. 1^37 

Two ff. of Latin MS. with marginal notes. No notes by G. A bill of 
4 items on p. I ' Coyse 3^ o^, Fan 3^ 2^, Apuleius 2^ o^, Plato 6^ '. 

Breda, see Brosterhusius. 

Brosterhusius, Joh. 
134 Catalogus plantarum horti medici illustris scholae Auriacae, 
quae est Bredae. 8. Bredae, 1647 

Brosse, Guy de la. 
71 Description du jardin royal des plantes medicinales. 

4. Par. 1636 

108 De la nature, vertu et utilite des plantes, divise en cinq livres. 

8. Par. 1628 

On back of title ' i^^ o '. 



Browne, W., see Stephens, P. 

[Browne, Sir T. 

Hydriotaphia. Missing. London, 1658] 

Brunfels, O. 

1^9 Onomasticon medicinae continens omnia nomina herbarum. 

fol. Argent, ap. Jo. Schottum, 1534 
' 20 Nov. 1634 Tho. Johnson bought him for 3^.' 
Bound with Hildegard, Physicae. G. has added names to the list 
of writers on fo. k iii. 

On the title-page is an inscription in the handwriting that we have 
called that of Dr. Dale, who may have owned the book after Johnson's 
death in 1644. 

7 Herbarium. Vol. i. Herbarium. 2. Novi Herbarii, 1536. 
3. Tomus Herbarii HI, 1536. Appendix, 1539. 

fol. Argent, ap. Jo. Schottum, 1537 

' 1537 Hen. 28.' 

Brunyer, Abel. 
20 Hortus regius Blesensis. fol. Par. 1653 

' 19 Aprill 1655— 3^' 

Bruyerinus, Joannes. 
124 De re cibaria, lib. xxii. 8. Francof. 1600 

Bry, J. T. DE. 

25 Anthologia Magna. fol. Francof. 1626 

MS. Index by G. 


Bibliotheca Botanica. Missing, 12 Bononiae, 1657] 

Caesalpinus, Andreas. 
59 De plantis, lib. 16. 4. Florent. 1583 

' 17 Nov. 1627— 4V 
On title : — * Ricus Garth praeciij 

Sum Lanceloti Brunii medici Reginei ex dono amicissimi viri 
Mri. Rob. Garthii Juris Nationalis Consult 25 Martij 1598.' 
2 Titles of books (Durante & Rondelet) noted. 
65 De metallicis, lib. 3. 4. Romae, 1 596 

Ref. at end to p. 152 'liber de questionibus Peripat. c. Magnet'. 
In binding is a writing relating to — Scott of Sutton, 1608. 

Caesar, see Cornarius. 
Calceolarius, F. 
58 Iter Baldi. 8. Francof. t 586 

With Matthiolus. 

Camerarius, Joachimus. 
85 EKAe/cra yecopytKa, sive opuscula de re rustica, partim collecta, 
partim composita a J. Camerario. 4. Norib. 1577 



89 Hortus medicus et philosophicus, in quo plurimarum stirpium 
breves descriptiones etc. continentur. 4. PVancof. 1588 
89 Icones accurate delineatae praecipuarum stirpium, quarum 
descriptiones tarn in Horto quam in Sylva Hercynia suis 
locis habentur. 4. Francof. 1588 

References to ' Icones 
Kreutterbuch 1590, sec Matthiolus, No. 38. 

[Cato, M. Porcius. 

De re rustica. Missing. 12 Col. 1536] 

Probably disposed of as a duplicate of the copy presented by 
A. Throkmorton. 

Chemnitz, Joannes. 

92 Index plantarum circa Brunsvigam nascentium : Appendix 

continens icones plantarum. 4. Brunsvigae, 1652 

Cherlerus, see Bauhin, J. 

Clavenas. Nicolaus. 

f Historia absinthii umbelliferi.) 
02 i TT. , . r • 1 4- Venet. 1610 

^ 1 Histona scorzonerae Italici. ^ 

Clusius, Carolus. 
07 Historia rariorum aliquot stirpium per Hispanias obser- 
vatarum. 8. Ant. 1576 

06 Historia rariorum aliquot stirpium per Pannoniam, Austriam 
et vicinas quasdam provincias observatarum. 8. Ant. 1583 
Stirpium nomenclator Pannonicus (Beithii). „ 1584 

On title, ' huius libri pretium — 3^ 4^. De Brina '. Name of an 
owner erased. On last p. ' Costa soldi tre, dico 53 moneta sterlinga 
1583, 25 Decemb.' 

41 Exoticorum libri decern, quibus animalium, plantarum, 
aromatum aliorumque peregrinorum fructuum historiae 
describuntur ; item P. Bellonii observationes C. Clusio 
interprete. fol. Plantin. 1605 

With a copy of the Curae posteriores, and Oratio fiinebris at end. 
' 15 ffeb 1616-15^' 

Pages numbered by G., beginning p. '825 '. Marginal references. 
I Rariorum plantarum historia. j^^j j()q\ 

t Funcrorum in Pannoniis observatorum historia.) 

This work has been repaged by G., who also compiled an index 
to it.-Goodyer MS. 8. 
39 Curae posteriores. fol. Plantin, 16 11 

With G.'s references to Phyto. and Pinax. 
' 13 Novemb. 1616. Cur. poster. 2^ 6<^. 
12 Decemb. 1616 16'.' 
41 Oratio funebris in obitum C. Clusii (by E. Vorst). 

fol. Plantin, 161 1 



CoGHAN, Thomas. 
132 The Haven of Health, chiefly gathered for the comfort of 
students ; hereunto is added a preservation from the 
pestilence, with a short censure of a late sickness at 
Oxford. 4*^ edit. 8. Lond. 1636 

' 16 Decemb. 1657.' 

Coles, W. 

121 The art of simpling ; an introduction to the knowledge of 
gathering plants ; whereunto is added a discovery of the 
lesser world. 8. Lond. 1656 

* 20 Marcij 1655 — 4^^.' 

In binding a fragment of deed mentioning * Lady Jane late Queene ' 
and * Lady Ann ' at ' Bower '. 

CoLLAERT, Adrian. 
80 Florilegium. oblong 4*^. n. d. 

Columella, Lucius J. M. 
110 De cultu hortorum. 12. Argent. 1530 

87 ci>vTo^aaavo9, sive plantarum aliquot historia ; accessit etiam 
piscium aliquot historia. 8. Neap. 1592 

Refs. to Pinax. 

( Minus cognitarum rariorumque nostro coelo Orientium 
stirpiurn cKc^pao-c?, item de aquatilibus aliisque animalibus 
quibusdum paucis libellus. In two parts. 4. Rom. 16 16 
[ Purpura ; et aliorum aquatilium observationes. „ ,, 

* 13 Octob. 1623 — 16^' 

'Fabius Columna was but 25 yere old when he sett forth his 
Phutobasanos p. 210 & he set forth his P. ten yers before he wrote 
this story, p. 219. Diosc. graecus codex MS. p. 71. 

Johannis Carbonarius of Naples hath many old Manuscripts p. 71. 

Johannis Baptista Raimundi idem p. 72, 142.' G.'s notes. 

Contarini, see Pona. 
Cooke, James. 

118 Melleficium chirurgiae, or the marrow of many good authors 

on the art of chyrurgery. 8. Lond. 1648 

' 5 Aprill 1655— 2^ 4'^' 

Name of former owner * Tho ' ' Thenry ' on front page. 

' Frog-spawne p.431' 1 on back cover in G.'s hand. 

' Lucatellas Balsam, p. 467 J 

119 Supplement to the marrow of chyrurgerie. 8. Lond. 1655 

* I Junij 1655 — 2^ 4'>.' 

' Swellings of the lunges 228.' ' Ricketts— 243.' 
[Select observations on English bodies. Missing. 8. 1657] 





J 02 Botanologion. 8. Col. ap. J. Gymnicum 1534 

[CoRDUs, Valerius. 

Annotationes in Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de materia 

medica libros quinque. 
Historiae stirpium, cum iconibus, libri quatuor. 
Sylva de fossilibus in Germania. 
De artificiosis extractionibus. 

Compositiones aliquot medicinales rariores. fol. Argent. 1561] 
Missing : perhaps duplicated by the copy in the Gibbarde Col- 
lection and sold. 

Cornarius, J. 

123 Constantini Caesaris selectarum preceptarum de agricultura 
libri viginti, interprete Jano Cornario. 8. Basil. 1540 

With marginal notes (cut by binder) in early hand. 
' DUUM em C. h. g. o' on last p. 
' the orderig of vynes // liber quint / fo.' 

CORNUTUS, Jacobus. 
61 Canadensium plantarum aliorumque nondum editarum his- 
toria ; Enchiridion botanicum Parisiense. 4 Par. 1635 
Notes to figures : refs. to Parkinson. 

CosTAEUs, Joannes. 
90 De universali stirpium natura. Libri duo. 8. Aug. Taur. 1578, 

Crescentius, p. 
I De plantis, animalibus et agricultura. fol. Lovan. 1473 

In contemporary Oxford stamped leather binding. 
Pagination added by G. MS. list of ten goodwives. See p. 381. 

Cuba, Johannes de. 
9 Hortus sanitatis de animalibus et reptilibus, de avibus et 
volatilibus de piscibus et natatilibus, de gemmis et in 
venis terrae nascentibus. 

fol. Argent, p. Matth, Apiarium 1536 

With Dorsten. 


23 The English Physician. fol. London 1652 

' 19 ffeb. 1651— 5«.' 
' Vale et diu vive.* 

.36 Hortorum, libri triginta. fol. Lugd. 1560 

' 25 May 1655— 15V 




Dalechampius, Jacobus. 
135-6 Historia generalis plantarum. 2 vols. fol. Lugd. 1586-7 
The copy in the Sherardian Collection in the Botanic Garden has 
the name of Goodyer's great friend Williajn Coys written on the 


4 Opera Gr. fol. Ven. Aid. 1499 Ed. pr. 

'15 Junii 1654—88 6^' 

Paged, and chapters numbered. 

5 Opera trad, de lengua Griega en la vulgar Castellana por 

Andres de Laguna.^ fol. Anvers. 1555 

*25 May 1655 — 25^' 

'Alexis Gaudin' (owner's signature on title). Silver stamp on 

113 De materia medica, ab Andr. Matthiolo emendata. 

12. Lugd. 1554 

* Guilielmus Barlous Anglus 6^ bats 1 567.' 
Prescription ' contra pestem D. Cratonis ' on last page. 

83 De medicinali materia Gr. Lat. 8 libb. cum castigationibus. 

8. Paris 1 549 

Lat. transl. by J. Ruellius. 

With Paragraphs numbered throughout and cross references to 
Matthiolus by Goodyer. 

|De simplici medicina. ) j a 

IDe naturis et virtutibus aquarum.) ^' -^51^ 

With medical prescriptions at end in an old hand. 

84 De curationibus morborum per medicamenta paratu facilia 

lib. II. 8. Argent. 1565 

With Latin translation, partly by J. Moibanus, partly by C. Gesner. 
' 10 Nov. 1631 — iS"!.' 

A few marginal notes by G., pp. 258, 593. At end 'Antidotus 
Saxonica 830. Inflatio stomachi, 533.* 

On title initials of former owner 'RS.' In binding, part of an 
English theological MS. on parchment. 

96 De Frugum Historia. 12. Antv. 1552 

* 30 April 1634 — 4^.' 

*Jacobi Colei.* His marginal notes on p. 14 v. , 

^ In the copy of this work in the Botanical Department of the British 
Museum I found an inscription, presumably by the translator : — 
Doctor Andreas Lagouna hunc librum Johanni 
Mutier amico suo, dono dedit anno 1557. 



10 L'histoire des plantes ; traduite de bas Aleman en Fran9ois 

par Charles de TEscluse. fol. Anvers. 1 557 

With G.'s references and many old notes. At end * John Yates, 

barber & chyrurgion '. * hope helps hevie harts.' 
Of Lentiscus he notes : 

* I se thys tre at benys marks in London at one M'. Hennege hys 
howse of the previ chamber to quen elizabeth.' p. 547. 

' The leves of saven mayd in powder & droken with alle kylleth 
worms in the bellye. 

* Also y® sayd powder cast uppon warts in ye yard of man kylleth 
ye warts, & if it be swelled it wyll dyssolve it.* p. 538. 

11 Herbarius oft Cruydt-boeck. fol. Antv. 1563 

'30 Apr. 1559 — 38. Basingstoke.' 

* Hendrick Alberts — 1570' on last page. 

* Richardus George pharmacopeus de Reading est verus possessor 
huius libri, ex dono Magistri Bowden, Julij 9 die 1619.' 

With many MS. translations into English of the Dutch text, which 
Mr. George evidently had difficulty in comprehending. 
1% A neewe herball or history of plantes; first set forth in the 
Doutche or Almaigne tongue, and nowe first translated 
out of French into English ; by Henry Lyte. 

fol. Lond. Gerard Dewes, 1578 

* Bartho: Kempe.* 

40 Cruydt boeck, met biivoegsels achten elck capittel . . . 

Carolus Clusius. fol. Leyden, 1608 

42 Stirpium historiae pemptades sex, sive libri triginta. 

fol. Antv. 1 61 6 

' 9 April 1620— 20^ the carrier i^.' 
With a few references to Phyto. (p. 125) by Goodyer. 
97 Purgantium, aliarumque eo facientium, turn et radicum, 
convoluulorum. 8. Antv. 157 4 

* R. Huchenson.' 

DoNATi, Antonio. 
92 Trattato de semplici, pietre et pesci marini, che nasceno nel 
lito di Venetia. 4. Venetia 1631 

'iSMaij i633-4«6d) 
bindinge l^j 

9 Botanicon, continens herbarum aliquotque simplicium, 
quorum usus in medicinis est, descriptiones et iconas ad 
vivum effigiatas. fol. Franc. Christ. Egenolphus 1540 
'30 Apr. 1659 — 48.' Basingestoke. Many old notes. 
Name of earlier owner ' George Medeleye, vi^ viii'^ ' on title. 

Durante, Castor. 
21 Herbario novo, con figure. fol. Rom. 1585 

p 2 



Duval, Guillelmus. 
98 Phytologia ; sive philosophia plantarum. 8. Par. 1647 

* 7 Septemb 1654.' 

Eder, Gulielmus. 
110 Synonyma Plantarum seu Simplicium ut vocant, circa In- 
goldstadium sponte nascentium ... in usum Scholae 
Medicae Ingolstadiensis collecta. 12. Ingolstadii. 161 8 

Egenolph, C. 

' Plantarum arborum fruticum et herbarum effigies . . . Baume, 
Stauden, Kreuter, etc., cum Indice sextuplici. 
87 i 8. Franc. C. Egen. 1562 

Animantium terrestrium, volatilium et aquatilium effigies. 
I 19 pp. 8. Franc. C. Egen. 1562 

At end is a Petition of Richard Chambers to ParHament c. 1644. 

E[velyn], J. 

24 Sylva, or a Discourse of Forest Trees. fol. Lond. 1664 

120 Panacea, or the universal medicine ; being a discovery of the 
wonderful vertues of tobacco taken in a pipe, with its 
operation and use both in physick and chirurgery ; transl. 
from the Latin with an introductory epistle : by J. R. 

8. Lond. 1659 

'2 Dec. 1658— IS 2^: 

Purchased by Goodyer before publication. 

74 De florum cultura 4 libb, editio nova accurante Bern. 
Rottendorffio. 4. 1646 

Fiera, J. Baptista. 
lie Coena de herbarum virtutibus, et ea medicae artis parte, 
quae in victus ratione consistit. 12. Argent. (1530) 

Old notes on p. 22 and at end. 

Fragosus, Joh. 

95 Aromatum, fructuum et simplicium aliquot medicamentorum 
ex India utraque in Europam delatorum, historia brevis, 
Latine reddidit Israel Spachius. 12. Argent. 1601 

FUCHS, Leonhart. 
112 De historia stirpium commentarii, cum imaginibus ad naturae 
imitationem effectis. 12. Lugd. 1555 

' Alexandri Massa* * 47^ 6^.' English names of plants in margins. 
35 Ditto. fol. Basil. Isingrin, 1542 

* Johannis Jul . . ? ' ' Hen. 8. 34.' 


8 New Kreiiterbuch. fol. Basell. Isingrin, 1542 

Coloured copy. 

Imperfect, title missing. Inside cover many verses and mottoes 
in French, quoted from Rombout Martens and others. 
At end * Sum Antony Swalms et Amicorum 

Gansius, Joh. Ludovicus. 
102 Corallorum historia. 8. Franc. 1630 

' Charle Knolfts ' at end. 

GESN.ER, Conrad. 
117 Historia plantarum et vires ex Dioscoride, Paulo Aegineto, 
Theophrasto, Plinio etc. 12. Par. Jo. Roigny 1541 

102 Ditto. 8. Basil. Ro. Wynter 1541 

loi Apparatus et delectus simplicium medicamentorum. 

8. Lugd. 1542 

93 Catalogus plantarum, Latine Graece Germanice et Gallice. 

4. Tiguri 1542 

In binding are two copies of an Order to Churchwardens and 
Constables of Parishes to assess sum due for relief of maimed 
souldiers of City of London according to Act of Parliament 43 Eliz. 
and to pay same to W. Antrobus, Treasurer, at his house in Parish 
of St. Gregory, S. Pauls Churchyard. 
Mizaldus 104 contains a copy of the same document. 
109 Epistolae aliquot a C. Bauhino editae. 8. Basil. 1591 

Praefatio de rei herb, scriptores : 

Preface to Tragus, de Stirpiu?n, q. v. 

Gerard, John. 

[Herbal. Missing. fol. Lond. 1597] 

50 The herball, or general historie of plants ; very much en- 
larged and amended by Thos. Johnson. fol. Lond. 1633 


Theon, seu apologiae adversus Pet. Andream 

De Stirpibus aliquot epistolae quinque; item 

descriptio manuco-diattae, seu aviculae Dei. ^ 
Commentarius in C. Plinii Majoris capita aliquot. 

3rd edit. 4. Lausaniae 1576 
*25 Maij 1655, vnbound 4^ 6^] ^ , 
28 Junij 1655, the bindinge 2^) ^ 
122 Papyrus, hoc est commentarius in tria C. Plinii majoris de 
papyrocapita, recensente Henrico Salmuth. 

12. Ambergae 1613 


«-4. Patav. 1558 



75 Herbarius in Latino cum figuris. 4. s. 1. et a, 

[? 1485] 

In original binding. English plant-names written in. 

Hernandez, Franciscus. 
26 Nova plantarum, animalium et mineralium Mexicanorum 
historia ; in volumen digesta per N. Ant. Recchum, cum 
iconibus ; et cum notis et additt. J. Terentii, J. Fabri. et 
Fab. Columnae, cumque aliquot tabulis phytosophicis 
principis Federici Caesii. fol. Romae 1651 

*i Decemb. 1652 iH 14" 

to a porter for carriage to Dr. Dale o 00 

1 1 Decemb. portage downe in Mris Elz. Heathes Trunck 0/ 

In another hand: 
* D. Daile in Longe Aker over agst ye freinte ordinary.' 

Hess, Paul. 

ICQ Defensio xx Problematum Melchioris Guilandini adversus 
quae Petr. Andreas Mattheolus ex centum scripsit. 

'G. Le Fevre.' 12. Patav. 1562 


3 Dictionarium. fol. Hagenoae 1521 


29 Physicae. fol. Argent. 1533 

Bound with Brunfels, Onomasiicon, q.v., and therefore presumably 
one of T. Johnson's books. 

HoRSTius, Jacobus. 

Herbarium Horstianum, seu de selectis ^ 
plantis et radicibus, duobus libris edente 
Greg. Horstio. 

94 -/ Opusculum de vite vinifera ejusque parti- )■ 8. Marpurg 1630 

Appendix cultori plantarum exoticarum 

HORTO, Garcia ab. {G. del Huerto) 
128 Aromatum, et simplicium aliquot medicamentorum apud 
Indos nascentium historia ; ex lingua Lusitanica cum notis 
per Car. Clusium. 8. Antw. 1574 

[How, W.] 
MS. 18 Phytologia Britannica. 

* Rec. 30 Apr. 1659.' 

The Author's interleaved copy with many notes by himself and by 
G. This work is described in detail on pp. 276-294. 


Johnson, Thomas. 
92 Iter plantarum investigationis ergo susceptum a decern sociis 
in agrum Cantianum A.D. 1629. Ericetum Hamstedianum. 

4. s. 1. (1629) 

With list of plants added by Goodyer. 
99 Descriptio Itineris plantarum investigationis ergo suscepti 
a decern sociis in agrum Cantianum A.D. 1632. Ericetum 
Hamstedianum, sive plantarum ibi crescentium observatio 
habita. i2. s. 1. 1632 

The author's own copy with his MS. index and additional notes by 
How, MS. 19. See pp. 232 and 277. 
50 The Herball of Gerard ' very much enlarged and amended '. 

fol. Lond. 1633 

{Mercurius botanicus. ) o t 1 ^ 

' 8. Lond. 1634 
De thermis Bathonicis tractatus. j 

*28 Octob. 1634. 

Ex dono Thomae Johnson.' -G. 

Plant names picked out with yellow colour. 

95 Mercurii Botanici, pars altera. 12. Lond. 1641 

* 27 Aprilis 1641.' 

With G.'s notes. Several plant names picked out in colour. 

JouBERT, Laurent. 

IMedicinae practicae priores libri tres, edit. \ 
tertia. I 8. Lugd. 1577 

Isagoge therapeutices methodi. j 
' F Bust 1577*^ ptium iijs vid.' 

Kyberus, David. 
105 Lexicon rei herbariae trilingue. 8. Argent. 1553 

With C. Gesner's Tabulae at end. 
' Joannis Freame est verus possessor huius libri.' 
Notes in his hand (?) on pp. 302, 303. 

Langham, William. 
76 The garden of health ; 2nd edit. 4. Lond. 1633 

' 16 Decemb. 1657 pretiu 4« 2^.' 

Laurenbergius, Petrus. 
63 Horticultura, duobus libris. 4. Franc, ad Moen. 1654 

Apparatus plantarius primus, duobus libris, i. De plantis 
bulbosis ; ii. De plantis tuberosis. 4. Franc, ad Moen. 1654 
' 7 September 1654— 7« 6^.' 

End papers cut from a deed mentioning John Smith, Thomas 
Marshall, and Thomas Read of Parish of St. Mary Hill. 
Signature of Ja. Ireland. 

Lemnius, Levinus. 
129 De plantis sacris. See Vallesius. 8 Lugd. 1652 



i8 ■{ 

Leonicenus, NIC. 
86 De Plinii et aliorum in medicina erroribus liber ; accedunt 
de herbis et fruticibus, animalibus, metallis, serpentibus, 
tiro seu vipera. 4. Basil. H. Petrus 1529 

Lerius, Joan. 

125 Historia navigationis in Brasiliam, quae et America dicitur. 

8. Genev. 1586 

In original vellum binding, with title on back of binding in 
Goodyer's hand. 

LoBEL, Matthias de. 
17 Plantarum seu stirpium historia: cui annexum est adversa- 
riorum volumen per M. de L. et P. Penam. 

fol. Antv. 1 576 

' D. Doct. Martino Ramerio veteris amicitiae et perpetuae memoriae 
ergo d. dedit Matth. de Lobel Insulanus.* On title. 
Ditto — with Animadversiones in G. Rondeletii methodicam 
pharmaceuticam officinam. fol. Lond. 1605 

Balsami, opobalsami, carpobalsami et xylobalsami cum suo 
cortice explanatio. 
' 10 Marcij 1616 Adversa. 2^^ pars— 4^ 
12 Mar. 1 616 Adversar. pars — 4^ ■ 9^ 6'^' 

17 Mar. 1616 the binedinge them together — V 6^ 
19 Kruydtboeck, oft beshrijuinghe van allerleye ghewassen, 
kruyderen, hesteren ende gheboomten. 

fol. Antv. Plantin. 1581 

*3o Oct. 1623— 6^' 
79 Plantarum seu Stirpium Icones. 2 vols. 

Obi. 4. Antv. Plantin. 1581 
Purchased by Gulielmus Mowntius (= William Mount) for 9^ on 
May 20, 1582, and inscribed with numerous notes in his hand. The 
binding bears his stamp 'W. M.'. It was acquired by Goodyer 
before 1633, probably long before. 

A few notes in another hand are extracts from W. Bullein's Bi^l- 
ivarke of Defence agamst all Sicknesse, 1562. 
78 Icones stirpium seu Plantarum tam exoticarum quam indi- 
genarum. In 2 parts, with an index. 

Obi. 4. Antv. Plantin. 1591 
With full notes in Goodyer's hand, including transcripts of Mount's 
notes in the 1581 edition (No. 79). On p. 647 Goodyer noted that 
'Potatoes' = Batata Hispanorum, Camotes sive Amotes et Iguanes. 
He acquired this volume before 1633. 
72 Stirpium illustrationes, plurimas elaborantes inauditas plantas 
subreptitiis Joh. Parkinsoni rapsodiis sparsim gravatae ; ejus- 
dem adjecta sunt ad calcem Theatri botanici dfiaprrj/xaTa; 
accurante Guil. How. 4. Lond. 1655 

' Rec. 19 ffebruarij — 1654.' 



LoNiTZER, Adam. 

14 Naturalis historiae opus novum ; 2 volL fol. Francof. 1551 

*Joh. Gooche.' 

15 Kreuterbuch. fol. Francof. 1557 

Title missing. 
*Rec. 16 Apr. 1654.' 

16 Kreuterbuch der baume, stauden, hecken, krauter, etc. ; item 

von den furnembsten gethieren der erden, vogeln, fischen 
und gewiirm ; deszgleichen von metallen, ertze, edelge- 
steinen ; corrigirt und verbessert durch Pet. Uffenbachium. 

fol. Franc. 1630 

'25 Maij 1655 in quires 12^ ) g , 
28 Junij 1655 the bindinge 3^4^f ^ ' 

LovELL, Robert. 
115 A compleat history of animals and minerals. 8. Oxf. 1661 
'21 March 1660—6^.' 
[A compleat Herball.] Missing. 

Probably replaced by the 2nd edit., 1665, pres. by Ernes. 

LuLLY, Raymond. 
Id Secreta secretorum in libros tres divisa. 12"^^. Colon. 1592 

Lyte, Henry. See Dodoens. 

Macer, Floridus. 
no De herbarum viribus ; cum commentt. Guillermi Gueroaldi. 

12. [Franc. 1540] 

96 De herbarum viribus ; cum schol. G. Pictorii. 12. Basil. 1559 

Manelphus, Joannes. 
96 De helleboro disceptatio. 8. Rom. 1622 

Maranta, Bartholomaeus. 
85 Methodi cognoscendorum simplicium libri tres. 4. Ven. 1559 

Marcgravius, Geo. de Liebstadt. 
53 Tractatus topographicus et meteorologicis Brasiliae cum 
eclipsi solari. fol. Lugd. 1648 

With W«i Piso, Hist. Nat. Brasiliae. 

Maronea, Nicolaus. 
65 Commentarius in tractatus Dioscoridis et Plinii, de Amomo. 

4. Basil. 1608 

64 Descrittione dell' Amomo indiano; trad, dal Latino da 
Francesco Pona. 4. Venet. 161 7 



Matthiolus, Petrus Andreas. 

32 Commentarii aucti in libros sex Pedacii Dioscorides de 

materia medica, adjectis quam plurimis plantarum et 
animalium imaginibus. 
De ratione distillandi aquas. fol. Venet. 1 583 

'1 Octob. 1632— 20S.' 
Note on Sig. b. 2. " A harde kernel or impostumi in ye bodye." 
At end (erased).' ... In yeare . . . lord 1624. 

7*^ of June, be my munday 
cost of this booke 4^ . . , 
two month after . . . 
Susan Ironsmith. 

31 Les Commentaires de M. Pierre Andr^ Matthioli, sur les 
six livres des Simples de P. Dioscorides ; trad, de Latin 
en Francoys. Edit. 2. ^ fol. Lyon 1566 

'Rec. 30 Marcij 1654.' 
Figs, crudely coloured. 
137 Compendium de Plantis omnibus. With Calceolarius, F. 

Iter Baldi montis. 8vo. Venet. 157 1 

* 10 Octob. 1632—48.' 

This volume was sold out of the Library about 1745 by the 
Librarian T. W.[est], whose note to that effect is written below the 
College book-plate on the back of the title. As these pages were in 
process of being made up, the owner of the volume, Mr. Gilbert R. 
Redgrave, spontaneously wrote to inform me that it was in his 
possession. He has since generously restored it to the College to 
be once again placed among Goodyer's book's, after an absence of 
a century and three-quarters. 

33 Opera quae extant omnia, ed. Caspar Bauhino. fol. Basil. 1598 

* 31 Januarij 1615 — 20^.* 

Goodyer's marginal references throughout, and notes on end papers. 
Defensio : see Hessus. 
38 Kreutterbuch verfertigt durch Joach. Camerarium. 

fol. Franc. 1590 

Figures coloured. 

* Aprill ye 4*^ 1655. 
Sold then to Dr. How this Mathiolus in Dutch and colored for w*^** 
I have twentie five shillings per me William Wells at the Princes 
Armes in Little Brittaine Bookseller. 

William Wells. 
Aloyis: Mundillu: 8<^: 0:1:6 
Fragosa in Span: 0:0:6 
Camerarius in marantham 0:1:0 
Ye Camer: wanting the title and Fragosa the last page in ye 
Index, if they displease, you may returne per next.' 
58 Epitome utilissima de plantis . . . aucta ... a Joach. Came- 
rario. 4. Franc. 1586 

Perhaps Goodyer's first botany book. The marginal headings 
and English names may have been added by him as a boy- 



MizALDUS, Ant. 

Historia hortensium quatuor opusculis contexta ; i. Hortorum 
curam ornatum et sccreta ostendit ; ii. insitionum artes 
proponit ; iii. auxiliares et mcdicas hortensium utilitates 
percurrit ; iv. medicamentorum hortensium olerum, radi- 
cum et artificia explicat. 
104 J Opuscukim de sena. 

De hominis symmetria, proportione, et commensuratione. 
An caseus edendo sit salubris. 12. Col. Agr. 1576 

Alexikepus seu auxiliaris et hortus medicus. 
Artificiosa methodus comparandorum hortensium fructuum, 
etc. 12. Col. 1579 

In binding are two copies of the * Order ' described under Gesner 
93, which must have been bound at the same time as this volume, 
which also contains a Churchwarden's Receipt for maimed soldiers. 


128 De simplicibus medicamentis ex occidentali India delatis, 
quorum in medicina usus est, interpr. Car. Clusio. 

8. Antv. 1574 

126 Joyfull newes out of the newe founde worlde, wherein is 
declared the rare and singular vertues of diuerse and sundrie 
hearbes, trees, oyles etc. Englished by lohn Frampton. 

4. Lond. E Allde 1596 

* Jo: Gaeoodier ' on title. 

With a MS. index of fruits, &c. 


I De lapide Bezaar et herba Scorzonera. 
[ De ferro dialogus. 

at end of Clusius, 
Exotica, q.v. 


J 10 De Morborum generibus, ex satyra imprecatoria. At end 
of Columella de cultu hortorum, q.v. 12°'°. n. d. 


27 Note overo memorie del museo di Ludovico Moscardo. 

fol. Padoa 1656 

* 15 Julij 1657— iqs.' 

MuFFET, Thomas. 
133 Health's improvement ; or rules comprizing and discovering 
the nature, method and manner of preparing all sorts of 
food used in this nation ; enlarged by Christopher Bennett. 

4. Lond. 1655. 

' 10 May 1655—38 6^.' 

'John Mouffetts elder brother of Aldham hall in Essex.' 



Mulberry Trees. 
92 Instructions for the increasing of Mulberie-trees, and the 
breeding of Silke-wormes, for the making of Silke in this 
kingdome ; Whereunto is annexed his Majesties letters to 
the Lords Liefetenants of the seuerall Shieres of England 
tending to that purpose. 4. Lond. 1609 

MuSA. See Brasavolus. 

Myrepsus, Nicolaus, Propositus. 4. Lugd. 1512 

73 Dispensatorium ad aromatorios. 
' 20 Maij 1639 — 23.' 

On title * Richard Hamon de London ge Will'" Bosone sc psn * 
'maste Hamond prey Hyll mr. chr.' 
Gerrad's Herball. Henry Jones, price iiijs. 

Jos. Quercitanus. [Author of Diaeteticon, Paris, 1606.] 

Oratio Salamonis fol xl. W™ Bofn ' (?= Bosum = Bossom). 

Neander, Johann. 
67 Tobacologia. 8. Lugd. 1626 

Richard Downes 1658.' 

' II Mar. 1658 Liber Johis Goodyer ex dono D. Rici Downes.' 
' Si fa zara su'l Dado Henry Blount.' 
'Liber Rici: Downes ; ex dono D. Henrici Blount.' 
A Richard Downes was Vicar of East Meon and Steep in 168 1. 


4 Theriaca. fol. Ven. 1499 

Bound with DiOSCORIDES, 1499, q.v. 

Odonus, Caesar. 
85 Theophrasti sparse de plantis sententiae in continuatam 
seriem ad propria capita revocatae, nominaque secundum 
literarum ordinem disposita. 4. Bonon. 1561 

' vide Vanderlinden p. 108.' G. 

Olhafius, Nicolaus. 
92 Elenchus plantarum circa nobile Borussorum Dantiscum sua 
sponte nascentium. 4. Dantisci 1643 

[Paaw, Petrus. [8 Lugd. 1601] 

Hortus publicus Academiae Lugduno-Batavae. Missing, 

[Parey, Ambrose. Chirurgery.] 

This work was bequeathed by Goodyer to John Westbrook, a 
witness to his will. 

Parkinson, John. 
22 Paradisi in sole paradisus terrestris ; or a choice garden of 
all sorts of pleasant flowers. fol. Lond. 1629 

With notes for the Theatrum, 1640. 



51 Theatrum botanicum, the theater of plantes; or, an universall 
and compleate herball. fol. Lond. 1640 

inquires 36M 
The bindinge 3« f ' 

In many places, Goodyer has indicated the species described by 
numbers in the margin, and has marked with a ' those which the 
author claims as ' not having been remembered by any other (author) 
before '. The chapter on The Elme (p. 1403) is marked ' JG 
probably to note that it is based on a description by Goodyer, and 
other passages in which the second edition of Gerard is quoted are 
indicated by the marginal note ' 7y* for Thomas Johnson, the 
'corrigider' as Parkinson styles him of Gerard. 

There are a few notes in the hand which we have referred to 
Dr. J. Dale. 

At end is part of an account, dated 1572, relating to public preachers 
attached to the parish of S. Martin in Leicester. Among the names 
mentioned are Thomas Furner, a benefactor ; the mayors Richard 
Davy, Richard Darker, John Eyrick (a kinsman of Herrick, the poet) ; 
the preachers Th. Sparke, Fellow, and L. Humphrey, President of 
Magdalen, and T. Sampson, Dean of Christ Church. 

Passe, Crispian de. [Obi. 4. Utrecht 1615 

81 Hortus Floridus, or A Garden of Flowers. In two parts. 

' 10 Novemb. 1627 10/- Johes. Goodyer.' Figures numbered by G. 

Payne, John. 

80 Flowers, Fruicts, Beastes, Birds and Flies exactly drawne. 
With their true colours lively described. [28 plates.] 
Sold by Compton Halland over against the Exchange. 

Obi. 4. \^c, 1620] 

Pemell, Rob. 

131 A treatise of the nature and qualities of such simples as are 
most frequently used in medicines. 4. Lond. 1652 

* 15 July 1652 — 3^ 6'^.' * Cambogia. Kap. 35. Yealowe Jaundice.' 
The second part of the treatise on Simples. 4. Lond. 1653 
92 A treatise of the diseases of children. 4. Lond. 1653 

Philoponus, Joannes, Grammaticus. 
3 Commentaria in Aristotelis libros de anima. fol. Ven. 1535 
96 Scholia to ^milius Macer de herbarum viribus. 

Carmen de quadam herba exotica cuius nomen mulier est 
amara. 12. Basil. 1559 

114 Plantarum tum patriarum tum exoticarum in Walachria, 
Zeelandiae insula, nascentium synonymia. 12. Mid. 1610 
PiSO, GuL. 

53 De Medicina Brasiliensi. ' iH 2^: fol. Lugd. 1648 



Plat, Hugh. 

134 Floraes Paradise. 12. Lond. 1608 

* 13 Nov. 1632— 6<i.' 


73 De simplici medicina. 4. Lugd. 151a 

PONA, Jo. 

39 Plantae seu simplicia, ut vocant, in Baldo monte, et in via 
ab Verona ad Baldum reperiuntur. fol. Ant. 1601 

With Clusius, Rarwrum, 1601. 
65 edit, secunda. 4. Basil. i5o8 

With notes to Pznax, pp. 87, 89. 

Part of deed dated 1608 bearing name * Sutton' in binding. 
64 Monte Baldo descritto da Giov. Pona, trad, dal Latino per 
Fr. Pona. 4. Ven. 161 7 

' 18 April 1629 — 9^' Notes and references to Pinax. 

Porta, Jo. Baptista. 
130 Phytognomonica, octo libris contenta. 8. Franc. 1608 

'J. L. GiIbou[rne].' 

60 Villae. 4. Franc. 1592 

* Pret vj^' Notes, but not by G. 

Propositi Dispensarium, se^ Myrepsus. 
Ray, John. 

98 Catalogus Plantarum circa Cantabrigiam nascentium. 1657 
Index Plantarum agri Cantabrigiensis. 12. Cant. 1660 

Appendix ad Catalogum Plantarum circa Cantabrigiam 
nascentium. 12. Cant. 1662 

* 10 May 1660 — 29 6^: 

'written (Mr. John Nid, who is dead 
by 1 Mr. John Wray of Trinitie Colledge in Cambridge. 

* Receaved this instruction of Mr. John Mapletoft, tutor to the 
Earle of Northumberlans son and of Mr. John Snagge an Apothecarie 
of Petworth 23 July 1659. 

Mr. John Nid 
Mr. John Wray 
Mr. Thomas Pockley 
Francis Willuby Esq. 
Mr. Peter Curthop 
All of Trinitie Colledge in Cambridge. 

Francis Willughby Esq. of Midleton neare Coleshill in Warwick- 
shire, S^ Francis Willughby's son. 

Mr. Peter Courthop of Danny in Sussex on this side Lewes. 

Mr. Tho. Thornton, parson of Sutton ats Sulton in Sussex in 
Arundel Rape, borne at Bentham in Yorkshire, 2 miles from 
Yngleborowe hill, 15 Apr. 1663 promised Cloudberry.' 


<>..^op ^T!iaKny mg^^ 

10 .^^o ^Qu^^^ 

Goodyer's Notes in No. 98. 



Renealmus, Paulus. 

(specimen historiae plantarum cum iconibus. 4. Par. 161 1 
Crambe, viola, lilium a J. A. Thuano versibus illustrata a 
P. Renealmo edita. 4. Par. 161 1 

'II Augustj 1653 — 6^.' 

' Dr. William Howe bought him of Mr. Allestre in Pauls 

RuAEUS, Laurentius. 
6 Hippiatria sive Marescalia. fol. Paris 1531 

With MS. notes in an early hand on pp. 136, 139 and at end. 

An early prescription on the first of 12 blank pp. at end. 
*ffor the bargett 

R. ffengreke black ornamet. long pep : annyse seed. rew. ros- 
mary. sage, sethe al y^® to gether w*^ vergys. & iij or iiij heads of 
garlek & put it to y« herbs & when al the herbes ar sodyn then 
put to y® juse of ye same for every oon ij eggs shells & all. When 
ye have geven y® best drynk, dryve hym up & down half a q*'^' of an 
hour & put to evy dryk of a cowe an handful of salt & aft®^' ye best 
have drnk rub y® tiig w^^ salt.' 

At end, old prescriptions ' For a hors that ys seke '. ' Pro tussi 
equine ' A soveren medicyn for achys, brokynes or swellyngs callyd 
y® . . . oyntment ... It must be made in Maye or between y® 
Lady days '. 

89 Disputatio de melonibus ; acc. responsum medicinale pro 
asthmate cardinalis Bonifacii, auctore Vincentio Alsario 
a Cruce. 4- Venet. 1607 

RuELLius, Joannes. 
34 De natura stirpium libri tres, fol. Basil. 1537 

' H. Spes no cofudit. W. 
Jy siletio et spe.' 

With old notes in hand of H. W. (?) on pp. 342, 630. A similar 
inscription is written in a copy of Aristotle, Hist. Anmialimn^ and 
Theophrastus, de Plantis^ioX. Basil 1534, in the library of the Oxford 
Botanic Garden. This copy afterwards passed to * Robt. Leedes 
'N. Johnson', and Sherard. 

RUEUS, Franciscus. 
129 De Gemmis, 1652. Vallesius. 

Ryff, Gualterus H. 
102 De memoria artificiali quam memorativam artem vocant ; 

item de naturali memoria quomodo medicinae beneficio 
excitanda, augenda, et confirmanda, etc. 8. s. 1. 1541 

Scaliger, Julius C. 
JOG In libros duos, qui inscribuntur de Plantis, Aristotele 
authore. 12. Marpurg. 1598 



90 Stirpium et fossilium Silesiae catalogus. 4. Lips. 1600 

[Sharrock, R. 

History of the propagation & improvement of vegetables, 
by the concurrence of art and nature. Missing: 1666] 


6 In artem medendi isagoge; Oribasii fragmentum de victus 
ratione ; C. Ph'nii Secundi de re medica libri quinque. 

fol. Basil, in aed. And. Cratandri 1528 

OSSesSOr) ^ fia-ayc^yr] 


j fLs in + aycoj duco 

"^ho aycoyrj ductio.' 

[Anthony Rous, armiger, co. Devon, matric. Broad gates Hall, 
18 March i6o|.] 

[SowERBY, Leonard. 

The Ladies Dispensatory. Missing, 8 Lond. 165a] 

Spigelius, Adrian. 
go Isagoges in rem herbariam libri duo. 4. Patav. 1606 

Sprecchis, Pompeius. 
92 Antabsinthium Clavenae. 4. Ven. 16 11 

* 18 May 1623 2 6) , 
Bindinge ij ^ ^' 

Stengel, C. 

Ill Hortorum, florum et arborum historia in duo tomos dis- 
tributa. 8 Aug. Vind. 1650 

' 14 Decemb. 1654 — 3V 

Stephanus, Carolus. 

De vasculis libellus, adulescentulorum causa ex Bayfio de- 
' scriptus ; addita vulgari Latinaruni vocum interpretatione. 
I Seminarium sive plantarum earum arborum quae post hortos 
conseri solent. 

103 / De revestiaria libellus ex Bayfio excerptus; addita vulgaris 
linguae interpretatione ; secunda editio. 
De re hortensi libellus, vulgaris herbarum, florum ac 
fruticum qui in hortis contineri solent nomina Latinis 
vocibus efferre docens. 8. Par. Rob. Stephanus. 1536 

* Curtius ' on last page. 

Stephanus, Robertus. [12. Lutet. 1545 

95 De Latinis et Graecis nominibus arborum, etc., ex Aristotele. 
On title ; ' Sum Henrici Harvey et amicorum 
Quanto maior iminet nec 
cit aut fac. tanto magis viget.' 




Stephens, P., & Broune, Gul. 
114 Catalogus horti botanici Oxoniensis. 12. Oxon. 1658 

The second part of the Catalogue of the Trees & Plants of 
the Physick Garden. 12. Oxford 1658 

SwEERTius, Emanuel. 
80 Florilegium amplissimum et selectissimum, quo non tantum 
varia diversorum florum genera, sed et rarae quam- 
plurimae Indicarum plantarum, et radicum formae, ad 
vivum partibus duabus, quatuor etiam linguis, offeruntur 
et delineantur. fol. Franc. 161 2 

Tabernaemontanus, Jac. Theodorus. 
46-47 Neuw kreuterbuch, mit schonen, klinstlichen und leblichen 
figuren und conterfeyten, allerhand gewachs, blumen, 
krauter, etc. 2 vols. fol. Frankof. 1625 

* Rec^ this 6 of September 1655 of the right wor*^ Dr. How) 
the summ of fifty foure shillinge in full for this bookej ^ ^4 o 
I say Octavian Pulleyn.' With old deeds used as guards. 

77 Eicones plantarum seu stirpium arborum nempe fructicum, 
herbarum fructuum, lignorum . . . curante Nic. Bassaeo. 

obi. 4. Francof. 1590 
Annotated by Goodyer with modem names throughout, with cross 
references to Lobel. 

Thalius, Joannes. 
89 Sylva Hercynia ; sive catalogus plantarum sponte nascentium 
in montibus et locis vicinis Hercyniae, quae respicit 
Saxoniam. 8. Francf. 1588 

With refs. to Pinax. 

Theophrastus, Eresius. 

De historia plantarum, libri decem. \ 
De causis plantarum, libri sex \ fol. Ven. Aid. 1497 

Metaphysica. J 

Contemporary stamped leather Italian binding. 
Chapters numbered by G., who probably used this copy for his 

3 Opera omnia Gr. cum praefatione Joach. Camerarii. 

fol. Basil. Operini 1541 

' Sept^' September 1623 pr. 158 6'^: 

End papers with account for timber and carpentr>', signed Thomas' 

138 De historia plantarum. (With Aristotle.) 8. Lugd. 155^^ 
30 De historia plantarum, Gr. Lat. ex interpr. Theod. Gazae; 
totum opus absolutissimis cum notis, tum commentariis, 
item rariorum plantarum iconibus illustravit Jo. Budaeus 



a Stapel ; acc. Julii S. Scaligeri in eosdem libros animad- 
versiones, et R. Constantini annotationes. fol. Amst. 1644 

* 15*0 Julij 1657—308.' 
104 De suffruticibus, herbisque ac frugibus libri quatuor, Theod. 

Gaza interprete. 8, Argent. Sybold, s. a. 

[With Mizaldus.'] 

Pagination added. 

Thevet, Andre. 
61 Les singularitez de la France antarctique autrement nommee 
Amerique ; et de plusieurs terres et isles decouvertes de 
nostre temps. 4. Par. 1558 

' Novemb. 14 1631 — 12^' 

' . . . anguinea vitae.' On title three names of former owners erased. 

Thurneisser, Leonhardus. 
37 Historia, sive descriptio plantarum onnnium, tarn domestica- 
rum quam exoticarum, earundem virtutes et icones pro- 
ponens ; atque una his partium omnium corporis humani, 
ut externarum ita internarum, picturas, etc., complectens. 

fol. Berlini. 1578 

^ Vixi satis si Christe sat vixi tibi 
JB ex dono CB consang.' 

Evidently a gift from Caspar to his brother John Bauhin. 

In binding is a folio Proclamation dated 24 May 1648 printed by 
Cotes, London. And used as a guard is part of a letter ending 
' millitia ' and endorsed ' Castle baynard the name of one of the 
Wards of the City of London, to the south of St. Paul's Cathedral. 

Tradescant, John. 
134 Plantarum in horto Johannem Tradescanti nascentium cata- 
logus. 8. s. 1. 1634 

A unique copy. See p. 334. 

Tragus, Hieronymus. 
127 De stirpium, maxime earum, quae in Germania nostra 
nascuntur, usitatis nomenclaturis propriisque dififerentiis, 
etc., commentariorum libri tres, ex ling. Germ, in Lat. 
conversi D. Kybero interprete. 4. Argent. 1552 

With G.'s references to plants, cf. p. 73. 

(Krautterbuch . . . verbessert durch Melchiorem Sebizium. 
Teutsche Speisskammer. fol. Strasburg 1630 

Treveris, Peter. 
The grete herball. 

4. Lond. in Southwarke by Peter Treveris 1526 
The great herball newly corrected. 

4. Lond. in aed. Tho. Gybson 1.532 

Q 2 






20 Horn des heyls menschlicher blodigkeit ; oder Kreutterbuch, 
darinn die Krauter des Teudschenlands, ausz dem liecht 
der natur, . . . beshriben durch Philomusum anonymum ; 
nachmals durch doctorem Troxiten in truck geben. 

'2S May i655-8«.' ^ol. Strasb. 1595 

Turner, William. 
13 The first and second partes of the herbal of William Turner, 
lately oversene corrected and enlarged with the thirde 
parte lately gathered and nowe set oute with the names 
of the herbes, in Greke, Latin, English, Duche, Frenche, 
and in the apothecaries and herbaries Latin. 

fol. Collen, by Arnold Birckman, 1568 
With a MS. index and notes by Goodyer. 
A booke of the natures and properties, as well of the 
bathes in England as of other bathes in Germanye, and 
Italye. fol. Collen, by Arnold Birckman, 1568 

* To Mr. O. Bilson from E. Gray heboriste.' 

Valla, Georgius. 
134 De simplicium natura liber unus. 8. Argentinae 1528 

Vallesius, Franciscus. 
1 29 De sacra philosophia, sive de iis, quae in libris sacris physice 
scripta sunt; liber singularis. 6th edit. 8. Lugd. 1652 
With Lemnius, de Plantis sacris, and Rueus, de Gemmis. 
End papers are part of a printed Proclamation of the House of 
Commons concerning spirits who steal children, dated 1661, printed 
by Rich. Hodgkinson living in Thames Street over against Baynards 
Castle 1 66 1. 

Veslingius, Joannes. 
85 Paraeneses ad rem herbariam. p. 85. 

De plantis Aegyptiis observationes et notae ad Prosp. 
Alpinum ; cum additamento aliarum ejusdem regionis. 

4. Patav. 1638 
Opobalsami veteribus cogniti vindiciae. p. 217. 
With Prosp. Alpinus, de plantis Aegyptis, q. v. 

66 Animadversiones sive observationes in libros de historia, et 
de causis plantarum Theophrasti ; addita fuit tabula 
studio et opera Andreae Checcaccii. 4. Pisis. 1625 

*I9 April 1655— iS'i.' 
19 Apr. 1655 unbound— I" 6'^ | , 
28 Junij 1655 the bindinge — 2^f 



WoLPHius, Caspar. 
101 De stirpium collectione tabulae. 12. Tiguri 1587 

WORMIUS, Olaus. 
54 Museum Wormianum. fol. Lugd. 1655 

Two of the titles in the old list have hitherto proved untraceable. They are 
*Anatomia Sambuci' and 'Alb. Montani Isagoge Physico-magico-medica 

The Goodyer Manuscripts. 

MS. 1-6. Goodyer, J., and Heath, J. Translation of DIOSCORIDES 
into English with interlinear Greek text. 4,540 pages 
4to, bound in six vols., dated 1653-5. 
See p. 85. 

MS. 6^. Goodyer, J., and Heath, J. Translation of Saracen, 
Scholia on Dioscorides, into English. 300 pp. folio. 
MS. ends abruptly on p. 292 with a note, * Joh. Heath clericus 
obiit 25 Nov. 1656'. See p. 89. 

MS. 7. Goodyer, J. Translation of Theophrastus, Trept (pvTcov, 
into English. 494 pages, interleaved, one vol., sm. folio, 
dated 1623. 

De Plantis, pp. 1-238. De Causis Plantarum, pp. 239-494. 
In the binding is part of a deed: 'Witherdon de Stone' in 
Kent and ' Joh. Sharpe ' are mentioned. See p. 50. 

MS. 8. [? Dale, J.] i. Descriptions of English Grasses. 80 pp. 

Not in Goodyer's hand, but enlarged with additions by him. 
Reasons for referring these MSS. to John Dale are given on 
p. 296. 

ii. Descriptions of Plants headed ' Ex manuscriptis Turn. 
Annexis Lobelii Observationibus '. 30 pp. folio, dated 
Jan. 22, 1651. 

In the same handwriting as No. i. The date of Lobel's work 
was about 1576. 

iii. Goodyer, J. Index to Plants described in his copy of 
C. Clusius, Rariorum Plantarum Historia and other 
works bound up therewith. 20 pp. folio. 

MS. 9. [? Dale, J.] i. Index of British Plants, c, \6^o-i6^6. 

The work, written on about 250 leaves folio, is based on 
C. Bauhin's Pinax Theatri Botanici^ 1 623, which Goodyer 
acquired before 30 Nov. 1623. The handwriting is that of the 
author of MS. 8. i and ii. 



References are given to the following works : Bauhin, Pinax^ 
1623 ; [Lobel], Plantarujn seu stirpiujn icones, 1581 ; hones 
Siirpium, 1591 ; Gerard, Herball, 1 597; Johnson's Gerard, 1633 ; 
Parkinson, Theatrum, 1640; Y\.o\v, Phytologia, 1650; Johnson, 
Mercurius Bota?iicus, 1634. 

The entries from the last book have been marked with yellow 
paint by Goodyer, who made a few additions to the two last 
pages and to Pin. 81, 131, 155, 265, 288, the two last being dated 
19 July 1656. The following extracts illustrate the author's 
style and notes : 
Rapunculus folio oblongo spica orbiculari. (Pin. 92.) 

= Merc. 64 Rapuntium corniculatum montanum, Col. 

' D^'' Goodyeerius semper suspicabatur haec duo novissime 
proposita non ipse nisi ejusdem plantae, ratione soli vel Arigo- 
sioris vel laeti, variantis diversa nomina.' 

Melmnpyrum latifoluim. (Pin. 234.) 

* Mali coniunxit emaculator Sideritium pratensem luteum 
Lugd. et Crataeogonon, Lob. quae sunt diversae Plantae. 
Sideritis pratensis lutea Lugd. non habetur apud Lobelium. 
Inquirendum an Sideritis lutea Mri. Stonehouse ad hanc 
Sideritem possit referri.' 

Blattaria alba. (Pin. 241.) 

* Hue etiam referimus Blattariam fl. viridi et Blattariam fl. 
albo flavescente, indignus quae novam speciem facerat.' 

ii. List of 153 British Plants. ' Plantae ad Methodum 
Pinacis reducendae quibus Botanographi nostratis ortum 
tribuere Britannicum.' Dated the last day of April 1659. 
By John Dale? 

The list is in the same hand as the Index, and like it has been 
annotated by Goodyer, who was evidently in correspondence 
with the writer, e.g. after No. '8. Gramen Parnassi ' Goodyer 
adds, ' This you have putt into the draught of your Catalogue 

MS. 10. Hortus siccus. 

Among the MSS. received by Magdalen College from Goodyer 
were two Herbaria, listed as ' Hortus hyemalis fol.' and ' Hortus 
hyemalis minor fol.'. The former is missing, but the latter may 
be represented by this small herbarium of 10 leaves folio. 

It contained a small collection of Mosses and Ferns, made 
c. 1620 and mounted on the leaves of a MS. Botanical Glossary, 
English-Latin, beginning with ' Anise seade Anisum ' and ending 
' Yerrowe Nose bleede. Stratiotes millefolia. Militaris Mille- 
folium '. 

All the dried plants have been removed, but the following 
names on paper straps are legible : 

f. 3. Lichen arborum. Lichen cinereus. Muscus peltatus. 
Muscus pyxidatus. [ ] sylvestris, 3 Jul. 1620. 

4. Phillitis digitata. Ceterach. 

5. Filix palustris. 

6. Polypodium. 

7. Filix spinosa. Chamaefilix marina anglica. 


MS. II. Goodyer's Miscellaneous Papers. 

The more important of these are published or referred to in 
this volume as MS. 11, f. — , or more briefly as MS. f. — , with 
the leaf number but without the number of the manuscript. 

MS. 12. LOBEL. Stirpium Illustrationes ; plurimas elaborantes 
inauditas plantas subreptitiis Joh: Parkinsoni rapsodifs 
(ex codice MS. insalutato) sparsim gravatae : edited by 
W"^ How. 37 leaves folio. 

The original MS. from which the work was printed in 1655. 
Seep. 252. 

MS. 13-15- LOBEL. Stirpium Illustrationes. 

An unpublished work in preparation about 161 2. About 
835 plants are described. See p. 253. 

MS. 16. GoODYER,J. Index to Gerard's Herbal (1597). Sm. 8vo. 
With localities of British Plants. 

MS. 17. [Stonehouse, W.] Catalogus Plantarum Horti mei 
Darfeldiae. Anno 1640. With plan i2mo. 
See p. 348. 

MS. 18. How, W. Additional Notes to his Phytologia Britawiica 
16^0. Written 1650-1656. See p. 276. 

An interleaved copy with many corrections, notes, and MS. 
lists of plants by the author who died 30 Aug. 1656. Goodyer, 
according to a note inside the cover, received the book on 
30 Apr. 1659, and then added marginal references throughout 
and notes on six plants printed on p. 194. 

On the inside of the cover is a receipt dated July 29 and 
unsigned, probably written after 1659, when the book was in 
Goodyer's possession. * Rec. of Mr. Goodier ten pounds for 
Mr. Bold's use.' The Mr. Bold was probably Arch. Bold, one of 
the witnesses to Goodyer's will. 

The notes in How's handwriting are partly his own, and partly 
from information received from Goodyer, Hunnibon, and William 
Browne of Magdalen College. Their source is acknowledged 
both where they occur and generally on the front page. ' Gaine 
I was for Goodyers Plants and des. y® like for Brownes, Lobells 
[and Pennyes MS. w^^ review for names etc.] ' (struck out). 
Inserted are 7 coloured and 3 uncoloured drawings of plants. 

Passages from this volume have been frequently quoted by 
Druce, but we have not found any evidence for his statement 
that * on the death of Goodyer the book probably came into the 
possession of W" Browne '} It would have passed into the 
possession of the College direct, with the rest of Goodyer's 
library in 1664. 

Druce, Flo^a Berks., p. ciii. 



MS. 19. Johnson, T., and How, W. Additions to T. Johnson's 
Descriptio Itineris Plantartim investigationis in agrum 
Cantianum A. D. 1632. 

Formerly in the possession of W. How, and previously Johnson's own 
copy. See p. 276. 

Additions in T. Johnson's handwriting : 

On p. 3, 1. 10 'Alga membranacea ' has been struck out. 
On p. 6 to the list of plants obtained in the Isle of Thanet, Absinthium 
vulgare has been added. On p. 9 * Sarxifranga, Dod.' has been 
added after * Serpillum ' in 1. 3. On p. 37, to the Flora of Hampstead 
Heath are added 

' Coronopus Ruellii, Cornu Cervi alt. vulg. 
* Scabiosa minor sive ovina, Dod. Cam., media. Lob. 
' Scabiosa media serrato angustifolio, flore Globularia. Adv., Ra- 
puntium alterum leptophyllum capitatum. Col.* 
At back of plate is a note of ' Trifolium pumilum . . . White dwarfe 

All these are printed in the Fhytologia. 

Eighteen leaves are bound in at the end. 
ff. I and 2. Blank. 

ff. 3-6. Index to genera mentioned, including the MS. additions. 

In Johnson's hand with additions by How. 
f. 6 V. Notes by How. 

ff. 7-1 1. Alphabetical list of about 190 species of English plants 

not included in Johnson's lists. In How's hand, 
ff. 12-17. Blank, 
ff. 1 7 v., 1 8. Notes by How. 

This little volume has the great sentimental interest of being the germ 
from which all British Floras are descended. The first index comprises 
all the plants mentioned in Johnson's book, and is written, I believe, by 
the author himself. The second list contains names of English plants, 
including those quoted by How as derived from ' Dr. lohnfons. M/,\ in 
How's hand, with additions by him at a later date. Unfortunately these 
plants are not localized. How's rough notes on the last two pages are 
evidently memoranda used when preparing the Fhytologia^ our first 
British Flora. 

If my interpretation of the handwritings be correct, this volume would 
probably have passed from Johnson (d. 1644) to How, who would have 
used it in the compilation of the Fhytologia (1650), and after How's 
death in 1656 it would have passed to Goodyer, perhaps with How's copy 
of the Fhytologia^ in 1659. 



In the England of John Goodyer, the stream of Botanical 
learning was flowing along a very small channel. So small was it, 
that viewed from the present time after the lapse of three hundred 
years, the water appears confined to a few isolated pools and back- 
waters with no certain channel between them. The number of true 
men of science, as opposed to herbalists, could be counted on the 
fingers of one hand, and the untimely death or defection of any 
one of them might have put back the progress of botany for 
a century. 

The following notes on Goodyer's friends or contemporaries 
were gleaned from, or suggested by, the study of his own manu- 
scripts. By their publication we may perchance bring to light an 
occasional fact which reveals the course of the stream of botanical 

The names of previous owners of his books have been listed : 
his manuscripts suggest material for more extended notes on some 
of the following botanists, the others emerged during our research : 
they are not to be found in the Biographical Index of British 
Botanists, The identification of the handwritings of some of them 
was by no means an easy matter : two are still doubtful. 

i. Thomas Penny, ^. 1530-1589. 

ii. The 1570 Botanist of Oxford and Winchester. 

iii. Richard Garth, ^. 1597. 

iv, V. William and Sir John Salusbury, 1567-1613. 

vi. M. Lobel, 1 538-1616 and How. 

vii. Wm. Mount, 1545-1602. 

viii. Richard Shanne, 1561-1627. 
ix. John Parkinson, 1567-1650. 

X. Walter Stonehouse, 1597-1655. 

xi. Thomas Johnson, c, i 600-1 644. 

xii. William How, i 619-1656. 

xiii. John Dale, d, 1662. 

xiv. William Browne, 1629-1678. 



i. Thomas Penny, c. 1530-89. 

Thomas Penny, M.D., of Trinity College, Cambridge, B.A. 1551, 
F.R.C.P. 1582, contributed to a natural history of Insects, which, 
begun by Edward Wotton and amplified with extracts from 
Conrad Gesner, was finally completed by Thomas Muffett of 
Oxford. MufTett died in 1604, leaving the book in manuscript. 
It was eventually published in 1634 by Sir Theodore de Mayerne. 

Penny's botanical reputation has been rescued ' from an almost 
total obscurity ' by Pulteney, who points him out as * A second 
Dioscorides, for his singular knowledge in plants '. He had resided 
in Switzerland and had visited the island of Majorca. He was 
personally acquainted with Gesner, Camerarius, and Clusius. From 
Majorca he brought Geranium tuberosum , Swertia perennis, and 
Hypericum balearicum, which Clusius named ' Myrtocistus Pennaei ' 
in his honour.^ Clusius ^ in 1583 thanked him for a drawing of 
Cnicus heterophyllus Roth., sent in 1581, and noted ^ his discovery 
of Cornus suecica L. in the Cheviots. We have Mount's statement 
that he grew Acorus Calamus in his London garden before 1582, 
Penny communicated the following plants to Camerarius, who 
describes him as a leading London Physician ' rerum naturalium 
peritissimus, amicus meus singularis '. Hort. med. 1588, p. 36. 

Caryophyllata vulgaris or C. altera alpina with white flowers. Monte Lupo 
in France. Geum reptans- L. 

Lactuca sylvestris * odore prorsus Opii Lactuca virosa L. 
Matricaria tertia fl. pi. in Anglia frequens. Matricaria partheniuin L. 

Rhodia radix. Ingleborrow. Sedum Rhodiola DC. 

And Lobel, Adv, 367, associates ' Myrrhis altera ' {Myrrhis odorata 
Scop.) with him. 

The mention of the name of Penny by How at a date subsequent 
to 1650 in an erased passage quoted on p. 280 is of importance, 
because it may throw new light on his botanical MSS. Pulteney's 
account of the matter is that ' Dr. Penny died in 1589, and is said 
by Jungerman to have left his papers to Moufet and Turner ; but, 
in this account, there is surely a very striking anachronism since 
Turner himself died in the year 1568*. It is clear, therefore, that 
Penny's zoological MS. on Insects went to Muffett, and that his 
botanical MSS. could not have gone to WiLLlAM, but to some other 
Turner. As a possibility, a man who would have valued them 
would have been the well-known astrological botanist, ROBERT 

' Ger. emac. 434, 946, 1279. ^ Stirp. Pannon. Hist. 1583. 

' Rar. Plant. Hist. i. 59, 1601. 



Turner,^ whom we have suggested as identical with the ' Turn.' 
owner of the Lobel MS. mentioned below. Robert lived at 
Holdshot in the north-east corner of Hampshire : ' Turn.' was in 
correspondence with Goodyer and Dale(?), either of whom might 
have shown his MS. to How, without however giving permission 
for publication by the latter. 

ii. The 1570 Botanist of Oxford and Winchester. 
[?Dr. Walter Bayley, 1529-92.] 

On looking through some of the older books in the Botanical 
Department of the British Museum I was rewarded by finding 
twenty-nine plant records, some dated 1570-2, in the hand of an 
unknown botanist, who appears to have lived at Oxford and 
Winchester. In accordance with a practice very usual in those 
days, he wrote English names of plants in the margins of his Latin 
botany book, Du Pinet, Historia Planiartim, Lugd. 1 561, and in 
a few instances added the names of persons and localities. The 
names are Watson, Jeames, Barnabye, Norton, Strowde, Heiden, 
Basket, and Crosse. The localities are mostly the several gardens 
of these persons ; and a few places, all near Winchester, are noted as 
stations of common Hampshire plants. 

When the preceding clause was already in type, I happened 
to see an autograph inscription in a precious little volume by 
Dr. Walter Bayley of New College,^ printed privately and issued 
anonymously as a New Year's gift to a friend. The writing at 
once caught my eye on account of its resemblance to the writing 
of our unknown botanist. Both writings are in the style of the 
period ; and without further specimens of each, it is impossible 
to be certain of identity, but Dr. Bayley was certainly the kind of 
man who might have entered botanical memoranda in a Die Pinet. 

Walter Bayley was educated at Winchester and New College, 
becoming a Fellow there in 1550. When Junior Proctor, he 
demanded the degree of Bachelor of Physic, and supplicated for 
leave to practise medicine ' per totam Angliam He was Queen's 
Professor of Medicine at Oxford from 1561 to 1582. In 1581 he 
was appointed Physician in Ordinary to Queen Elizabeth. 

The Dti Pinet, 1561, would therefore have been the newest 

botany book out at the time of his becoming Professor, and the 

marginal notes would have been written about the middle of his 

^ A Robert Turner was born at Reading at h. 9.48 a.m. on 30 July 1626 {MS. 
Ashm. 183). 

The property of Sir D'Arcy Power : see his Dr. Walte?' Bayley, Med. Chir. 
Trans, xc. 

lofi BAYLEY 

tenure of the chair. Besides those printed below, one other entry 
may be mentioned. Under * Piper indicum 'p. 12 is noted * a kynd 
of pepper groweing in India: husked'. It may only have been 
a coincidence, but Bayley happened to have been greatly interested 
in Peppers, for some years later he printed, for distribution among 
his friends, A short Discourse of the Three Kindes of Peppers in 
common use and certain Medicines made of the same, tending to the 
preservation of health, 1588. The discourse contains one personal 
note which bears on the author's movements : * I have often scene 
at Poole at Dorsetshire and also in London, the whole clusters of 
pepper preserved in brine and in salt It is unnecessary to point 
out that an old Wykehamist journeying from Oxford to Poole 
would naturally break the journey at Winchester. 

If we accept the dates 1570-2 and the identifications of the 
species, these brief notes are among the earliest known evidences 
for the occurrence of eight species of plants in Hampshire, two of 
which are the first localized notices for Britain. 

Halimus or Atriplex marinus, p. 62. Atriplex littoralis L. 

* Upon hable bankes in great quantitie.' 

[The river H amble is not far from the locality where Lobel noted the plant. 
His, the first printed record, dates from 1655.] 
Conyza media, Du Pinet^ p. 390. Pulicaria dysenterica Gray. 

* In diches evrywhere about Winchester.' 

Sium, p. 171. Nasturtiuin officinale R. Br. 

' In ye dych towards Nortons.' 
Clematis altera Dioscorides, p. 442. Clematis vitalba L. 

'White vyne. In every hedge about Winchester.' 
Thlaspi. Thlaspi arvense L. 

' In Mr. Strowdes garden and medoe, 1572.' 
Eupatorium Avicennae, p. 476. Eupatoriuiti cannabinum L. 

' In ye dyche toward blak Bridge.' ^ 
Tithymalus masculus, p. 605. Euphorbia ainygdaloides L. 

'In cops by Cathe of ij sorts.' ^ 
Personata altera, p. 559. Petasites vulgaris Desf. 

' Close by the river sydes.' 
Cynocrambe, p. 635. Mercurialis perennis L. 

* Oxon.' 

[An evidence more than 200 years earlier than the first record in the County 


For the notices of garden plants see p. 304. , 

^ My friend Mr. H. Salter tells me that Black Bridge over the Itchen is near 
the west end of the Warden's Garden, and suggests that ' Cathe ' may be an 
abbreviation for St. Catherine's Hill. 



iii. Richard Garth, d. 1597. 

Richard Garth was an accomplished botanist whose contribu- 
tions to science are better remembered in the works of Clusius and 
other foreign botanists than in his own country. He was the son 
of Edward Garth, one of the six Clerks in Chancery, and owned 
a property at Morden in Surrey in 1564. Between 1581 and 1591 
his relations with Brazil enabled him to bring several of the plants 
of that country, including the * Papyrifera arbor', the 'Juni-pap- 
peeywa Brasiliorum ', the ' Phaseolus Brasiliorum ', and some exotic * 
fruits to the notice of Clusius, who described them in his Libri 
Exoticortim in 1605. In return Clusius gave him a Solomon's 
Seal, a root of which he Wery lovingly imparted' to Gerard, who 
not unnaturally described him as * a worshippfuU Gentleman, and 
one that greatly delighteth in strange plants' (Ger. 757). So far 
as the English flora is concerned his name should be associated 
with the Great Tooth wort (Lathraea squamaria L.) which grew on 
his land at Groutes, not far from Croydon.^ 

In 1592 Garth purchased the manor of Drayton from Robert, 
Earl of Sussex. He died in 1597, having married, firstly, Elizabeth 
Dixon - and secondly Jane da. of . . . Busher, co. Line, who sur- 
vived him, living at Drayton Manor facing Haylinge Island, two 
miles from Portsmouth. After his death, Lobel appears to have 
yisited her garden there, and to have found ' Alopecuros altera 
maxima Anglica paludosa sive Gramen Alopecuroides maxima ' ^ 
and a variety of Bindweed, ' Helxine cissampelos alt.',* growing wild 
near the house. She seems to have refreshed him with Metheglin 
of her own brewing, and to have given him her recipe for it, which 
he printed (Advers. alt.^ 1605, p. 473). 

Lobel speaks of Garth as Senior Clerk in Chancery Diplomatica 
Curia an office to which he had probably succeeded by inheritance, 
and as most learned in the natural history of Indian as well as of 
our native English plants. Hugh Morgan, James Garret, the 
communicator of the vegetable discoveries of his brother Peter 
and of those who accompanied Sir ' Walterus Raulaeus ' to Guiana, 

^ Ger. emac. 1585. In the author's copy of this work there is on p. 762 an 
old MS. note relating to the Greatest Wolfe-bane, now Doroniaun Pardalian- 
ches L. ' This growes wild in the Orchard of a house called Grouts in the 
parish of Mordon in Surry lately belonging to Mr. Garth, Lord of that Mannour. 
It floures in Aprill.' 

^ The Heralds Visitation of London mentions a Richard Garth of Moorden, 
CO. Surrey, who m. Dorothy Style. 
' Polypogon monspeliensis Desf. 
* Lobel and How, p. 127 ; Park. Theatrum, p. 173. 


and Richard Garth were the principal authorities in this country 
on tropical plants in the sixteenth century. 

His copy of Caesalpimis is in the Magdalen Library. The title- 
page bears his signature, and in the body of the book he underlined 
passages relating to the properties of Tobacco, p. 344, and of 
Scorzonera, p. 427, and added the name ' Battato ' for * Castaneae 
terrestres', on p. 427. The volume passed in 1598 from his son 
Robert Garth (d. 16 13) to Dr. Lancelot Browne, the author of 
a prefatory eulogy in Gerard's Herbal^ i597j ^"^^ then to John 

iv. William Salusbury, i5ao?-i6oo? 

V. Sir John Salusbury of Lleweni, 1567-1612. 

Some few years ago I had the satisfaction of finding in the 
Library of Christ Church a copy of Gerard's Herbal, with a few 
dated marginal notes of plants found in 1 606-1608 in North Wales, 
and with notes on the medicinal properties of others. The Herbal 
is inscribed ' Sir John Salusbury his booke ', and the notes are 
evidently in his own handwriting. They illustrate the manner 
in which Gerard's work encouraged the practice of recording exact 
plant-localities at the time when Goodyer was a boy, even in quite 
remote parts of the country. They are not mentioned by any 
botanical writer with whom I am acquainted, nor do the recent 
historical notes on the flora of Denbighshire by Dallman take us 
farther back than Waring's letter of 1772. Salusbury's date was 
1606, and though there is no chance of his ever being forgotten 
as an historical character, he also deserves to be remembered by 
compilers of county floras : moreover, unlike his cousin, William, 
he wrote in English. He received his first education at Oxford at 
Jesus College. 

By all accounts Sir John Salusbury of Lleweni, known as 
' the Strong was no ordinary man. He came of a remarkable 
family, one member of which, William Salusbury (1520 ?-i6oo ?), 
the first translator of the New Testament into Welsh, is stated to 
have been the author of a Welsh Botanologia which is said to have 
been an original work showing close observation of plant life in 
Wales. It is possible, however, that William's great literary reputa- 
tion has led his biographer to overstate his botanical achievement 
(D.N.B.). I believe the ' Welsh Botanologia ' of the D.N.B. to be 
the Llysieulyfr Meddyginiaetholy recently (19 16) edited by Mr. E. 
Roberts. It is a Herbal in Welsh, a compilation of extracts from 
Fuchsj Turner, and Dodoens translated into Welsh before 1 597 by 



William Salusbury, with the Welsh names of the plants, and a few 
(very few) localities added. Mr. Roberts points out that the more 
detailed localities are those nearest Llansannan and Llanrwst where 
William Salusbury is known to have lived. Lleweni is thrice 
mentioned, and both author and work must have been well known 
to Sir John Salusbury : the names of plants localized by William 
are printed below. 

John's mother was the celebrated Catherine Tudor of Beraine, 
popularly known as ' Mam Cymru ' or Mother of Wales, celebrated 
alike for her numerous descendants and her four marriages.^ 

Sir John has been stated to have had two thumbs on each hand. 
His gardening is not remembered as well as is his huge strength. 
The Denbighshire tradition that he used to ' tear up forest trees 
by the roots ' is reminiscent less of his interest in botany than of 
a fondness of displaying his physical powers.^ He married Ursula, 
daughter of Henry 14th Earl of Derby, and left three sons and two 
daughters, the eldest of whom, Sir Henry Salusbury, Bart. {d. 1632), 
also wrote his name in the Herbal (in 1627), and entered notes 
on two plants growing on the Chirk estate of his father-in-law, 
Sir Thomas Myddleton {1^^0-16^1).^ 

On a recent pilgrimage to Denbigh to visit the site of Sir John's 
gardens at Lleweni, chance made me acquainted with Mr. A. 
Foulkes-Roberts of Denbigh, himself a lineal descendant of 
Catherine of Berain. He at once took the greatest interest in the 
quest and drew attention to the fact that Sir John Salusbury 

^ Catherine of Berain was a great granddaughter of Henry VII and 
therefore cousin to Queen Elizabeth. She m. i. Sir John Salusbury. 2. Sir 
Richard Clough (and from this marriage was descended Mrs. Thrale, the friend 
of Dr. Johnson). 3. Morris Wyn (as his third wife). 4. Edward Thelwall. 
The story goes that after the funeral of her first husband she left the church 
in the company of Mr. Wynn who then and there offered her marriage. 
She declined on the ground that, on her way to church, she had promised 
Sir Richard Clough ! 

'A popular tradition credits him with having killed a mythical and much 
dreaded beast that had its lair in the cliffs below the castle, and having also slain 
a great white lioness with his naked fist in the Tower of London, thus earning 
for his estate the name of Lleweni, Llew being the Welsh for the king of beasts. 
He also overthrew in a wrestling match a famous giant, Edward Shon David, 
whose walking-stick was the axle-tree of a cart with a crow-bar driven through it. 
Syr John, too, was accustomed to show off his strength, when he had no worthier 
object for it, by tearing up forest trees by the roots.* — Bradley, North Wales. 

^ Sir T. Myddleton was elected Lord Mayor of London on the same day 
that his brother Hugh opened the New River Head. He had purchased the 
estate of Chirk Castle in 1595. 



was already known by his poems, and that the MSS. of some of the 
poems are in the Library of Christ Church in Oxford.^ 

On returning to Oxford, through the kindness of Canon Cooke, 
I was given the earliest possible opportunity of examining the two 
volumes known as Christ Church MSS. 183 and 184 and Professor 
Brown's notes thereon, and then learnt, what has been known to 
Shakespearean scholars for some years, that Shakespeare, Marston, 
Chapman, Jonson, and ' Ignoto ' contributed ' Diverse Poeticall 
Essaies ' on the subject of the Phoenix and Turtle, as a supplement 
to a poem by Robert Chester entitled Loves Martyr, and that the 
whole collection was dedicated to Sir John Salusbury of Lleweni. 

The personal association of Salusbury with the great Eliza- 
bethans is also shown by the presence of a poem written in 
Jonson's own hand among the Salusbury MSS. at Christ Church, 
and by the lines in which Robert Chester welcomed his patron 
home from London, where 

The swanns that laue their blacke feet in the streames, 
Have in their sweetnes sang you golden theames : 
Court-bewtefying Poets in their verse, 
Homerian like sweete stanzoes did rehearse. 

Robert Chester may well have been a member of the Salusbury 
household, who knew Lleweni and his patron's love of flowers. 
Indeed, in his Wynter garla7id of Sommer fflowers made m manner 
of A Neweyeares gyfte to the Right Worshipfiill John Salusbury 
Esq^ of the body to the Queenes most exelcnt Maiestye, Ijg8,^ he 
may have drawn inspiration from plants actually growing at 
Lleweni. He mentions twenty-seven in thirteen stanzas of his 


Venus Looking glasse. 











Ladies Nauel. 

Virgins bower. 


Sweet Marierome. 





Agnus Castus. 

Ladies smock. 



Ladies Seale. 

Lady lacies. 

Yooke Elme. 

A selection of Sir John Salusbury 's own poems was printed in 
1597 in a small volume dedicated to him by Robert Parry, gent., 

1 Carleton Brown, Poems by Sir John Salusbury and Robert Chester. Bryn 
Mawr College Monographs xiv, Pennsylvania, 191 3. 
« MS. 184, f. 45 a. 



of which only one copy is known. His Certaine Necessary 
observations For Healthy a poem illustrating his interest in practical 
hygiene, was printed as a broadside, of which a copy is bound up 
in his 'booke of notes', MS. 183 (f. 4), and is dated (in MS.) 1596, 
though a copy of the poem itself, written by a clerkly hand, is 
dated 1603 (MS. 184, f. 77 b). The volumes of MSS. contain many 
verses in Welsh, praising various members of the Salusbury family, 
copies of letters from Sir Henry Sydney, the Earl of Essex, Sir 
Walter Raleigh, and other notabilities, English poems by Sir John 
Salusbury and his circle, a few medical recipes, and stray quotations 
and verses. 

Sir John's own muse drew less from a knowledge of plants than 
did the muse of Robert Chester, though there are, as in all Eliza- 
bethan poetry, references to * choyse and sweetest flowers ', sweet 
Briere and sweet Eglantine. And one of his verses, on Pride, 
entitled A Conceite, ends with the lines 

And those that grow of sundry seeds 
At last do proue but stinking weeds 
And if pure wheat be sowde in tares 
The wheat Assuredly it mars. 

finis John Salusbury. 

but they can hardly be cited as showing exceptional cultural lore. 

The names of many herbes are contained in his medical recipes, 

of which the following is a specimen : 

Tacke a certain amand milke mayde Whit these ierbes Tacke plantain, 
ribbe Whorthe, knott grasse, cheaper purse, confery of evere one a handfull, 
strabury leaves, sanicula, of evere one halfe a handefull. Let this by boylet in 
a quantitie of faier Water of this Liquor macke an amand milke. 

This is excelent against a consumcion, waste, or runninge of the raynes, or 
brekinge of a vayne & within the boodie, or anye foule matter wthin manes 
boodye. [Christ Church MS. 184, f. 33' 

^ By another hand in the same volume is A Dietary for those who have weak 
backs, in ten 4-line stanzas : 

1. Good sir yf you lack the strengthe in your back 

and wolde have a Remediado 
Take Eryngo rootes and Marybone tartes 
Redde wine and riche Potato. 

2. An oyster pie and a Lobsters thighe 

hard eggs well drest in Marow 
This will ease your backes disease 
and make you a good Cocksparrowe. 
4. An Apricock or an Artichock 
Anchovies oyle and Pepper 
These to use doe not refuse 

twill make your backe the better. 
10. The milke of an Asse will bringe to passe 
all thinges in such a matter. 
When this is spente you must be contente 
with an ounce of Synamon water. 

[Christ Church MS. 184, f. 35 




Sir John was evidently of a most cheerful disposition, and we 
wish that a page had not been mutilated on which was written 

A notable sente?tce iuhe7'e'with Sir JoJm Sahisburye was woonte 

to solace him S[elfe. 
Often with a mery thought, do I myselfe well please 
it is a thing that coste me nought, yet dooth .... [paper torn]. 

[Christ Church MS. 184, f. i 

Three of Sir John's notes referring to plants which he grew in 
his garden at Lleweni are printed with accounts of other garden 
plants below, but his other notes all refer to stations of native 
Welsh plants, and are usually authenticated with the addition of 
his name in full, * Sir John Salusbury, Knight '. The records are 
the earliest known to me for Denbighshire and the adjoining 

The plants, though interesting, are not very rare and had mostly 
been localized by William Turner, or by Gerard, in England. The 
locality for MattJiiola siniLata appears, however, to be the earliest 
given for this plant in Britain. 

William Salusbury's Localities, c. 1597. 

Radish {} Raphamts sativtis). Transplanted by W. Salusbury from meadow 

adjacent to the Abbey at Maenan, near mouth of the Llugwy, to his garden 
at Llanrwst. 

Radish sp. Llannefydd ; Denbigh ; Llantwrog. 

Marsh Mallow [Althaea officinalis'). Llansannan. 
Rest harrow [Ononis spinosa). Plas yn Llewini. 

Gromell [Lithospermum officinale). Denbigh ; Whitford ; near Mostyn. 

Chamomile [Antheinis sp.). Llannefydd; Llewini; near Llangollen; 


Mistletoe [Viscicm albtwi). ' I saw it with berries in March near the Bont- 

vaen near Chirk, and without berries all the way to Ludlow.' 

Fig. Conway ; ' maesglas yn tegeingl, 2 m. from Holywell.' 

Great Cat's tail [Typha latifolid). Whittington Castle, 2 m. from Oswestry. 

Great Water Plantain [Alisnia plantago). In a pool by the great house of 

Sir John Salusbury [presumably at Lleweni]. 

Rye. Plas Llewini 1555. 

Maidenhair Spleenwort [Aspienium irtchotnanes). Bettws y Coed. 

Harts tongue fern. Talacre in Flint ; in a wooded glen near Llannefydd. 

Sir John Salusbury's Localities, 1606-8. 

Papaver argetnone L. 

This hearbe is to be found by Llansanan hard by Ryd y Rienn or at Aber 
in Carnarvonshire. 

Crambe mariti??ia L. 

English Sea Colewort, ' by my weare at Llanddylas upon the Baich and 
brine of the Sea, where there is no Earth to be seene but sande & pible 
stones'. In flower 30 May 1606. 



Maithiola sinuaia Br. 

Purple sea stock Gilloflower, 'by seaside by Sir John Salusbury his we.ire 
theare at Llandulas 

Rubus Idaeus L. 

The RLis[)ie Bush or Hindebery doth growe by Moelvodiar^ in Rees 
Tailors tent- ment & in grove of woodde Kylynlhvyn behind the house of 
Berain, where I Sir J »hn Salusbury found plentie of them growing wild 
yet naturally there. It is also found in Merionethshire, very comon by 
hedge ows and in th • topps of old thatched houses, and so likewise in 
the upp partes of Denbighshire at Sputty and other places thereabouts. 

Rosa spinosissima L. 

I Sir John Salusbury found the Rose Pimpernell very comon in Garth 
snodnay Parke by Denbighe. Also in Merionethshire. 

Sedum acre L. 

Castle wall of Harden Castle. J. S. 

Parnassia palustris L. 

Mr. Tho. Willi.imes, Clarke &: phision, sent it mee Sir John Salusbury 
Knight, for another hearb. It groweth in a meade of Sir John Winn 

Silaus pratensis Bess. 

English Saxifrage in the Copic in Llewenny parke next the newe stable 
over the high stile upon the right hand of the footway that leadeth from 
Llewenny Hall to Denbighe I found it the 23 Maye 1606. 

Dauais Carota L. 

Copic of Llewenny 23 Maye 1606. 

Scabiosa arvensis L. 

Purple flowered Scabious groweth neere St. Michells well or Fynnon 
Mihangil by Carwys, in the field that is above the well named Blorant,'^ 
in many other places neere Skewiog [Ysceifiog] Church, in the field 
adioyning to rhe highe way upon the left hande as you come from 
Denbighe to the mountayne as you ride to Chester. 

* Conyza maior ' ? =: Erigeron acre L. 

Gnaphaliiim erectum L. 

Coten weede or Comon Cudweed groweth by Llewenny Brewhouse near 
to the Causaye theare. 

Vacciniiim myrtillus L. 

This groweth in most of the montaynes of Wales. 
' Lysimachia ?ijim??iu/aria L. 

Herb twopence. Newburghe in Llewenny Park & in wood called 

^ Three miles west of Henllan. I am indebted to Mr. Edwards, the Librarian 
of Jesus College, for help with the spelling of Welsh place-names and for the 
loan of the Herbal of William Salusbury. 

Blorant in Parish of Aberwheeler near Bodfari. 

R 2 



Erythraea Centaurium Pers. 

24 Alay 1606 Llewenny. 
Scrophularia nodosa L. 

Groweth in the Orchard at Chirck Castle. 
Digitalis purpic7-ea L. var. 

Foxglove with white flower growes in a Parke of the Right Worthy Sir 
Thomas Myddelton called [? Castle] park [of Chirck ?]. 
Veronica officinalis L. 

Fluellen 8 Oct. 1609. 
Vero7iica spicata L. 
Veronica serpyllifolia L. 
Salvia verbenacea L. 

Wild Clarie in great plentie in litil Park by the wall of the Castle of 

Fnmella vulgaris L. 

Selfe heale or ye graite ynnos groweth plentifullie in Lleweny parke & the 

white flowered Self heale is found in a meadow of John Wyn mathenor 

of Lleweny green. 
Ajuga repiajis L. 

Bugle or Middle Comfrey also white flowered Bugle I, Sir John Salusbury, 
Knight, found both in Lleweny park in the Coppice adjoining upon the 
River Cloyd where the herbes Adders tonge & Twiblade growe I found 
them the xx**^ of May 1606 growing there plentifullie. 
Plantago coro?iopus L. 

Buckeshorne. Weare at Llandulas on the side of the Bancks neare the 
weare. 3 May 1606. 

Euphorbia par alias L. 

Sea Spurge. Llanddylas 'risinge furthe of the Sandes ' and Baiche of the 
Sea in very great plentie. 30 May 1606. 

Ophrys ovata L. 

Twyblade is likewise found neare Carrwis in a place called Cadnant, where 
a faire well springeth called St. Michael's well, in Welsh ffynnon- 
Mihangel. [And in the] Castle Park of Chirche in a close next the lower 
Barnes (belonging to the Rt. Hon. Sir Tho: Myddelton). Twiblade are 
found by Chambers wood in a field called Ravenscroftes field in Wales 
neare Denbigh and likewise is found hard by Cloyde in a field of 
John ap Roberts of Pont Gruffith & uppon the banks of the river Wheler. 
neare the house of the parson of Botuarry. The Herbe Addertonge 
groweth likewise in the lower end of Ravenscroftes field. 
Paris quadrifolia L. 

Herbe Paris is found neare Carrewis in a place called Cadnant, where a faire 
well springeth called St. Michael's well, ffynnon Mihangel within a boult 
shot of the well down the spring, one that side of the water as Carewis 
standeth, where like wise is found the hearb Twyblade and by reason of 
the ranknes of the place there are found a greate store of herbe p.u is with 
five leaves apeece, but the yeare 1606 I found the same with six leaves. 

Sir John states that he planted them in his garden in 1608. 



Opfiioglossicju vulgatum L. 

The Herbe Addertonge groweth likewise in the lower end of Ravenscroftes 
field. [See above.] 

Botrychiiim Lunaria Sw. 

Lunaria minor is found in Cunnygree of the Right Hon. Sir John 
Salusburys, Knight, lying betweene Botuarry [Bodfari] & Carewis, and 
great plenty of them are found in Place y Chambers fielde lying hard by 
Snodioge parke ^ neare Denbigh being the highest & the next field to the 
parke on the left hand as you go to Henllan from Place y Chambers, in 
a place of Llanywith called Ogoyr graig uppon the side of the banke 
theare, and are found in the littel park of Denbigh in the syde of a hill . . . 
[continuation cut in rebinding]. 

Poisonous Fungi. 

Let my advice perswade thy mynde 
not to truste any of that kynde 
such as be takenn for the beaste 
doe proue as poisnusse as the reste." 

J. S. 

With these notes are others concerning the medicinal properties 
of herbs, on which Sir John Salusbury was also an authority. But 
in none does he show his wisdom as clearly as in two lines in his 
poem on Certaine Necessary observations for Heathy ^<^^3- 

Apothecaries shop of drugges let not thy stomack be : 

Nor use noe phisick till thou neede, thy frende adviseth thee. 

vi. The MSS. of Mathias de L'Obel and William How. 

Among the papers which came to Magdalen College with the 
botanical Library bequeathed by John Goodyer in 1664, were 
some thousands of printed slips cut from Lobel's Adversaria^ ^Sl^> 
Observationes, 1576, and I cones Stirpium, with the authors cor- 
rections and MS. additions. These had evidently formed part of 
a pasted-up copy prepared by himself for a projected work which 
he did not live to publish, but from which How printed a selection 
under the title, perhaps the same as the one Lobel himself would 
have chosen, of Stirpium llhistrationes. 

The first question that occurs to one is, To what extent do these 
MSS. throw light on the life and work of Lobel? 

Lobel was born in Flanders in 1538. Like d'Alechamps (1513- 
1588), Clusius (1526-1609), Pierre Pena and Jean Eauhin (1541) 
he studied at Montpelier under Guillaume Rondelet, who is said to 
have taken such a liking to the serious young student, that he 

^ 'Snodiog Park' is marked as a round enclosure between Lleweni and 
Denbigh in old maps of the county. 



bequeathed his botanical manuscripts to him. In the Goodyer 
collection there is a parchment cover that was used to hold loose 
papers, which bears evidence to the association, for inside is written 
Rondelet de Febribus. It may have originally served to contain 
notes taken by Lobel at Rondelet's lectures. 

Some ten years later we find Lobel living in England. Driven 
from his native land by civil war, he described himself as being 
unable to make a home on a sea tossed by incessant tempests, or 
to indulge his peaceful love of gardens and flowers on lands watered 
with human blood. He came over to England to produce his first 
great work, the Adversaria, and in return for English hospitality 
he dedicated the work to Queen Elizabeth, The book was printed 
in London in 1570. It was our first scientific Botany. In Turner's 



Hcrball the plants were arranged in alphabetical order. In Lobel 
we find the first striving after a natural classification, and for the 
first time the straight-veined plants, now called Monocotyledons, 
were partly separated from those with net-vcined leaves (Dicoty- 

Five years later we find him back in his native country and in 
close alliance with Plantin, printing his Stirphnn or Plantarwn 
Historia illustrated with 1,486 wood blocks, to which the De Snc- 
cedaneis of Rondelet was added. And six years later he moved 
to Delft to superintend a Dutch translation of his work, the Krnyd- 
boeck printed there in 1581. 

At the age of fifty-four he was again in England, superintending 
a Botanical Garden which had been established by Lord Zouch 
at Hackney. In this he was probably in friendly rivalry with 
Gerard, who, seven years his junior, was cultivating eleven hundred 
kinds of plants in his garden in Holborn. Lobel in fact prefaced 
the 1596 catalogue of Gerard's garden with a printed letter of 
eulogy, but a note in his own hand in the copy in the British 
Museum (N.H.), ' haec esse falsissima M. Lobel,' is distinctly 
unkind. Dr. Daydon Jackson tells me that this is the only 
specimen of Lobel's handwriting that was known to him before he 
saw the Goodyer manuscripts. 

About 1606 Lobel was honoured by being appointed King's 
Botanist to James I, but feeling the weight of his sixty-eight years, 
retired, it is believed, to live with his son-in-law James Cole at 
Highgate. The will of James Cole,^ a document of great interest, 
presents a graphic picture of the wealth of Lobel's son-in-law, who 
evidently maintained intimate relations with the Low Countries to 
his dying day. He was engaged probably in the spinning, and 
certainly in the importation of silk into this countrj^ He left his 
house at Highgate to his wife Louisa, then to Abraham Bush, his 
sister's son. His house in Lyme St., held on lease from the 
Carpenters' Company, he left to his nephews Henry and Peter Cole, 
and Henry was also to have a ' gilte cuppard with the arms of 
Antwerpe graven therein ' and his chain of gold. To Abr. Bush 

^ Will (P. C. C. Barrington 42) written on six leaves of paper, dated 31 Dec. 
1627, with a codicil witnessed by Eliz. van de Bossche and Louise Cool, proved 
May 1628. It is to be hoped that one day a more complete account of Lobel's 
relations will be forthcoming. In addition to James Cole, he mentions another 
son-in-law Ludovic Myres, an authority on pharmacy, Abraham Hoguebat, 
pharmacist, son of his second wife, and Michael de Lannoy ' affinis meus His 
second wife may have been related to the Hugobert mentioned by Goodyer, 
cf. p. 59. Was de Lannoy synonymous with de Laune ? 

248 LOBEL 

' all my bookes ^ as well concerning my Latin studies, as picturenge 
with all my printes, little pictures, shells, marbers, statues, and all 
my antiquities and old Coines and such like rarities commonly shutt 
within my Counting House in Lyme St.' To numerous friends 
and relations with Dutch names he bequeathed silver cups and 
pieces of plate. 

Under Cole's roof Lobel probably added the last touches to 
a compilation, the manuscript of which is now before us, and which 
we may call the Stirpiu77i Ilhistrationes. The date of the work is 
settled by the imprimatur which bears the signature of Thomas 
Moundeford in his official capacity of President of the College of 
Physicians. He filled this post from i6t2 to 1614. 

The original testimonials with which Lobel had provided himself 
for two of his works are still extant. They are both from the 
College of Physicians, and are signed by the most eminent doctors 
in London. The names on the earlier document take us back 
a long way, to 1605, two years before Harvey became a Fellow of 
the College. The signatures are headed by : 

Thomas Langton'^as President; then follow John Craig,"' who is said 
to have given Napier a hint that led to the invention of logarithms; 
Sir William Paddy,"^ Sir T. Turquet de Mayerne,^ Henry Atkins,^ 

^ Two of James Cole's books are known to me. One a Dodoens in the 
Goodyer collection ; the other, Clusius, Per Hispanias, formerly in the British 
Museum, but turned out as a duplicate in 1769, and now in the possession of 
my friend Dr. Daydon Jackson. Both books have his signature Jacobi Colei on 
the title-page. 

2 Thomas Langton, M.D. Cantab. F.R.C.P. 1581 ; President, 1604, 5, 6. 
d. i6c6. 

2 John Craig, M.D. of Bale. First Physician to James VI of Scotland. 
F.R.C.P. 1604. He attended James I in his last illness. 

^ Sir W. Paddy, M.D., of St. John's College, Oxford, where a monument 
records his great benefactions to the College. Physician to James I. President 
of the College of Physicians, 1609-11, and in 1618. 

^ Sir Theodore de Mayerne, M.D. b. Geneva 1573, d. 1655; M.D. 
Montpelier 1597 ; F.R.C.P. 1616. Physician to Anne of Denmark, Charles 
and Charles II. 

' Henry Atkins. President of the College of Physicians, on seven occasions^ 
1606-25. He started with the naval expedition of 1597 as physician to the Earl 
of Essex, but was so bad a sailor that he had to be put ashore at Plymouth, and 
the College was ordered by the Queen to select another medical man to accompany 
the expedition. The choice fell on Dr. Moundeford. Dr. Atkins was chosen by 
James I to fetch his younger son, subsequently Charles I, then an infant from 
Scotland, d. 1635. His will has recently been acquired by the College of 


1 1 

yjiartiiitis . 


Signed by the President of the College of Physicians 
and by other eminent Doctors 

SONNIlT dedicated to lob el by MAES 



Richard Forster,^ William Baronsdale,-^ Thomas Frear;' William 
Dun/ D. Scllin,^ Francis Hering,^ Matthew Gwinne,' all in Munk's 
Roll of the College. Gilbert Primrose, though not on the Roll^ 
was the father of James Primrose who was ; J. Nasmyth,^ sur^^eon 
to James VI of Scotland, had only recently arrived in London 
in attendance on his royal patron. Gwinne's Vertiinmtis was acted 
at Magdalen College in 1607. Nasmyth had already presented 
Lobel with some plants which the latter had already acknowledged 
in print. This testimonial was accompanied by a eulogistic Sonnet 
written by Jan Maes. Neither testimonial nor sonnet appear to have 
been published. 

The later testimonial is signed by Thomas Moundeford,^ Presi- 
dent, Henry Atkins, Richard Forster, Thomas Friar, Mark Ridley,^*' 

1 Richard Forster, M..D., of All Souls College. F.R.C.P. about 1575 ; 
President, 1601-3, and 161 5. Author of Epheinerides Meteorologicae, ad aiinum 
1575, secimdtan posituin Finitoris Londoni. 8vo Lond. 1575. When out 
walking with Dr. Herring and Lobel he found a new grass, ' Gramen supinum 
Monspeliense inter Islington et altam portam, vernacule Highgate'. (Lobel.) 

2 William Baronsdale, M.D., of St. John's College, Cambridge. President 
of the College of Physicians, 1589-1600. He died before 7 June 1608. 

3 Thomas Fryer, M.D. of Padua, of Trinity College, Cambridge. F.R.C.P. 
1572. He incorp. Doctor of Physic at Oxford, 28 Feb. 1623. 

* William Dunne, of Exeter College. F.R.C.P. 1592. Died before 
16 May 1607. 

^ Daniel Selin, M.D., of Magdalene and Christ's Colleges, Cambridge. 
F.R.C.P. 1599. d. 161 5. 

^ Francis Herring, M.D., of Christ's College, Cambridge. F.R.C.P. 1599. 

He was present at the finding of ' Gramen supinum Monspeliense ' between 
Islington and Highgate. and wrote a Latin poem Epigrannjia in Opera novissima 
VObelii as a mark of his 'love and friendship', which was printed at the 
end of Lobel's Aniviadversiones in G. Rondelletii Phai'inaceuticam Officinam. 
Lond. 1605. 

Matthew Gwinne, M.D., Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford. F.R.C.P. 
1605; First Gresham Professor of Physic, 1598-1607 ; author of the Latin 
comedy Veriu?nn7{s, acted before James I at Magdalen College, d. 1627. 
^ James Nasmyth. Surgeon and Botanist to James L 

Provided Lobel with new drawings of ' Hyacinthus stellatus Peruanus ' and 
' Narcissus Indicus rubro flore one of Robin's new plants. Lobel, Adv. alt. 
p. 482. He evidently had a garden in which he grew and flowered 

Frittillaria nigra Pyrenaea. 1605. Lobel, Adv. alt. p. 496. 

Crocus Byzantinus serotinus candidus. p. 498. 

Colchicum minimum tenuifolium Gallaecium. p. 500. 

Plantago Umbilicata. Staghorn fern. {^Platycerhim aethiopicus). p. 506. 

^ Thomas Moundeford, M.D., of Cambridge. Pres. R. C. P. 161 2-1 4, 

Mark Ridley, ALA., of Clare Hall. F.R.C.P. 1594. Died before 1624. 


Edward Lister,^ Richard Palmer,^ John Argent,^ and Matthew 
Gwynn. It was printed by How in 1655 together with an original 
letter from Dr. Argent, who will always be remembered for having 
obtained from Bermuda the original bunch of Bananas, which was 
exhibited in Johnson's shop on Snow Hill. 

Lobel died in i6i6 (four years before the birth of his editor, 
William How). James Cole inherited his manuscripts, and Parkin- 
son, when collecting all available material for his Theatriim botani- 


cuni^ was undoubtedly permitted to see some or all of them. 
Lobel wrote in Latin : Parkinson w^ould therefore have had to 
translate, and a strict sense of honesty in the obligation to make 
acknowledgement may have become blunted in the process: he 
merely mentioned Lobel's help in general terms, for Lobel was 
a foreigner, dead, and perhaps no one cared, 

^ Edward Lister, M.D., King's College, Cambridge. F.R.C.P. 1593. 
Physician in ordinary to Queen Elizabeth and James I. d. 1620. 

- Richard Palmer, M.D., of Christ's College. Took part in the consultation 
at the death-bed of Henry, Prince of Wales. 

^ John Argent, M.D., of Peterhouse. F.R.C.P. 1597; President, 1625-7, 
29-33- May 1643. -^^ autograph letter from him to Lobel is among the 
Goodyer MSS. He is remembered for his enterprise in causing his man to 


Ten years later William How, a young doctor of St. John's 
College, Oxford, was assiduously collecting notes for the first 
British Flora. Concise in the choice of its information and scrupu- 
lous in its duty of quoting authorities, the Phytologia Britannica 
of How was the antithesis to the Thcatrtim of Parkinson. It w as 
printed in 1650, almost certainly before the author had acquired 
the Lobel MSS. About 22 Jan. 1651 Lobel MSS., or some of them, 
appear to have been in the hands of a man of learning,^ who then 
copied out many Latin descriptions of plants (Goodyer MS. ^, 
ff. 104-21). 

How was a most indefatigable hunter after exact localities of 
plants. He would have searched the Theatriim in vain for informa- 
tion which he afterwards found clearly given in Lobel's MS., and 
which he would have assuredly included in Xh^ Phytologia^ had only 
Parkinson quoted authorities : and Parkinson had still further 
transgressed by taking Lobel's credit of priority to himself. 

This appears to be one explanation of the violence of How's 
criticisms of Parkinson's lapse from the higher standards of literary 
honesty. My friend Dr. Church has suggested another motive 
which might well repay a more extended inquiry. Parkinson was 
a Puritan, whereas How was probably, like Goodyer and his friends, 
a Royalist. 

It is reasonable to suppose that How's first idea after realizing 
the originality of Lobel's work was to publish it iii ioto. It was, 
however, in Latin, and the market had already been spoilt by the 
appearance of two popular works, Johnson's Gerard emaculattcs in 
1633 and Parkinson's Theatrtivi in 1640, and no publisher would 
undertake a third. 

Yet Lobel's ' volumes were compleat. The Title ! Epistles ! and 
Diploma affix'd '. How, indignant that Parkinson had, as he put it, 
' murdered his (Lobel's) genuine scrutiny in treacherous oblivion,' 
and perhaps dimly conscious that his time for work through failing 

follow the roots of a species of ' Pease ' by scrapping away the beach between 
Orford and Aldborough, ' vntill hee got some equal! in length vnto his height, 
yet could come to no ends of them*. Ger. ei7iac. 125 1. And during the last 
year of his Presidency of the College of Physicians, he gave Johnson the first 
bunch of Bananas that was ever exhibited in a London shop. Ger. einac. 15 15. 

^ The handwriting of the unknown commentator is characterized by the 
frequent use of scrolls. We have noted it in Goodyer MSS. 8 and 9 and in 
Goodyer's copy of Parkinson's Theatrum, and have evidence that the writer 
was closely associated with Goodyer about 1650 to 1659. There is reason to 
believe that the writer was Goodyer's friend and neighbour, Dr. John Dale 
of East Meon and of Long Acre in London, who died in 1662. 



health was short, made a selection of Lobel's descriptions under the 
title Stirphtm Illiistrationes ; pliirimas elabor antes inatiditas plantas 
subreptitiis loh: Parkinsoni rapsodiis {ex codice MS. insalutatd) 
sparsim gravatae. The work was printed by Thos. Warren for Jos. 
Kirton of St. Paul's Churchj^ard in 1655.^ 

We have the original manuscript from which the book was 
printed before us, with the excerpts from Lobe), with How's 
additions pasted or pinned thereto, and the leaves of the MS. 
exactly as they were marked for the compositor, and returned by 
the printers to the editor. 

After How's early death on 30 Aug. 1656. his own annotated 
copy of the Phyiologia passed to John Goodyer on 30 Apr. 1659, 
and with it probably the Lobel MSS. as well, but too late for them 
to be of real use, for Goodyer's working life was drawing to a close. 
Except for their disarray through having been ungummed and 
misplaced, we may assume the papers to be in the state in which 
How left them. 

In this volume there are thirty-seven leaves. 

First comes the original imprimatur with the signatures of 
Tho. Moundeford, the President of the College of Physicians^ and 
of eight other members. Then the Preface, with many lines erased 
in Lobel s hand, and some eulogistic verses by Alexander Rhedus 
of which the last eight lines were not printed. Next follow some 
introductory remarks by How, and his Index and list of erratula 
in his own hand. 

Then Lobel's descriptions of 223 kinds of plants, a large number 
of which were apparently claimed by Parkinson as his own dis- 
coveries. How's notes, which appear in small type near the margin 
of his printed book, are intercalated in the Lobel MS., and show 
that the selection and arrangement of the volume was entirely the 
work of How, and not of Lobel. 

How evidently had Lobel's materials for the larger book before 
him. He cut out the descriptions which appeared to him to be of 
the greatest importance. There are also included original letters 
from Joannes de Monnel'^ and from John Argent, dated 
'Wood Street 2 June 1608', and also notes on various plants from 
Montpellier communicated by, and apparently in the handwriting 
of, Pellisserius. At the end is one leaf of aixapTrnxara in How's 

^ John Goodyer received his copy on 19 February 1654. 

^ John Monnel of Tournay was a correspondent of Clusius. Parkinson 
associates him with 'Anagallis tenuifolia fl. coeruleo ' which he received from 
Cadiz and grew in his garden at Tournay. Theatrum, p. 559. 



autograph, in which more than a score of Parkinson's errors arc 
pointed out. 

The remainder of Lobel's materials and the manuscript of his 
projected Sth-piiim Illitstratioiies have now been bound in three 
volumes, for convenience in handling. 

Volume I contains the classification and description of 223 kinds 
of grasses. Lobel had evidently become acquainted with a great 
many more species than the some forty-five he knew when he 
printed his Historia plantariim in 1576. But evidently the very 
novelty of the ne*ver descriptions has brought about the spoiling 
of the MS. — from which How cut out accounts of ninety-eight 
different grasses, for his book printed in 1655. 

Lobel had evidently worked hard at his grasses. The different 
kinds described have been numbered and renumbered in some 
cases four times over, and many alterations have been made in 
the MS. 

The last fourteen leaves of this volume are from a pasted-up 
copy of the Adversaria which has been much cut about. 

Vols. 2 and 3 are built up out of a further portion of the 
pasted-up copy of the Adversaria^ the leaves of two copies of the 
1576 edition being pasted on leaves of paper. The greater part 
of the text has been struck out, and marginal references to the 
pages of the Observationes, 1576, have been added. In vol. 2 
the leaves have been roughly numbered by How (?) i to 134, and 
in vol. 3 the leaves run from 135 to 251. The plants are numbered 
up to No. 835. 

Between the leaves so prepared he intercalated the leaves of 
a printed copy of the Observationes (edit. 1576), and between them 
again the illustrations from his 1591 edition of Icones Stirpiiim 
printed by Plantin. In many cases the page-margins are filled 
with Lobel's additional MS. notes on the plants. 

There are no references to Goodyer, nor traces of his handwriting, 
on these Lobel MSS. 

vii. William Mount and his Records of Kentish 
Plants in 1582-4. the books in the Goodyer Library are two editions 
of the Icones Stirpiiim by Lobel, printed by the Plantin press. 
The earlier copy of 1581, according to a note on the title-page, was 
purchased by ' Gulielmus Mowntuus'for 19 shillings on May 20, 
.1582. This note was written by Mount himself, and his initials, 
'W. M.', are stamped upon the leather binding. Several notes, 


written in the margins of the illustrations, appear to have been 
added by him within a few months of his acquiring the volume. 
In this, the earlier of the two volumes, there are no notes by 
Goodyer ; but in the later edition of 1591, containing no notes in 
Mount's hand, there are numerous notes by Goodyer, including 
copies by him of all Mount's notes on plants growing in Kent, 
taken from the copy of 1581. 

It seems likely that Goodyer having first acquired the later 
edition, copied Mount's notes into it, perhaps borrowing them for 
the purpose. He subsequently obtained possession of the earlier 
copy and owned both volumes before 1633. 

It has been ascertained^ that Mount was born at Mortlake in 
1 545, was educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge, of 
which he was admitted scholar, in 1563 and fellow in 1566. He 
resigned his fellowship before Lady Day 1570. It appears that 
he owed much to the patronage of Secretary Sir Thomas Smith 
and Lord Burghley.^ In a letter addressed to Sir William Cecil on 
20 Oct. 1567, he professes his great satisfaction in being placed 
at the University under the patronage of the former, his ' most 
honoured Mecaenas '. Medicine was the first object of his studies: 
later he took orders and was appointed Master of the Savoy in 
January 1593-4, and died in December 1602. 

It was known that Mount had taken considerable interest in the 
making of distilled waters, an art which he probably learnt as part 
of his medical studies, and that he had written some Latin verses 
prefixed to Lobel's Balsamic Opobalsami, Carpobalsami et Xylo- 
balsami explanatio in 1598, but he has not as yet received from 
botanists the credit which he deserves of having been the first to 
record the provenance of several plants in the county of Kent, nor 
for his knowledge of the construction of perpetual calendars. 

In the collection of medical books which my friend the late 
Sir William Osier bequeathed to M°Gill University, there is a 
manuscript to which Mr. Craster has recently drawn my attention . 
it throws a new light on the knowledge of the Kentish botanist. 
It is ' A shorte declaration of the meaning and use of a perpetuall 
calendare or almanack ' by W[illiam] M[ount]. in eleven chapters, 
with dedicatory preface to Sir Thomas Bromley, Lord Chancellor 
of England, whose chaplain the writer was, and whose arms are 
blazoned in colour on p. vi. The work, which is the author's 
holograph, is illustrated by coloured tables and diagrams. Three 

^ Cooper, AtJie7iae Cantab, ii, p. 271. 
Calejidar State Papers Domestic^ 1547-80, pp. 294, 301. 



of the latter contain the arms respectively of the Universities of 
Cambridge and Oxford, and of Queen Margaret of Anjou, foundress 
of Queen s College, Cambridge. 

It was written by William Mount in 1583; and the hand is 
identical with that in which the entries in Goodycr's copy of Lobel's 
hones at Magdalen College, are written. 

Mount's botanical localities were mostly within four miles west 
and north-west of Maidstone, indicating that he was living in Kent 
in i5<Si at Kast Mailing, where he had an orchard. And even in 
the case of plants for which Mount gives no localities, it may safely 
be assumed that he was referring to specimens growing near his 
Kentish home. His notes appear to have been written between 
158:2 and 1584. The plants which he may then have observed in 
Kent, and for which his are the earliest references, are about thirty- 
three in number. Of these thirty-three plants we find that Gerard, 
who wrote thirteen years later than Mount, mentions only eight, 
and to these Johnson adds only eleven more in his various works 
printed 1629 to 1633, forty-five and more years later. These notes 
of William Mount, therefore, constitute an important contribution to 
a first Flora of Kent,^ with a few notes on the virtues of imported 
garden and medicinal plants ; and it must be remembered that they 
were compiled in days when the idea of local floras was as yet 

The modern names of some of the plants for which he has 
recorded dates and localities are included in the following lists. 


Modern Names. 

Poa pratensis, L. 
Poa trivialis, L. (?) 
Eragrostis major, Host. 
Phleum pratense, L., var. nodosum 
Carex acuta, L. 
Juncus acutiflorus, Ehrh. 

^ I have found some other references to plants dating from the sixteenth 
century in a copy of Lyte's Herbal^ 1578, belonging to the Radclifife Trustees in 
Oxford. Two of the notes certainly refer to Kent, possibly the others may too. 
There was a Smallbrydge in the manor of Horsmonden. 

Ground pyne {Aju^a Chamaepithys L.) Muxuriat in Cantio 

Rhus sylvestris Plin. {Myrica Gale L.) ' Canterberyie Call and Cole *. 

Rhamnus {Rhainnus catharticus L.) ' au pres de la forest de Hatiele ' (?). 

Buckthorne {Hippophae Rhainnoides L.) ' au pres de small bregge '. 

Plane [Platamts orientalis L.). Planted in England 'at Small brege'. 
The signature of the recorder is doubtless on the title-page, but it has been 
obUterated by over-scribbling. 

Localities recorded by First printed 
Mount c. Y^Zi. records. 

Gerard, 1597. 

Ger. 1597. 

Mount's ' Alderes '. Johnson, 1629. 
East Mailing. Curtis, 1670. 

Snodland. Johnson, 1632. 



Moderfi A\wtcs. 

Hordeum murinum, L. 
Luzula vernalis, DC. 
Eleocharis uniflorus, Reichenb. (?) 
Triticum repens. 
Agropyrum junceum, Beauv. (?) 
Cynodon Dactylon, Pers. ^ 
or [ 
Digitaria glabra. ) 
Sparganium ramosum, Huds. 
Narcissus pseudo-narcissus, L. 

Scilla autumnalis, L. (?) 
Allium ursinum, L. 
Bupleurum rotundifolium, L. 
Coronopus Ruellii, All. 
Stellaria media, Vill. 
Lysimachia Nummularia, L. 
Rhinanthus Crista-galli, L. 
Digitalis purpurea, L. 
Tussilago Farfara, L. 
Nymphaea lutea, L. 
Bryonia dioica, L. 
Tamus communis, L. 
Potentilla anserina, L. 
Pedicularis palustiis, L. 
Fumaria officinalis, L. 
Ceterach officinarum, Willd. 
Botrychium Lunaria, Sw. 

Asplenium Ruta-muraria, L. 
Rhamnus catharticus, L. 

Localities recorded by 

Mount c. 1582. 
About London. 
Mount's Orchard. 
Sandwich, Dover. 

Addington, 1581. 


'Very common', prob. 

in Kent. 
Sea-coasts of England. 


East Mailing. 

Maidstone. 1583. 
Blackheath ; near 

Dover-Folkestone, 1 582. 

Fii'st printed 

Turner, 1548. 
Ger. 1597. 

Ger. 1597. 

Ray, 1688. 

Hooker, 1829. 
Johnson, 1629. 
Ray, 1724. 

Park. 1629. 
Martyn, 1763. 
Johnson, 1629. 
Ger. 1597. 
Turner, 1735. 
Johnson, 1632. 
Johnson, 1629. 
Johnson, 1632. 
Johnson, 1629. 
Jacob, 1777. 
Johnson, 1629. 
Johnson, 1629. 
Johnson, 1629. 
Merrett, 1667. 
Ger. 1597. 
Park. 1640. 
Lobel, 1570. 

Ger. 1597. 
Ger. 1597. 


Zea Mays, L. Morgan's garden. 

Acorus Calamus, L. D. Penny's garden. 

^, , . T '> Morgan's garden, 1578. 

Gladiolus communis, L. j ^^^^.^^ '^^^^^^^^ ^ ^g^^ 

Crocus sativus, L. Saffron Walden. 

Colchicum autumnale, L. Mount's garden, 15S3 ; and at Bath. 

Saponaria Vaccaria, L. Lord Abergavenny's garden, 1584. 

Ipomaea Jalapa. Root used medicinally in England, 1580. 
Anthriscus cerefolium. 

The Manuscript Notes of William Mount. 

On Title-Page. 

' Gulielmus Mowntuus 19^. Maij 2c. 1582.' 


I. Gramen pratense. Foa pratense L.* 

^ Great leavyd Medowe grasse very vulger.' 
I. Gramen minus. Foa irivlalis L. (?) 

'The lesser vulger Grasse.' 

^ Lobel's illustrations of these grasses have been determined by Dr. Stapf, 
who notes that they are * mostly too crude for us to name from them critically, 
and Mount would not have been in a better position, except perhaps in so far 
as he may have been supported by some tradition that is lost to us '. 



7. Gramen paniculosum Phalarioides. Eragrostis major Host.* 

' Grasse called in Surrey, braunched grasse in Coarne : and in 
orchardes, & shaddowye places usually mowen. They seathe y^ in 
water w^li purselane and small Peysons for wormes, in the sommer 
tyme, and gyve y* commonly to very younge chylderen.' 

10. Gramen typhinum. Phleum pratense L., var. nodosum. 

* An other Sedge Grasse in watery moyste places in my Alderes 
& (?) muche.' 

11. Gramen palustre maius. Carex acuta L. 

'The sharpe edge grasse flaggis he in black brookes [in Est 
mallinge] growinge in Tuffettes, very Common.' 

12. Gramen aquaticum alterum. Juncus acutiflorus Ehrl. 

' Ponde grasse growinge in a Ponde in Snodelande, w^h ys some- 
tyme allmoste drye.' 

13. Panici effigie, Gramen simplici spica. Hordeum murinum \,} 

* Barley grasse : because yt resembleth Barleye in hye wayes, 
and pathes about London.' 

16. Gramen hirsutum nemorosum. Luzula vernalis DC. 

' Hearye or hoarye Grasse in my orcharde.' 

17. Gramen iunceum marinum dense stipatum. 

Eleocharis uniflorus Reichenb. (?) ^ 
' Pusshye grasse : in the sandes by the Castles betweene 
Sandwyche and Douer (in Kent).' 
20. Gramen Canarium. Triticum repens L 

' In all places where the wryters use this worde : Gramen : It 
ys to be understoode y* they meane Quycke or Couche grasse, 
whereof there be dyverse kyndes well knowen. The best in my 
opynyon hathe longe greate rootes creeping in lengthe ij yeardes 
greater than wheate strawes full of ioyntes agroinge wth ye shape, 
fol*'. 23. Yt groweth in Addington in Kent in the sandy drye 
dustie hye wayes there. The same prevayleth against the straw, 
and against wormes in my experience.' 

22. Gramen caninum longius radicatum marinum alterum. 

? Agropyrum junceum Beauv. 
' Of Dogges Grasse, or Couche grasse, thus writeth Poena, and 
Lobell, fol. 2. ... I have used the Grasse with ye great roote, 
growinge in sandye wayes set downe here, fol^. 23 : growinge 
in Addington in Kent and doe fynde yt muche better then the 
usuall Couche grasse. W'": Mount.' 

23. Gramen caninum alterum. 

Cynodon Dactylo7i Pers., or Digit aria glabra Beauv. 
' Quyche grasse growinge in sandye wayes the very trewe 
Cowche grasse whereof the Phisiciones wryte. It groweth in the 
sandy hie waye plentifuUye betweene Wrothame and Addington 
* Dr. Stapf writes : * How this came to be noted down for Kent is a puzzle, 
unless he saw it in a garden. Tabernaemontanus says it was grown in gardens, 
and as it had an old popular name " amourette ", it may not have been unknown 
in English gardens of the period.' 

^ The figure and name are of Setaria viridis Beauv. (O. S., J.). 
^ The figure is Scirpus caespitosus L. (O. S.) ; the name belongs to Bromus 
asper (J.). 



in Addington in Kent. (I there fownde y* [i5]8r and have 
synce often used it against wormes w*^ good successe and ye 
stoane allso euen in my selfe for ye stoane.' 
33. [Quotation from Pena and Lobel.] 

40. Milium indicum rubrum. Zea Mays L. 

* Redd Indyan Myllitt, which I have seene in M'^ Morgan hys 
house, the Queenes apothecarie in London.' 
49. Harundo saccharina Indica. Succharum officinarum L. 

'The suger Canes which yielde us our best suger of it selfe 
suger without compoundinge, or connynge which ys in deede 
good and comfortable : the other here in Suger houses by pollycie 
denyed, ys perchaunce more profitable to the maker or mer- 
chaunte, then healthfull to the partie, which ys to use it.' 
55. China. Smilax China L. 

'The diet roote Chinee whereof we have none growinge in 
Englande and yet muche used : it hathe byn in Englande for the 
Great pockes, allso for all deseases proceadinge from a moiste 
brayne and the lyuer obstructed. Hereof I referre the reader to 
Vesalius whoe hath lardge writen in his book de radice Chyna 
lardgelye thereof.' 
57. Acorus Diosc. & Acoros Theophrasti, Officinis falsb Calamus. 

Acorus Calamus L. 

'I have hearde M'" D. Pennye often saye that he hath thys 
roote in his garden in London.' 
59. Iris nostras vulgaris. Iris Pseud-acorus L. 

80. Sparganium & Butomus Theophrasti. Sparganium ramosuni Huds. 

' The sharpe edged burre llagge. It groweth in watery dytches 
about Leybourne in Kent, smale use thereof in Phisick or 

98. Gladiolus Narbonensis. Gladiolus cojnmunis L. 

' Coarne flagge or Coarne gladdyn. I have y* my garden 
Mr. Morgan gave yt to me a*^ 1578 at London yt groweth nowe 
with me a^ 1583, at Mallinge.' 

12. Narcissus poeticus. Daffodil. Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus\.,dJ\d.Q)\h^x's>. 

' Theis herbes which are set here under the name of Narcissus 
we calle Daffadowndyllyes : they be very common, and of them 
(as here they be set) dyuerse sortes of dyuerse colores.' 
37. Crocus sine flore. Croci flores. Crocus sativus L. 

' Safforne withoute flower I have never sene here : safforne with 
the flower I have sene plentye at Safforne VValden in Cambridge- 
shyre as I thinck yt ys and in many other places in Englande. 
Allso yt ys concluded amonge all the most approued Authors y* 
Englishe Safforne ys the best and hath the greatest virtues. 
The Qualities of safforne shall followe as the Roome wyll 
permytt soe farre as there ys aney mency one by shape or picture 
made of saff'orne.' 
43. Colchicum sive Strangulatorium Ephemerum Crocifolium. 

Autumn crocus. Colchicum autumnale L. 
'Thys we calle Hermodactylus : y* was gevin me a<^ 1578 ; and 
groweth now in my garden a"^ 1583; very trewly y* agreeth wyth 
thys shape [cf. figure in Lobel, Icones^ 1581]- I did neuer see 



aney flower but only poddes, as here set downe yet may be 
that y*- hath the flowers here underset and soe I thinck y^ hathe. 

D. Symyns^ tould me, that y^ groweth plentifully about the 
bathes in Somerset shyre or Wyltshyre when he sawe yt in 
pastures whereof when casually their catle chaunce to feed, they 
become daungerus syck untyll ye herdsman or keper have well 
starved them euen allmoste to sweate ; and thin y® swellinge 
and other accidents doe diminishe, allso they kepe y^ cattell from 
drynck whyle they be yll. Thys ys Mr. D. Symyns observacon 
of thys herbe in that countrye, as I took the same from hyme by 

[Turner {Herbal, 1568, p. 156) figures the Widdowe Saffrone from Bath both 
in flower and seed, but appears not to have known of its dangerous qualities to 
cattle. He is eloquent about it in relation to man. 

' It is good to knowe this herbe that a man maye isschewe it. It will strangell 
a man and kyll him in the space of one daye, even as some kinde of Tode- 
stolles do. The roote is swete and provoketh men thereby to eate of it. If anye 
man by chaunce have eaten anye of thys, the remedye is to drinke a great 
draught of cowe milke.' 

'It stirreth up tossinges, wamlings, windinesse and vomiting' (Lyte, 1578, 
p. 367).] 

150. Cepe. Onion. Allium Cepa L. 

' Unyones fynely slysed, and in faier. water one night steiped ; 
the water y^ next morninge geven to chylderen which have the 
wormes wonderful! effectuallye helpeth them. Lonicerus, fol. 193. 
Tragus allso first used yt, fol. 739.' 

151. Scillas. Cepa marina. 6'^///«z;d'r/z^zHuds. confused with^S*. 77iariit?iia'L.Q.) 

'The sea Onyone or purginge onyone plentifull in England 
uppon the sea coastes. 

It ys allso knowen, and to be bought at the Apothecaries only, 
by the names of Scylla, squylla or sea onyone : very muche used 
in phisicke. The syrupe thereof purgeth very well clammye, rawe, 
flegme, yet not without suspicione of some daunger and paynes. 
And therefore yt ys the better used in [? summer] tyme, when 
all phisick muste be conveyed into our bodyes without ofl"ense of 
taste, and worcke without sense of the least grypinge, or troble 
that may, and muste be.' 
169. [Error for 153.] 

Ascalonites antiquorum. Shallot. Allium ascalonicuvi L. 

' Ascalyones muche used by the poore husbandemen and 
welsh men which love leeks wonderfull well. Theis rude people 
which be acquaynted with thys harde hotte foode doe fynde noe 
inconvenience therein, and the opinion of the very learned 
alloweth the same for them to be right good and holesome that 
the same allso ys to them meate and medicyne, because yt 
norrisheth and so pryserueth them against all infectiones of the 
hotte tyme of the somer when they doe moste use yt with cheese. 
To those which seldome taaste theis hotter herbes they are con- 
cluded to bee perilouse.' 
^ John Symings, M.D. of Oxford, F.R.C.P. 1555 ; President of Coll. of 
Physicians, 1569 and 1572; died at his house in Little St. Bartholomew's 
Smithfield, 1588. (Munk, Roll R. C. P.) 

S 2 



154. Shoeno prasson. Chive. Allium Schoenoprasum L. 

' I tak theis to be set for ye Cyues.' 
Porrum vulgare. Leek. Allium Porrum L. 

* The vulgar Leeke (Sett).' 

155. Porrum tonsile. Allium Porrum var. 

'The unsett Leeke which they cutt to the potte.' 
172. [Error for 156.] 

Allium sylvestre tenuifolium. Crow garlick. Allium vineale L. 

' Wylde garlyck.' 

158. Allium. Allium sativuvi L 


159. Allium ursinum latifolium. Ramsons. Allium ursinum L. 

' I thinck thys to be set for our Ramsynes, whereof there 
groweth great plentye about fourde in Kent in Wrotham parishe, 
and ys esteamyd very good against the stoane.' 

228. Botrys. Chenopodium Boirys L. 

' Oake of Jerusalem. 

It heateth attenuateth diuideth or cutteth, openeth and purgeth. 

It pryuayleth against all flegmatycke, mattered or putrified 
affectiones of the breast, and lunges ; allso yt healpeth such as 
consume, be trobled with shorte breathinge, and stuffinge or 
makinge noyse in the breathinge pipes ; as well the herbe in the 
decoctione of liquirishe druncke as the decoctione of the herbe 
onlye, maney dayes taken with violate or Rosate honney. 
Matthiolus lib. 3, cap. 119, fol. 852, 

To suche as spytte mattered, humores, putrified, yt 

marvelously pryuayleth which I my selfe can trewlye testifie. 
The same author in the same place.' 

229. Cichorium sativum, coeruleum. Cichorium Intybus L. 

' Succorye well knowen. 

' Amonge the residewe of suche as by my very long experience, 
and certen credytt and fidelitie, have been prooued : I commende 
the infusion of Rhewbarbe in Endyue water or Succorye water 
against aney obstructiones or lingeringe agewes. For I neuer 
sawe Agewe (by obstructione) not cured with this Remedie 
if aney will continewe the use thereof. Because euen the most 
thyck, clammye, cleaninge and stuffed, choakinge humores, 
obstructiones allso, which by weaknes of naturell heats coulde not 
be eased or removed : by the takinge and use of Rhewbarbe 
I have seene cured. I have accustomed therefore to take a pynte 
of Endyve water, wherein I infuse or steepe the weight of fyfteene 
pence of fynelie slyced Rhewbarbe, tyed in a thynne woven lynnen 
clothe. After every daye of the same infusione (ye Rhewbarbe 
still beinge pressed or wringe into the same) fower ownces (which 
ys about a dosen sponesfull) I geve in charge to be geven in ye 
mornynges, and this ys the quantitie for childeren. Neither doe 
I discontinewe the same, untill I see the obstructiones and Agewe 
wholye gon and taken awaye. For without all doubt all wil be 
safe, quickly removed, and health regayned yf all thinges be 
herein well don, and convenient to the Cure. Montanus, libro 
de Componendis medicamentis, Consilio pro puero , 
consilio quinto, fol. 105.' 



352. Isatis sylvestris Vaccaria dicta. Saponaria Vaccaria L. 

' I sawe yt grow in the garden of the very honorable the Lord 
Abergavenny, his garden in Kent a<^. 1584.' 

[A casual introduction from Continent.] 
374. Aloe. Sempervivum marinum. Aloesuccotrina\^dS[i.ox A, Perryi^dktx. 

'Aloe or aloe succotrina best knowen by that name. To be 
bought at th'apothecaries only : a singuler, good and very safe 
purger. W. & L. 

Amonge all other medicines the use of Aloe marvelous well 
pleaseth me. Noe man nedeth to feare the heat thereof, euen 
in the Somer tyme. Although the vulger phisiciones speake their 
pleasure. Baptista Montanus, Veronensis, Consultat. xci. De 
preservat. a calculo. The weight thereof is 3^^^ before supper 
halfe one hower or lesse.' 
396. Perfoliatum vulgatius, flore luteo, fo. umbilicato. 

Hare's Ear. Bupleurum rotundifolium L. 
' Thorowe waxe or Perfoliata. Is unto chylderen broken use to 
give the seed hereof in mylke meates, allso the destilled water 
thereof with good success. Tragus, fol. 484.' 
438. Coronopus repens Ruellij & Cornu Cervi alterum vulgi. 

Wart-cress. Coronopus Ruellii All. 
' The Englyshe in moste places call this Swynes Cresses and not 
Harteshornes in aneye place to my knowledge.' 
459. Alsine, sive Hippia major. Stellaria aquatica Scop. (J.) 

' The great Chyckweede.' 

*0f Chyckweede thus writeth Lonicerus, foK 168. S. media L. 

The distilled water of Chyckweede in virtew ys equall with 
Purselane ; wyth wine or simple alone wythe good successe yt ys 
geven to those which pyne, and waste with longe sycknesse. 
Unto chylderen in immoderate and unnaturall heate yt ys good 
to give because yt coaleth the inwarde heate and mitigateth or 
quyte takethe awaye those terrible accidentes whiche chylderen 
have by suche extreame heates as Crampes, palsies, tortures and 
schreamynges, schrychynges, cryinges, startlinges, bowynges and 
sudden bendinges sometymes forwardes sometymes backwarde 
and suche like accidentes which chylderen be subject unto. 
Lonicerus, fol^. 168^. 

The decoction of Chyckweede or y© Decoctyone of the rootes 
of great grasse or of purslane, or ye rootes of Male fearne with 
spotted leaves aney one alone sodden in water with a lytle whyte 
wyne or male or possit ale ys excellent in my proofs against ye 
agew and worm in chylderen. Fiorananta lib". (Capricei medi- 

474. Nummularia sive Centimorbia. Lysimachia Nummularia L. 

* Herbe twopence (allso Woundeworte). 

' In water w<^b suger, yt ys geuen againste the exulceratione of 
the Breast and Lunges, yt helpeth the coughe and those which 
hardely breathe. Chylderen which hardely receaue medicines 
trobled with a drye coughe are cured herebye. Lonicerus, fol. 
208. Tragus, allso, foR 808.' 
529. Crista Galli Herbariorum. 

Yellow Rattle. Rhinanthus Crista-galli L. 
' Ratle grasse in meddowes very vulger.' 



572. Digitalis purpurea. Digitalis purpurea L. 

' Foxegloues.' 

' Hereof Loniceros vvriteth fol. 74 that yt doth attenuate, dense, 
purge, loase, cut flegme or grosse humores : and all virtewes and 
qualities which Gentiane bathe, yt allso hathe.' 
589. Tussilago, Farfara. Coltsfoot. Tussilago Farfara L. 

' Foole foote, horse houe (loote leafe, the father before the 
Sonne, coulte foote). 

It may allso be called Coughe worte. It groweth moste in 
wheate lande, and fallowed feildes. This shape aptlie agreeth 
with the herbe when yt freshe springeth in March and Aprill. 

Tragus colored hathe the herbe moste trewlie shewed, muche 
better then this, the one syde hoarlye whyte next the grownde, 
and the upper syde freshe grene ; the leaves then theis more 
rownde. The roote medicinal against the coughe ; and imper- 
fectiones of the lunges.' 
594. Nymphaea lutea. Nymphaea lutea L. 

* The Yellowe Nymphye or water lyllye. 

The roote or seede of ether of theis Nymphies sodden in redde 
wyne and drunck (noe remedie otherwyse healpinge) stayth y^ 
immoderate courses of women. Lonicerus, fol^. 177.' 
622. Vitis alba, Bryonia. White Bryony. Bryonia dioica L. 

' Herbe bryane, hedge vyne, agew roote, tetter burye roote, 
and Bryonie. The great whyte roote.' 

625. Vitis, vel Bryonia siluestris. Black Bryony. Tamus communis L. 
' Blacke Bryonie, wylde vyne.' 

625. Peruuiana Mechoaca Mechoacae Prouinciae planta Bryoniae similis. 

Ipomaea Jalapa L. 

' The Mechoane or Mecoacane : from the Indianes muche 
used in Englande, a^ 1580, untill muche hurte ensewed ye 
boulde undiscrete practize thereof ; beinge a simple not without 
great daunger. Hereof Garzias ab Horto, and Monardus the 
Spaniarde, allso Clusius have wryten. Soe maney other have don, 
but none doe warraunt yt safe thoughe they commende yt in 
some cases, beinge prescribed with the advyce of the learner, and 
those which very well knowe its virtews and qualities thereof. 

The best ys brought from ye Citie Mexicho : they have 2 sortes, 
the one lesse daungerous then the other. In my opinione theis 
2 doe resemble our 2 Bryonies, and of my mynde, I fynde 
the moste learned of my tyme in Englande, allso diuerse out of 
Germanye, and Fraunce icompe with us, the difference of Soyle 
only cause the varietie of effectes in operations 

The weight of 7^^ or a french crowne in houlder (?), drunck in 
twelve sponisfull of seek, will aboundauntly purge bothe wayes in 
common but in moste by stoale onlye. The rootes only ys used, 
halfe soe muche of our Bryonie wyll worck wonders if it be prepared 
specially, or simple of it selfe.' 
693. Argentina, Potentilla. Silver weed. Potentilla Anserina L. 

' Wylde Tansie. Anserina Tragi, foK 480. 

The herb sodden in wyne redd or Whyte and drunck healpeth 
those which have paine in their backes and torments there : allso 
suche women as be trobled with their whytes immoderately this 




herbe euen so used cureth : for it byndeth and strengtheneth as 
Pimpinella Italica. Tragus, {oV\ 481. 

The destined water thereof is very good to cure redd eyes. 
Idem ibidem. 

Against the Dysenterie and lienterie, which is the blooddie flix 
and passinge of foode by stoal undigested and against all fluxes 
and flixes this herbe is used in our adge. Idem, fol*^. 480. 
Tragus estemeth it drye because it bindeth there.' 
748. Pedicularis. L. 431. 

Marsh Red-rattle. Lousewort. Pedicularis palustris L. 
* Lowzye weede becaus the catle feadynge thereof will become 
lowzye : thereof very muche groweth in black brookes in 
Estmallinge in Kent.' 
757. Capnos, Fumaria. Fumitory. Fiunaria officinalis L. 

' Fumytarie ; the distilled water thereof wyth Tryacle before 
the purgatione certaine dayes drunck ys very holesome for suche 
as labor of the Frenche euyll. Because yt purgeth the infected 
bloode. Lonicerus, fol^. 167. The same ys good against the 
Plague and the desease called the Englishe sweate ; allso good 
when aney shall purpose to Bathe and sweate. The same author 

The Decoctione thereof with Fennyll openeth the obstructiones 
of the Lyuer and forceth oute the Jaundyce by uryne. The Juce 
thereof and the roote of Esula, eche one drachme which ys in 
weight 7^^ mixed and drunck with hott water dryueth ye Dropsie 
and . . . (?). In same author, fol*^. 167.' 
807. Asplenium. Scolopendria. Ceterach officinarum Willd. 

' Splene worte. Yt groweth uppon the southwest ende of 
Est Peckham churche in Kent : allso uppon ye Pallace walles in 
Maydston, from where I did transferre y^ to my garden walle, 
where it groweth. a^. 83.' 
807. Lunaria racemosa. L. 470. Moon wort. Botrychium Lunaria Sw. 

' I haue sene thys lunarie or Moneworte growe in black 
heathe ; allso nere Saynt Margaretes, nere Rochester.' 
810. Adianthum album et nigri Plinii. A. 361. 

Wall Rue. Asplenium Ruta-murarta L. 
'Thus wryteth Matthiolus of Ruta muraria in the chapter of 

Moreover this moueth uryne and grauell.' 

Vol. II. 

180. Rhamnus primus Diosc. creditus. L. 598. 

Evidently intended for Sea-Buckthorn. Hippophae Rhamnoides L. 

'This Rhamnus I founde betweene Douer and Foulkestone 
by the sea syde under the Clyffes, a^. 1582, with reddish beries 
Orenge colored.' 

280. Cerefolium descriptum. Chervil. Anthriscus Cerefolium L. 

'Cheruyle. It is used with meate as Perslye of a meane 
temperature betwene hott and coulde ; But principally to force 
out clotted or brused bloode " as it is called " the same herbe to 
be of wonderfull efficacie certen sure experience hath approued. 
Tragus, foK 472. The Juce of the herbe, the destilled water 
allso, dissolueth the congealed blood of contusion, or strype, and 
is of force against the stoane in the kydnes. Idem ibideip.' 



viii. Richard Shanne, 1561-1627. 

In the Goodyer MS. there is a note of the name of Richard 
Shanne, at the head of a paper upon which are recorded 
two localities for north country plants, but there is no further 
indication as to who he might be. 

Pyrola groweth in shadowed woods in Craven, in a place called Craggie 
Close in Lanscale. 

Monophyllon groweth in Lancasheir in Dingley wood and in Harwood neare 
to Blackbume. 

Both localities are given in Gerard. 

During a visit to the British Museum in June last, a happy 
chance made me acquainted with 'The Shanne Family Book' 
(Addit. MS. 3^599. 17), from which I discovered that Richard 
Shanne of Woodrowe was a considerable horticulturist, who was 
living near Methley^ in Yorkshire in Goodyer's time, and who 
certainly deserves to be better remembered. I have no doubt but 
that he is the authority whose name is quoted by Goodyer. It is 
not unlikely that Goodyer may have got into correspondence with 
him through Walter Stonehouse, the friend of John Savile of 
Methley, whose neighbour Shanne was. 

Richard Shanne sonne and heire of William was borne the tenth of Auguste 
beinge Thursdaie 1561 he maried Amy Burton daughter of Richard Burton 
alias Carver the ix*^ daie of June 1588 and had issue by hir, Thomas. He 
maried his second wife Marie Chamber . . . 

This Richard was of reasonable tallness stright of bodie, he was somwhat 
paile of complexion, his heire of his head mouse colored, he was verie light and 
nimble of foote, his chefest delite was in plantinge and grafting all maner of 
herbes & trees, and had growinge in his gardinge a great number of rare and 
straunge plants, there was not allmost anie herbe growinge but he did knowe 
the severall names therof, and the nature and opperation of the same, he did 
practise both in phisicke and specially in Chirurgerie and did cure verie manie 
daungerous wounds and ulcers. He made three bookes of the Nature and 
operations of herbes and Trees and drew with his pen the trew picktures of 
everie plante, set downe in what ground everie herbe and tree was to be found 
and the tymes of their springinge, florishinge and sedinge. He planted three 
Orchards of his owne, the first at the Mickletowne which he sett in anno 
domine 1577. The Springe of Aspe trees he planted 1596. The Orchard at 
the East more syde he planted in divers yeares, first in 1607 & 161 3 (?). The 

^ Methley gardens should be famous in the history of horticulture. For at 
Methley lived John Savile, the friend of Walter Stonehouse; there also in 
Mr. Witham's garden, gold-streaked Pansies growing spontaneously ' mightily 
beautifie the border of an hedge ' ; in the Wood-close flourished the Blush 
coloured Bugle {Ajiiga reptans L.), and at no great distance grew Lunaria 
minor in John Nun's cow-pasture. Witham's son contributed localities of some 
Oxfordshire plants. Merrett, Pinax, pp. 17, 65, 74. 



Springe of Elme trees by the Moorsyd was planted in 1613. The little Orchard 
in the end of the More house field he compassed about with quicksetts in 
anno 161 6, and the trees was set in anno 16 17. He maid two large bookes 
diologge wyse of Phisicke & Chirurgerie, He delited much in reding Granados 
meditations, and was verie seldome scene in anie rude companie, but avoyded 
companie as much as he could and took much pleasure to vvalke in woods and 
to be solitarie. He lyved in the dales of Quene Elizabeth, Kynge James & 
Kinge Charles when he was fiftie & nine yeares oulde he mayd a large booke of 
prayers & meditations which he did drawe out of sondrie learned authors. The 
meditations are of all the miseries of man from his verie birth unto the dale of 
his death. Allso of the torments which the wicked do suffer in hell . . . 

He died of consuming consumption at the age of six and three score wanting 
one moneth. [ff. 83 v, 84.] 

[His garden list is printed on p. 310.] 

A most interesting extract from Shanne's diary was made by 
Antony Wood when he consulted it in October 1674, by permission 
of the then owner. It contains a most lifelike description of the 
Ruff {Machetes pitgnax L.), a bird that was not described by 
Turner in his book on Birds, so that Shanne's is probably the first 
English description. 

Anno 1588, there was taken at Crowley in Lincolnshire in the winter time 
5 strange fowles of divers colours, having about their necks as it were great 
monstrous ruffs, and had underneath those ruffs certaine quills to beare up the 
same, in such a manner as our gallant dames have now of wier to beare up 
their ruffs (which they call supporters). About their heads they had feathers 
so curiously set togeather and frisled, altogeather like unto our nice gentle- 
women who do curie and frisle their haire about their heads. Three of these 
Strang fowles was brought into Sir Henrie Leese, and they would walk up and 
doune the hall as if they were great states, and sometimes they v/ould stand 
still and lay their heads together as if they were in a secret counsell. It made 
the beholders to wonder therat. They cast them corne to eat, but they refused 
to tast of any meat and so at length died. Mr. Richard Shann, of Wodrow in 
Medley, Yorks., drew a picture of one of them which he placed in his herball. 
Two men that had set lime twigs to catch birds withall did find them taken 
therin. The like never seen or heard of before. 

ix. John Parkinson, 1567-1650. 

Several pages of notes in the Goodyer collection on American, 
Bermudan, and Oriental plants are written in a hand that was at 
first unknown to me, but which I have since been able to identify 
beyond doubt as that of the well-known herbalist John Parkinson. 
Certain of these notes are written on the back of a letter, every 
word of which was so completely scribbled over as to be quite 
unreadable. By slow and careful erasure with a sharp knife I 
found it possible to remove sufficient of the ink-scrawling from the 



surface to bring into view the following letter, signed by him. It 
is a unique possession, as being the only signed specimen of his 
hand-writing known. 


To the worthy Gentlewoman 

Mi-es Geeres Seal 
geve these. ^ — ^ 

Good Mrs. Geeres, I hav by this messenger sent you the ij trees wherof 
I tould when we were last together at yor howse. I brought them thither on 
the Saterday you were so earnest with me to come to dinner where I thought 
to have met with you, but missing you I carried them home again & laid them 
in the ground wherin they have been safe without taking any harme. I do 
also think that then you would have pleasure, and with that you promised & 
have long expected it. I pray you doe not wearye me with deseyre which 
is worse then denyall as you please appoint Mr. Codemer to doe it speedily. 
So shall ever remaine, 


[MS. f. l68 v.] 

A comparison of the text of several of the notes with passages 
printed in the Theatriim in 1640 confirmed the view that they are 
indeed the author's own notes, and were probably the actual notes 
used by him in the preparation of his book. Some of them are 



printed with the h"sts of exotic plants on p. 363. The following 
horticultural notes were evidently extracted by Parkinson from 
Francis Bacon's Nattirall Historie, Century v, 1627 ; but another 
possibility should not be lost sight of, namely that Bacon may have 
derived part of his horticultural knowledge from the distinguished 
botanical writer who two years later dedicated his Paradistts m 
Sole to Queen Henrietta Maria. 

Notes 071 Hortictdttire by Parkinson. 

The steepings of Wheate seede in horse dung, cowe dung, pigeon dung, urine, 
chalke, bay salt, claret wine, soote, ashes, mahnesey, & spirite of wine : the 
urine, soote, ashes, chalk & salt shooting within six dayes, the best & lustiest 
of them was first from the urine, then dung, next chalke, then soote & then 
ashes, & last the salt therewith wines not at all except the claret wine. [Bacon, 
Sylv. sylv. § 402.] 

The drawing of boughes of a tree or vine to the inside of a roome where fyre 
is continually kept doth accelerate the fruite a moneth sooner. [§ 405.] 

The removing of living plantes into new freshe & loose earth once in a yeare 
doth accelerate & enlarge them. [§ 406.] 

The grafting of Roses in Maye will cause them to beare flowers the same 
yeare but late. [§ 418.] The binding also of the bark worketh the like effect. 
[§ 419-] Grafting upon contrary stocks will never thrive long, as Peaches on 
Cherryes etc., the cause is the cyon overruleth the stock quite, the stock is but 
passive onely & giveth aliment but no motion to the graft. [§ 421.] 

The laying of a heape of flinte or other stones about the roote of a wild tree 
doth make it prosper twise as much as without them, because the stones retaine 
moisture longer & not to be consumed so soone, it keepeth also the tree from 
cold blastes & frosts & geveth more warmth at all tymes. [§ 422.] 

To boare a hole in a tree that beareth not is usually done to cause it bearing ; 
too much repletion may be the cause opprest with his sap. [§ 428.] As also 
to cleave 2 or 3 of the cheife rootes & to put a peble into eache to keepe them 
open for els they will close againe. [§ 429.] 

To drawe the bough of a tree through a wall to the south sun hath been 
practised by some to ripen the fruite the better, but it sorted not. [§ 431.] 

It were good to trye whether a tree grafted lowe & the lower boughes 
maintained, the upper ones being continually proined off, would not make 
larger fruite. [§ 432.] 

It is expected that trees will growe greater & beare better fruite if you putt 
salt, lees of wine or blood to the roote which are more forcible. [§ 457.] 

It is also delyvered before that if one take the bough of of a lowe fruit tree 
newly budded & drawe it gently without hurting it into an earthen pot perforate 
at the bottome & set in the slant & then cover the pot with earth, it will yield 
a very large fruite within the ground, the like will be effected by an empty 
pot without earth in it, put over a fruit propped up with a stake as it hangeth 
on the tree, the pot being perforate to let in aire. [§ 470.] [MS. 11, f. 168] 

On the same paper are several entertaining notes in Parkinson's 
handwriting relating to Brazilian and Peruvian plants and their 
'vertues'. ' 


The Verities of some Exotic Plants. 

Giniber is a tree growing in Brasill about Pernambuco, whose fruite is bigger 
then those of an Orrenge, but of a darck greene colour from whence with one 
kind may be crushed out a liquor very like both for colour and consistence 
unto the whey of milke : this liquor or water hath such a qualitie that what 
parte of the skin of the bodye be washed therwith it will colour it so black as 
no black inck or dye can doe more & so likewise the haire in any parte of the 
bodye, which colour will abide so strongly fixed therin for the space of eight 
dayes that if all the remedies to whiten the partes againe were applied they 
would be of none efect ; but of itselfe the colour will fade after that tyme & the 
partes will become as white as they were before. This water is also as it issued 
is of espetiall propertye to encrease haire. Other thinges this water doth 
performe without the least daunger or harme. 

The Brasilians have a familiar medicine that is common & well knowen to 
most of them, beinge a most certaine remedye to staye or stanche the blood 
that flowes from any part of man or woman. 

This is made of a certaine herbe which groweth in the high & rockye 
mountaines which therupon the Portugalls call Rais de serra that is Radix 
montium, the Roote of the Mountains, because the roote onely of this herbe 
hath that effect to staunche blood, the leaves herof are said to be Hke unto 
Plantaine leaves & the roote unto a Cicharye roote both for forme and 
colour which roote being a little burned in a cleane earthen pot or vessell & 
afterwardes rubbed into partes & a scruple in weight taken fasting with 
Plantaine or Rosmary doth most rertainely staye the fluxe of blood issuing 
from any parte of the bodye. Petrus de Osma cited by Monardes testifyeth 
the vertue that many herbes have that hidden propertye to stay bleeding by the 
example of some Negros that constrayned through hunger to cut of the calves 
of their legs to eate, & by layinge a leafe of a certaine greene herbe did whollye 
staye the fluxe that not a droppe of blood was seene to be shed. [Cf. Park. 

1 here is a certaine kinde of Rushe growing on the hilles in Peru, which they 
there call Jeho or Yoha, very like onto the Spanish rushe called Spartum wherof 
the fraile are made that they putt Raysins & figs ; & wherwith the metalline 
bodyes are sooner melted by its flame than by much wood, & separated from the 
Quicksilver that is put into them for that purpose. The fumes also of this 
Rushe (a wonder to be spoken) taken under a Canopay or close covering, 
causeth all the Quicksilver, that abideth in the bodies of those that have ben 
annointed therewith to helpe the Frenche poxe, to sweale out of all partes of the 
bodyes, without any maner of sense of paine. 

Lakeka is a kind of gum gathered in Martaban in the East Indies, whose 
propertye is to expell drunckeness if pieces therof being put on a thred or 
stringe & wounde on the bare arme, so that whosoever shall drinck much & 
strong wine shall not be overtaken therwith. 

Lapis Lipis is a kinde of blew minerall stone found on the hills of Potosi 
called Lipis of the citye neere them. And is of a transparent blew colour, very 
hard to breake yet brought into small pieces, sharpe and bitinge in taste so that 
being put to the tongue it will with the heate oxalegrate it, it is brought as 
merchandise being cut into tablets & so sold : it is (saith Zacutus Lusitanus) so 
like Anil Indica that a form of it might be taken for Indico & being made 



into pouther & put . . . water will colour the water blew within an hour. All 
fowle ulcers eyther of the mouth or privy partes of man or woman beinge washed 
will presently cleanse them & take away or restrain their virulancye. 4 gr. in 
p. to ^ij aq* rosaij. p hora. 

Coque ... is a certaine tree well knownen to all in Brasill growing plentifully 
in the woods about Pernambuco very like unto the Lentisk or Mastick tree 
whose barck being boiled after a pound thereof hath ben cut small in 16 poundes 
or pintes of water to the halfe, adding therto 3iij of allom in the boiling, wc^ 
when it is strained & setled will become of so pure a purple colour as if it 
were made of ostrum or the purple fishe, or of the colour of the red Feild 
Poppye. The face washed with this water besides that it coloureth the black 
spotts in the face, it geveth to the face & lips so beautifull a Rose colour that it 
would be a brave fucus for women : but this colour will not abide abov e eight 
dayes although before that tyme it will not be blemished by many washings, but 
after that tyme the colour fading it will change into a dark Rose colour and 
after 4 dayes more will be quite consumed ; yet those black spots that were 
in the face before will no more appear, but by using this water againe upon 
the face etc the fresh colour will be apparant againe : If this barck were 
brought us it would redound much to the good of women, who to beautifye 
them selves with Arsenicum sublimatum, Cerussa, Camphire & other such 
thinges doe exchange their good for wrinckles, fowle ulcers in their gums, 
blacknes of teeth, rottennes and stincking of the breath. 

The Cabbage Tree groweth to an incredible height neere unto 200 foote bare 
without branches unto the very toppe as most of the kindes of Palme-trees doe, 
where among the long leaves groweth this round heade or cabbage, to gett 
which they usually cut downe the tree at the roote. The stemme or bodye 
therof having not much above 2 inches thickness of wood, the rest being of 
a pithy substance. From this tree likewise they drawe wine as from the Coco 
& other Palmito trees by boring a hole & applying a tappe or other convenient 
thing with a gourd or the like to receave the liquor that droppeth therfrom, & 
in 12 howres will by droppes fill the vessel & so will it doe from tyme to tyme 
by boring new holes one after another beginning above & so descending: what 
fruite this tree doth beare, our men that have had the benefit herof were never 
so wise or industrious to observe, feeding like swine on the mast but never 
looking higher. 

The water destilled in glasse vessels from Cloves while they are greene, 
besides the excellent smell they yeld, it hath ben found by good experience not 
onely to expell windye humours in the bodye, but that disease also called 
Priapismus and that effectually. The like is thought may worke the destilled 
water of the fresh flowers taken from the Cinamon trees or from the fresh 
Cinamon itselfe. 

The fruite or nutt called Cola growing in Guiney & like a chesnutt hath 
ben often used and found very effectual for chapt lipps, and the descomities of 
the skin, the itching of womans partes, the raggednes of the nailes, the rednes 
of face, much Dickwek often castings, the falling of the haire, . . . and many 
other diseases that proceed from the heate and distemper of the liver, as 
also against fevers & burning agues, very profitable drincking some endive 
water after it. The tree is like to the Chesnut tree & so is the nut both 
for forme & greateness but of a pale reddish colour on the outside & a little 
bitter in taste. 



Amivil with the Persians is a tree like to the Chesnut tree whose rootes the 
deaper the better being tied about the neck or worne on the arme so that they 
touch the flesh doe induce a mightye hatred for wine espetially to those that 
are geven to love it much & be often drunck therewith. Gesner reciteth 2 espetiall 
thinges available for that purpose, viz. a greane frog that is found often in the 
springes of water put alive into wine & there suffocated. And an Eclosus 
formed also in wines : this hath ben often urged so before, especially if 
2 ounces of the blood of Gates (?) be put into 3 measures of wine. Opium also 
is thought to performe the like cure & so be the more prone & strong to 

[Written by John Parkinson on the back of his letter to Mrs. Geeres. 
MS. f. 168 v.] 

Among his other writings are Lists of Foreign plants, see 
pp. 358-70 ; a List of 116 plants, including many bulbs (MS. 11, 
f. 164), grouped under numbers ' 36 to 69 evidently referring to 
plates in the Anthologia magna, 1626 ; a list of 48 plants (MS. 11, 
f. 1 57 V.) described by Clusius in his Appendix altera ad Rariorum 
Plantarmn Historian! , issued with the Exotica in 1605 ; two lists of 
Evergreens,^ one headed Arbores sempervirentes foL 44 (MS. 11, 
f. 156), the other headed Perpetna coma virentes variis provinciis 
(f. 158 v.); and a brief note on plants used for tanning skins by 
Mediterranean peoples. 

Parkinson was appointed Apothecary to King James and also 
King's Herbarist. He had a garden in Long Acre, where Goodyer 
no doubt saw the many rare plants of which he has preserved a list. 
The following account is in a hand that appears to me to be 
Parkinson's : if so, it may refer to an accident to the wall of his 
garden in Long Acre in 1636. A search for the workmen's names 
in the local parish register might settle the question. 

The charge of my outer wall blowen downe the 4*^ Novemb^" 1636. 

M^ iiijs 

Tho . . For \ daye | 
John . . 2 dayes . 

West . 2I 

Christopher . 3 dayes . 

Howse . \ daye . 

The boye . 3I 
Labourers : 

Randel . 3 dayes . 

Anthonye . a daye \ 

John . 6 dayes . 

2 other labourers 





. vijs 

^ It may be noted that at a somewhat later period Sir Richard Browne, 
writing from Paris to Sir Edward Nicholas on 5 July 1658, states that he was 
then at work on a Catalogue of evergreenes, but had lost the help of a Mr. Keipe, 
who had left for England. He adds * Alaternes beare a graine like that of privet, 
which beinge sowed comes nop and prospers without difficulty '. 

\Camden Society, xxxi, p. 65, 1920.] 



Lyme 2 hundred ...... xiiij* 

Brick 3 loade |- xviij^ iiij^i 

Sand 5 loade x.^ 

Timber xx^ 

For watching xviij*^ 

Forfensing theother wall next the howse w*^ hordes ij^ besides the losse 

in the hordes. 
[MS.f. 154.] 

X. Walter Stonehouse, 1597-1655. 

An account of the manuscripts which led to the identification of 
Mr. Walter Stonehouse the Botanist with the Rev. Walter Stonehouse 
the Divine has recently appeared in the Journal of Botany for July 
1920. As regards his biography it is known that he was a Londoner, 
born in 1597, and a relative of Sir William Stonehouse, Bart., of 
Radley. since he referred to Sir William's daughter, Mrs. Langton, 
wife of the President of Magdalen College, as 'cousin'. He 
came up to Oxford as one of the first Scholars of the newly 
founded Wadham College. There, at the age of 16, he wrote 
a Turcarnm Historia generalis in 213 pages. He took his B.A. on 
25th Feb. 16 if , and came to Magdalen as a Fellow in 1617, filling the 
office of Praelector in Logic in 1619-20. He remained in residence 
for some years, preaching occasional sermons at the University 

; Church and in the College, including the funeral sermon at President 
Langton's funeral in 1626. The original MS. of the Statutes of 

1 Eynsham Abbey, near Oxford, appears to have come into his 
possession at this time, for in 162 1 he gave them to the Bodleian 
Library. It is now numbered Bodl. MS. 435. In 1629 he took his 
degree as Bachelor of Divinity and resigned his fellowship, 

i probably on marriage, since his son Walter was born in the 
following year. The University presented him to a rectory in 

I the diocese of Canterbury, 7th March 163^, and it may have been 
then that he made the acquaintance of Thomas Johnson, then 
engaged on the description of his second botanical tour in Kent 

[ (published 1632). 

Stonehouse was presented to the rectory of Darfield by John 

I Savile^ of Methley, who held him in great esteem. He became 

[ a member of the literary circle of Sir J. Jackson of Hickleton, in 

• ' which Lightfoot, Sir H. Wotton, and Bishop Morton were some- 
I times found. With Laud he is remembered as being one of the 

I first Englishmen to make a collection of coins and medals : these 

j ^ The Saviles were connected with the Garths through the marriage c. 1578 
I ! of Sir John Savile (1545-1607) with Jane, the daughter of Richard Garth, 
\ see p. 237. 


eventually formed the basis of that department of the very curious 
museum formed by Thoresby in his house at Leeds (see Hunter, 
South Yorkshire). 

In 1639 Thomas Johnson organized an expedition of the ' Socii 
Itinerantes ' of the Pharmaceutical Society of London to the moun- 
tains of North Wales : an account of the expedition is given in 
his Mercurii Botanici pars altera (1641) reprinted in facsimile in 
Opusctila omnia botanica Thomae Johnsoni edited by T. S. Ralph 
(London, 1647). The constitution of this travelling club is thus 
stated by Johnson in the preface to his Iter Plantai'um Investiga- 
tionis ' susceptum a decern Sociis in Agrum Cantianum : Anno 
Dom. 1629 and published in the same year : ' Paucis abhinc elapsis 
annis, consuetudo vero laudibilis inter rei herbariae studiosus crevit, 
bis aut saepius, quotannis triduum aut quadriduum iter Plantarum 
investigationis ergo suscipere*. Stonehouse joined the party at 
Chester, having spent the previous night at Stockport, where he had 
not been favourably impressed with the inn. Their route took them 
by Conway, Penmaenmawr, Bangor, and Carnarvon to Glynn-lhivona, 
where they were the guests of Thomas Glynn, to whom Johnson 
dedicated his account of the expedition. After discoursing on the 
perils of climbing Snowdon, Johnson gives a list of the plants found 
by the party. At Beaumaris they enjoyed the hospitality of Richard 
Buckley, visited his vivarium, and collected seaweeds. They then 
recrossed the straits to Lhan-lhechid, climbed Carnedh-lhewellyn in 
a mist and in fear of nesting eagles, but saw little of botanical 
interest. After a farewell visit to Glynn-lhivona, the party journeyed 
to Harlech and Barmouth. Their homeward journey lay through 
Merionethshire ; at Guerndee Stonehouse left them and went home 
through Shropshire to Darfield. Here he remained for a time in 
quiet enjoyment of his garden, to the Catalogue of which, drawn up 
in 1640, reference has already been made ; some of the plants in 
Johnson's list are included in the Catalogue, and were probably 
obtained on the Welsh expedition. 

About 1648 we learn from Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy that 
Stonehouse was forcibly ejected from his living by the Parliamentary 
Commissioners and imprisoned. On his return, probably in 1652, 
his spirit as a horticulturist seems to have been broken, for he then 
wrote in the Catalogue a pathetic note in Latin, to the effect that 
but a few of his plants had survived — Novamque despero coloniam, 
— 'I have no hope of a new colony'. After this he would appear 
to have lived in London, to have made or renewed acquaintance 
with the younger Tradescant, and to have written some intro- 



ductory verses to the Catalogue of Tradescant's Museum^ published 
in 1656 : 

To John Tradescant the youn- 
ger, surviving. 
Ana^r, : 

John Tradescant. 
Cannot hide Arts, 

Heire of thy Fathers goods, and his good parts, 

Which both preservest, and auginent'st his store. 
Tracing th' ingenuous steps he trod before : 

Proceed as thou begin'st, and win those hearts, 

With gentle curt'sie, which admir'd his Arts, 

Whilst thou conceal'st thine own, and do'st deplore 
Thy want, compar'd with his, thou shew'st them more 

Modesty clouds not worth ; but hate diverts, 

And shames base envy, ARTS he CANNOT HIDE 
That has them. Light through every chink is spy'd. 

Nugas has ego, pessimus Poet a 
Plantarum tamen, optimique ainici 
Nusquani pessiimis aesthnator, egi, 

Theologus servus natus. 

By re-arranging the letters of John Tradescant's name he composed 
the anagram Camiot hide Arts, and by a similar process his own 
name, Gualterus Stonehousus, became Theologus servus natus — 
words quoted by Macray, who, however, did not grasp their meaning, 
as occurring on the title-page of a volume of his Sermons in 
Magdalen College Library. 

These verses, his only printed work, were not published until 1656, 
the year after his death (probably in London) at the age of 58. 

xi. Thomas Johnson, c. 1600-1644. 

The outlines of the life of this distinguished botanist are well 
known. Trained as an apothecary, with a business on Snow Hill, 
he attained to be the best herbalist of his age in England and 
a trusted physician. In 1643 the rank of Lieutenant- 

Colonel to Sir Marmaduke Rawdon. During the siege of Basing 
House he led several sorties with success. ' When a dangerous 
piece of service was to be done, this doctor, who publickly pretended 
not to valour, undertook and performed it.^ On one occasion he 
had a hand to hand struggle with Capt. Clinson, but at last in the 
affair of 14 Sept., he was shot in the shoulder, whereby contracting 
a fever he died a fortnight after, his worth challenging funerall tears, 

^ Fuller, Worthies, 1662, p. 204. 



being no less eminent in the garrison for his valour and conduct as 
a soldier than famous through the kingdom for his excellency as an 
herbarist and physician.' 

Johnson had a wide circle of friends and helpers in addition to 
the socii itmerantes who took part in his botanical excursions. 
Among others he mentions GEORGE BoWLES of Chiselhurst in 
Kent ; SiR John Tunstal, gentleman usher to the Queen, owner 
of a garden at Edgcomb, Surrey ; HuGH MORGAN, apothecary to 
the Queen ; Robert Abbot of Hatfield, a learned preacher ; 
John Redman, ' a skilful herbarist ' of the north of England. The 
manner in which his friends used to make use of his services is 
shown by a letter that is still extant from the Provost of Eton, 
Sir Henry Wotton.^ 

To my very loving and learned friend Mr. Johnson, apothecary, at his house 
on Snowe Hill, London. 

2nd of July 1637. 

My Good Friend Mr. Johnson, 

I have addressed this my servant unto you at the present with two or 
three requests. First, that you would direct him where he may buy one of your 
Gerrards, well and strongly bound ; next, where I may have for my money all 
kinds of coloured pinks to set in a quarter of my garden, or any such flowers as 
perfume the air. Thirdly, I pray let me consult you whether you know any sick 
of that fastidious infirmity, which they call melancholia hypochondriacal where- 
with I have been troubled of late, but more with a symptom very frequent in that 
passion (as the great Fernelius describes it) . . . 

Henry Wotton. 

Johnson's early death was a great blow to Goodyer. In his will 
(P. C. C. ii4Twisse) dated 11 May 1635 he described himself as Citizen and 
Barber surgeon of London. He left legacies to his aunt, Mary Cave, 5s., to 
William Parker 40s., to Eliz. Parker 50s., to Richard Parker, son of Wm. P., ^5 
to set him forth to prentice, and to his wife Alice Johnson, his sole exor., the 
residue of his estate. The will, witnessed by W. Parker and Mary Vudell, was 
proved in July 1647. 

1 Sir Henry Wotton (i 568-1 639) of New College, Queen's, and Eton, 
diplomatist and poet, is best remembered by his exquisite poem The Character 
of a Happy Life. His letters allude to contributions to English horticulture 
during the second tenure of his office as Ambassador at Venice. They mention : 

' Seeds ?ind roots and slips of rare flowers and plants ' to Sir R. Winwood. 
Oct. 1616. 

' The most excellent choice of those seeds which his Majesty desireth ' to 

James L Dec. 1621. 
'More melon seeds of all sorts ' to James L Dec. 1622. 

*Finocchio' or Italian Fennell (with full directions for cooking and eating) to 
Tradescant. Probably about the same time, but not recorded until 1656. 
Parkinson, Paradisns. 
To James he wrote that he intended to examine some of the best hortohmi oi 
Chioggia and other places about the manner of cultivation. He was in close 
correspondence with Lord Zouch, and may have also sent plants to the Hackney 
garden. Pearsall Smith, Wotton. 




5 J 

































The intimate relations between Johnson and Goodyer at the time 
when the former was preparing his second edition of Gerard's 
Herbal^ have often been alluded to. The Goodyer MSS. throw 
further light on their intercourse by providing us with a detailed 
list of the plant-descriptions which Goodyer lent to Johnson and 
subsequently received back again with the printers' marks upon 

The copy of Johnson's Iter Plantartim in agriim Cantiamnn^ 
1629, in the Magdalen Library, appears to have been a presentation 
copy to Go6dyer. It is of historical importance as being the first 
English local catalogue, and is marked with the following corrections 
by the author (?). 

p. 3, 1. 30 for festinante read festinantibus. 



II, 31 Ki^^x Androsaemutn qtiorundLWi 2.A(i Park-leaves, 
13, 3 „ sit „ quod. 

At the end Goodyer has added the following list of plants : 

Solanum lethale. Tricomanes seu Capillus Veneris verus. 

Helicacabus. Dryopteris. 

Viburnum. Alleluia. 

Antirrhinum minus. Epicrion. 

Mille grana minima. ^ Alchimilla 

Centaurium fl: albis. Sanicula. 

Lysimachia lutea. Acer minor. 

Alsine serpilli folio. Betulus. 

Osmunda regalis. Calamintha agre: Belgarum. 

Eupatorium Can: mas et femin: Petasites. 

Angelica sylvest: Gramen Bufonium. 

Herba paris. Cynocrambe. 

Eleborine. Allium ursinum. 

Aleca. Xyris. 

Spergula altera flo: purp. minor. Rhamnus catharticus. 

Ascyrum supinum hirsutum. Rubia flo: carneo angustifolia. 

„ palustre rotundifolium. flo: rubello. 

Pentaphyllum supinum tormentillae Chamaepitys. 

facie. Aphaca. 

The copy of the 1632 edition of the same work appears to have 

been the author's own copy with his MS. index, afterwards extended 
by How and used in the preparation of his Phytologia (1650). 

^ A presentation copy of this book to the Apothecaries Company was the first 
contribution to their Library. With their other books it was probably burnt 
in the Great Fire of London. 

T 2 



xii. William How, 1619-1656. 

(See p. 251.) 

How's botanical reputation rests upon his Phytologia Britannica 
natales exhibens indigenarum Stirpium spo7ite emergentium^ the 
book in which for the first time all the known plants of Britain were 
garnered together with their localities. He was a Master of Arts 
of five years' standing of St. John's College, Oxford, and his list 
comprising 1,220 plants is a memorable achievement for the time. 
Apparently owing to his private means being insufficient to permit 
of much travelling, he had to rely upon information sent by other 
botanists, with the result, as Ray pointed out, that many exotics and 
garden-escapes got included in his lists. ' The rare plants were 
almost wholly communicated by his friends, Mr. Stonehouse, 
Dr. Bowles, Mr. Heaton, Mr. Loggins, Mr. Goodyer and others, and 
he drew some from a MS. of Dr. Johnson.' 

Goodyer may have become personally acquainted with How at 
Oxford, and in any case they were in close correspondence both 
before and after 1650 when How was living in London, either in 
St. Lawrence Lane or in Milk Street. 

The newly discovered writings of How appear to belong to the 
periods immediately preceding and following the publication of the 
Phytologia Britannica. Though not extensive, they throw valuable 
light on his relations with contemporary botanists ; and if his notes 
be somewhat slipshod, we must remember that they were not 
intended for our perusal, and that he had but recently done duty 
as Captain of a troop of horse in the King's army. 

First in time and in importance are his list of plants and notes 
written at the end of what I believe to have been Johnson's own copy 
of his Descriptio Itineris . . . in agrum Cantiannm, A.D. 1632, with 
MS. index. This may have come into How's possession after the 
death of Johnson in 1644. He supplemented it with a further list 
of indigenous plants from the Herbals of Gerard and Parkinson and 
from other sources ; and then no doubt he developed the idea of 
including all British plants in one comprehensive, alphabetical list. 
A few rough notes on the last pages almost certainly refer to his 
programme of work, but as they are mostly crossed out with ink 
lines, it is impossible to give a complete transcript of them. The 
meaning of such remarks as ' Review both ye Herballs againe and 
take all ', is clear, and the references to persons may be of historical 
importance. The names mentioned I believe to be those of 
T. Johnson, Parkinson, the Rev. Walter Stonehouse then exiled from 
his Darfield living, Bobart of Oxford, Leonard Buckner and Edward 

^l&'l'^^i^^'^^'. /^;^'.r^wrtr-..^t7^.V jf'^'<^^'^'f^^'''^^^^ . 


It M 

Johnson's Index \ How's ^ additionated j^lants 

MS. additions to Johnson s Descriptio Itincris in Agnim Cantiannm, l6j2 


Morgan of Westminster. His notes for planning his work, such as 
' Remember ye English names to bee last placed ' Remember to 
give ye proper name in Latin of ye place where each plant 
flourisheth &c., have the appearance of being the advice of some 
botanical friend of experience. 

The following extract gives an idea of his controversial style 
of writing : 

Anchusa Alcibiadion "Xyxufrn- Fucus herba. Onocleia. 
Buglossa Hispanica, Red Alkanet, crescit isola Thanet. 

X Ger. ema. : I doubt whether our author found any of these in the 
place here set downe, for I have sought it but failed of finding ; yet if he 
found any it was only the first described, for I think the other three are 

X Our Johnson uses not his usuall charges for heere hee gooes about 
to confute with a 'for-I-thinke and seconds it with as good an argument 
from an Hypothesis (if hee found any, it was onely ye first), and why not as 
well ye other three, since hee confesses afterwards in both his Catalogues 
ye Anchusa minor, ye 3^'^ of these, to bee our countrey plant. 

Anchusa lutea. Yellow Alkanet. 

[How MS. in Johnson's Desc. Itin. Cant. 1632, f. 6 v.] 

At the end of the volume are the following memoranda, but so 
dreadfully scored over as to be almost illegible : 

Qu. whether some plants which are given by Johnson in his Itineraries to 

bee non descript., are not described by Parkinson ? 
Putt him nondes nere ye additionated plants and ye and see whether 

they be contained (?) in Mr. Holybyn's Catalogue. 

montanum sylvestre Anglicum ut agagua CI 

Remember ye English names to bee last placed. Consult how many plants 

wee have added in our treatise by telling ye old, ye remainder, ij ye 


Mr. Holloway hath Stonhous papers manuscript. 
To all Johnsons new plants, put Jonh. MS. 

Remember to ye plants to put their titles, as Bowie, M^'. M, and So 

every man's name to his plant. 
Remember to give ye proper name in Latin of ye place where each plant 

flourisheth, and to bee carefull to f . . . . 
Review ye spelling of names of Townes by Cambden's Brittan : 
vid. 2 Eriffe. 

[i. Wulwich] .... Kent 
[2. Eryth]^ .... Oxfords 

^ In Johnson's writing. 

Review both ye Herballs againe and take all. Remember to insert againe 
Apiuin sylvestre. See whether you putt downe ye Aristolochia. . . . 

Anonis you must adde to Anonis 3 more Auricula muris repens 

. . . Auricula see w*^^ of them growe wild. Birds' eyes, see them — none 

278 HOW 

Remember to insert Jonhsons (szc) Author (?) nere Parkinson*s .... 
Borrowe a Coopers Dictionary. English Catalogue. 


Consult ye place amicorum benevolentia. 

[4 lines illegible.] 

Send to Bobert about ye Millegrana non descr. whether to Gr. d. E. . . . 

Remember Mr Bucner to send for ye Bupleur and Caucalis. Send to 
Dr. Browne and asist Mr 

Abrotanum non antea repertum in descript. Then each plant's place 

of and ye places you have found out, faithfully dealt all ye 

English fruites which are not described, ye pharmacutists about such 
as Bedaguar Fungus sambucinus met of ye Parson of St. James. 
Ubi sativus inveni vulg sativus. 

Observe ye same letters in our printed peece as there is in ye Welsh Cata- 
logue. Those which have . . . 

Send to Stonehouse. Consult Morgan about Orchis. Mr. Crosse. 

Reade ye Catalogue Epistle onlye .... all plants yt are to be blotted out 
better be done on ye former Catalogue, because they are worse described 
there. [How MS. at end of Johnson's Desc. Itin. Cant. 1632.] 

How published his Phytologia in 1650: though anonymous it 
must at once have made his reputation as a botanist, and have 
brought him into correspondence with other plant-lovers who sent 
memoranda of plants which he had omitted. The names of these 
he entered in an interleaved copy of his book which he kept care- 
fully corrected with a view to a revised and enlarged edition. 
Among those who gave him valuable help were Goodyer, Browne, 
and Hunnibon,^ and he for the first time had the advantage of 
looking through the manuscripts of Lobel and of Dr. Penny. That 
Goodyer put his knowledge freely at the service of all true workers 
alike, is proved by the fact that at this time he was also assisting 
another person, believed to have been Dr. Dale, in the compilation 
of a very similar Catalogue of British Plants. That the idea of 
a complete British Flora was very much to the fore in Goodyer's 
mind is proved by his communications to How (MS. 18), by his 
abstracts from the Phytologia (MS. ff. 33-7), by the Dale (?)-Goodyer 
Catalogue of British Pla^tts (MSS. 8 and 9), and by his Index to 
the English plants localized in Gerard's Herbal (MS. 16). 

Further information concerning How's activities in the period 
immediately following the issue of the Phytologia is contained on 
a small scrap of paper measuring 3x4 inches, with his memoranda, 
characteristically struck out. 

^ ' Dr. How had 2 Apothecaries to help him in composing y® Phytologia 
brittanica' John Ward's Diary. Perhaps Hunnibon was one of them. 



My Ld. Hatton's letters with seeds. Morines plants. Dr. Morisons 2 Corre- 
spondence. Exper: Phy: Brit: Deliver Anderson's letter. (2^. way of Corre- 
spondence. Goades buisinesse (.''). 

Sends Ld. L. at Tibr: All maner of seeds 

Monday Committee what plants you think you 

Kay pro horse, Statim. Dubble flourd Apple 

Proyne Wild, Anderson Phyt. Str. 111. Black Cherry 

pro Stone, Sedum maius arborescens 

Ye preparacon of sublimatum Cu- Jasminum Indicum luteum 

pum vide ye Paper. Seeds sent by Phyllitis multifida foliis crispis 

Cadell dead since in these partes, 

which I hope you have. i^.. Letter in Milk Street finds mee 


Answere both Dr. Morisons letters 

I have all Plant bookes for dressing Pinax, what bookes I am about. 

[How MS. bound with Goodyer MS. il, f. 169.] 

Dr. MORLSON was at this time abroad in charge of the Duke of 
Orleans' garden at Blois. Full of energy and enthusiasm for his 
subject, he wrote to How about the Phytologia, and sent him 
a pressing request for a number of plants which we have printed on 
p. 355. If How ever executed the order, some of the additions then 
made to the Duke's garden should appear in the Catalogues ^ that 
were printed in 1653 and 1669. 

Lord Hatton transmitted his interest in Botany to his son 
Charles, who acquired the Boccone MSS. that were edited by 
Morison in 1674. 

MORINE may have been the ' ordinary gardener ' of Paris who 
became ' one of the most skilful and curious persons in France. . . . 
His garden is of an exact oval figure, planted with cypress cut flat 
& set as even as a wall : the tulips, anemones, ranunculuses, crocuses, 
etc., are held to be of the rarest, and draw all the admirers of that 
kind to his house during the season '.^ 

MS, Additions by How to his copy of the ' Phytologia Britanntca \ 
Between i6jo and i6j6, 

A certain number of the plant-names and notes that How wrote 
in his interleaved Phytologia have been quoted by Druce and others. 
They are of sufficient historical importance to be worth printing in 
full — or at least as far as they are legible. 

* Brunyer, Hortits Blesensis, 1653 ; Morison, Hortus Regius Blesensis, 1669. 
^ Evelyn, Diary, 2 April 1644. The plants that Tradescant had from him in 
1 63 1 are noted on p. 331. 


Hows MS, notes on f. i. 

Plantae in aspectu in convictu nobis, semperque ad manum, nec 

fuga, nec ullis proripiuntur latibulis. 
Universus fere ager amoenissimum viridarium. 

Rariores quaedam et nondum quoad sciam exhibitae, ac a me 
observatae cum suis descriptionibus plantae commemorantur, ut 
quae adhuc laterent publico vix donarem, et ut quisque de iis, 
earumque facultatibus apptius indicaret. 
Denique suas cuique plantae vires aut proprietates quam brevi ac 
dilucide fieri potuit annexi nec quisquam sibi nomina varietati 
tanquam labyrintho incumberet sed cum iisdem facultates etiam 
exploratas haberet. 

Vid. Phyt. Pion 4*^ 
Gaine I was for Goodyers Plants and des[criptions] : ye like for 
Brownes, Lobells [and Pennyes MS. w*=^ review for names etc. 

Insert fig: iterum in Desc[ript!ones]. 
Herbidos campos perlustratur. 
Hanc nostratem ^AvroKpar avrapKLav Botanicae. 
Vid. Epis. alt. libr : ad Coll. Med. 

Cynoglossum flora albo neere Redding. 

Arctium montanum et Lappa minor Gal. Lob. Button burr. Man- 
gersfield in Mr. Langlyes yard, ill left out in yore Catal. 

Acinos Anglica flora albo in Salisbury faild neere Basing stoake. 
D. Dale. 

Varbascum syl: siva 4. Math: groweth naturaly about ye seate of 

S*" Th: Hanson called Toplow neere Maydenhead. 
Erica tenuifolia caliculata, Ger: hirsuta Anglica, Bauh: ericeto Hamste- 


Cardamine maior flora albo. 
Bugula flora carneo. 
Urtica foliis variegatis. 

Speculum veneris maius in a ditch adioyning to St. Georges feildes. 
Primula veris flore pleno viridi ) p r -i 
„ ,, sive Paralysis fatuaj * ^ Jj 
Arum non maculatum, Park. 
Arundo anglica multifida, Park. 
Malva syl: flora albo, Morg. 

Millefolium pennatum, Bauh. neere Cambridge, 

Ballote flore albo neere [Cholsy erased] at Tadenham ye south side 

of Mr. Crofts house Warwickshire. 
Filago minor, Lob: neere Petersfield. 
[Holosteum non descr. ? ye place Goodyer {erased).] 
Alsine aquatica Portulacae fac: left out. 



Hieratium montanum at Mangersfield in Mr. Langtons yard 

Cannabis spuria altera flore purpureo. i Cat. 

Saxifraga antiquorum, not inserted. 

Absinthium marinum spica erecta. 

[Bellis flore herbaceo globoso non descr., M. (erased).] 

Foeniculum at Rie — Leucoii folii. Qu. D. 

Primula veris polyanthos, M. at great Wulford Wood. 

Agrifolium folio variegato Hampsted and in ye North. 

Serpillum magnum latifolium neere [Sr. W. Walters Oxfordshire erased] 

at Sarsden betweene ye house and ye pond garden of Sr. W. Walter. 
Geranium columbinum flore albo. 

Carduus vulgatissimus fl. albo in little Wulford field, Warwickshire. 
Geranium Rupertianum flore albo in a close betweene little Wulford 

and Bacton, Warwickshire. 
Perfol: purp. vulg. fl. albo by Whichford wood, Warwickshire. 
Consolida maior fl. cinericeo. Redding. 
Chamomelum nudum bullato flore. Tuthill feildes. 
Peryclymenum dissectis foliis. St. John Wood. 
Lamium elegans fl. lut. foliis variegatis neere Wulwich. 
Tubera terrae. 

Polium montanum neere Maidstone. 
Lamium rubrum pumilum. 

Lamium rubrum non serratum. Qu, an diff: a. i 

Lamium rubrum foliis variegatis. 

Beta marina neere Lewis. 

Tapsus barbatus fl. albo at Weston. 

jFo/w 2 

Carduus lanceolatus fl. alb., M. St. James. 
Rosmarinum syl. minus nostras, Park. 
Scabiosa ovilla flore albo., M. 
Sideritis hederulae fol., Park, 
Senecio foliis variegatis. 
Typha. ) ^ 

Senecio sentilis ? ( 
Vicia bisiliq. Qu. G. 

Alsine {Qu. Holilas sen) minor. Androsace alterius Mathioli facie, Bauh 

[Found by Mr. Halilah, Apothecary, in Lincolnshire. Merret, Finax.] 

G. spartium capillaceo folio minimum, Ger. em. Ericet: Hamp: 

Quercus lapidea, Lithoxylum, Ligna lapidea. Ad. Lob. 

Sium maius angustifolium. 

Serpillum vulgare flore albo. 

Nymphaea lutea minor flore parvo, Catal. i. 

Pulegium regium vulg. maius, Park. 



Lychnis minor Anglica, Park. 

Atriplex syl. Halimi fol., eiusd. 

Pilosella minima, eiusd. 

Muscus ex cranio humane. 

Caucalis Anglica fl. rubente, Park. 919.^ 

Pimpinella saxifraga minor nostras, eiusd. 946. 

[Genista spinosa minor, Park, {erased).] 

Rubus saxatilis Alpinus. 

Lotus corniculatus frutescens, P. 1102. 

Lotus corniculatus minor pilosus, ibid. 

Hordeum spontaneum elatius, sive maius, P. 1147. 

G. bromoides maximum hirtum, 11 49. 

G. avenaceum pratense, ibid. 

G. bromoides segetum latiore panicula, ibid. 

G. avenaceum murorum erectum, ibid. 

G. avenaceum supinum arvense. 

G. avenac: sup: flosculis secalinis, ibid. 

G. avenaceum exile moUicellis foliis, ibid. All theese oaten grasses 
grow in ye feildes of this land according to Park. ; bold assertions yett 
hee has no such warrant from Lob. 111., from whence hee gathered 
them for rendring this exile moUicellis foliis spontaneall. 

G. arundinaceum panicula miliacea, 1153. 

G. montanum panicula miliacea sparsa, 50 in Prod., G. miliaceum alterum, 
P. 1 1 53, sine Ic. 

G. arund: Sorghi panicula sparsa, 52 Prod., G. Sorghinum alterum, 

P. 1 153, sine Ic. 
G. paniceum syl. Anglicum, P. 1155, sine Ic. 
G. cristatum Anglicum, P. 1156, cristatum Britannicum, L. S. 111.'^ 
G. cristatum spica multiplici, P. 1160. 
Phalaris pratensis maior, P. 11 64. 

G. alopecuroides cuspidatum maximum Anglicum, P. 1167, L. S. 111. 
G. alop: spica aspera brevi, et longa, P. 1169. 
G. alopec: cuspidatum minus et minimum, ibid. 

G. cyperoides Anglicum parum lanosum maius et minus, P. 11 72, neere 

High gate. ? L. S. 111. 2 variet. 
G. iunceum medium et minus, P. 11 90, in ye woode neere highgate, 

? L. S. 111. 

Juncus capitulis equiseti alter, P. 1195, L. S. 111. 
Juncellus capitulis equiseti fluitans, P. 1196. 
Spartum minimum Anglicum, P. 1199. 
Equisetum omnium minus tenuifolium, P. 1201. 

Anagallis aq:, sive Becabunga maior, P. 1237. An: aq: ma: fol. subrot. 

* These references are to Parkinson, Theatrtim Botanicum^ 1640. 
Lobel, Stirpium Illustrationes. 



Sagittaria minor angustifolia, P. 1246. 

G. Arundin: sericea molliore spica, P. 1273, L. S. 111. 45. 

G. maritimum vulgato canario simile, P. 1278, L. S. III. 24. 

Muscus arboreus nodosus, sive geniculatus, P. 131 1. 

Muscus aridus crustatus, P. 13 13, vid. loc. Bauh. Pin. 

Fungus Cambro-Brit. Corallii rub. colore multis lineis nigricantibus 

maculisque luteis orbiculatis insignibus, P. 1221. 
Fungus parvus nigricans crenatus, P. 1322, about Hackney. 
Fungus cinarae formae, P. 1224, at Ripton neere Ashford in Kent. 
Acer montanum, P. 1426. 
Primula veris Raii, M. Qu. loc. 

Quercus natalitiis Dni virens, ye Christmas greene oake, P. 1646, 

neere ye Castle of Malwood Hampshire, Kg. J. went to visit and 

caused it to bee paled about. 
Glycirrhiza syl: alt: fl: puniceis fol. Arachi, Glaux quaedam leguminosa 

herbariorum Adv: Bauh. Hist. PI. I. 17 juxta agrorum viarumque 

margines obviam sese dat in Anglia, 
Hieracium Chondrillae fol. glabrum, Bauh. Hier. 5, sive Aphacoides, Tab. 


Ulmus foliis luteis at Fulham. 

Hieracium Alpinum asperum Conyzae facie Bauh. Hierac. Brit., vel 4 Clus. 
Pan. et Hist. H. latif: mont: Genevense fol. long: maior: Monsp. 
J. B. H. P. 1. 24, p. 1026. Borealibus Britanniae regionibus sponte 

Lychnis syl: foliis variegatis fl. albo. Qu. M. 
Virga aurea subrotundo fol. in Surry. 

Ascyrum, sive Hypericum bifolium glabrum non perforatum, Bauh. 

Hypericum in dumetis, nascens i Trag: Hyper. Ascyron dictum, 

caule quadrangulo J. B. H. P. I. 29, p. 382, ic. ib. 
Androsemon, Tur. In vinario sionis saepe observavit. 
Gentianella brevi fol., Bauh: non procul Douera. 
Anchusa Echii foliis et floribus, Bauh: arvis argillosis. 
Anthyllis chamaepityides frutescens, Bauh. 

Paralysis inodora calycibus dissectis, Raii: not farre from Kynlett ^ in 

Worcestershire: P. Par. 
Euphrasia coerulea not far from Canterbury, Mr. Hunnibon. 
Pseudonarc. fl. plen. Ger. Angl. fl. plen. P. P. ser. 

Serpillum foetidum Goodyeri, on ye chalkie downes 2 or 3 miles from 

Papaver cornutum flore phoeniceo. Adv. 241. 

Gentianella brevi fol: Bauh., minima L. ob. copiose provenit Angliae 
septentrionalis coUibus. 

^ Probably Kinlet in Shropshire near Cleobury Mortimer, about a mile from 
the Worcester border (T.R.G.-P.). 



Mollugo mont. angustif: B: vulgatior Herbariorum. L. Ob. 
Corallina fruticosa purpurea, B: rubens Antiphatis faire, L. Ob. 
Imperatoria Ad. Lob: Tab. Ger: about Morpeth in ye north parke, 
Tur. p. 37. 

Ribesium fructu rubro Dod: Ribes Fuch. Turn: by a water's side at 

Clover in Somersetsh: 
Cyclamen in ye west country of Engl: Turn: in his booke intituled Ye 

names of Herbes. 
Jacobaea montana neere Lewis. 
Hieracium lonchites, Bauh. B. Plants. 

Lactuca agnina rosea, neere red Morly. 
Capillus veneris verus, neere Lydberry. 
Cynoglossum fl. carneo, neere Bath. 
Alsine foliis Trissaginis variat fl. albo. 
Chamaedris syl: variat. fl. albo. 
Sedum aestivum minus. 
Plantago latifolia serrata. 

Folio 3. 

Lagopus maximus fl. rubro, P. nere red Morley. 

Ranunculus fl: lut: galericulato, at Yatton. 

Geranium batrachoides fl. variegato, neere Kidermaster Pitts. 

2. Pin: Gentiana maior ii Clus: fl: coeruleo neere Bath. 

Artemisia foliis variegatis neere Alchurch. 

Anagallis maxima latifolia neere Lidborough. 

Cracca minima variat. flore albo. 

Ascyrum maius neere Worcester. 

Muscus stellatus roseus, Bauh: Park. neere red Morly. 

Daucus proliferus, Qu. lo: Jolyfl". 

Verbascum nigr. salvifol: purp. fl. Adv: 241. ii et nigrum latifolium luteum 
eiusd. 242. 

Juncus capitulo lanuginoso, sive Schoenolaguros, in Prod: Juncus Alpinus 
cum Cauda Leporina. J. B. H. P. Moss crops. In ericetis nudis, 
Cambro-Britann. et Comit: Salop. 

e Lob. MS. 

Equisetum minus omnium tenuifolium. 
Synanchia altera Angliae, sive minor. 

Rapistrum aliud syl. non bulbosum, P. 862. Rapistrum fl. lut. alterum 
L. S. 111. 

Cardamine alpina sive media, vid. Clus: cxxviii. 
Thlaspi alterum siliquosum. 

Planta juxta Heigate reperta, vid. nom. in Pin. Bauh. 
Sonchus laevis alter Danicus aut Anglicus folio profundis laciniis sinuato 
fl. lut. 

Hier: alt: fol. obtuse laciniatis fibrosa radice, Qu. MS. L. S. 111. 



Brassica marina folio suaverubente, L. S. 111. 
Beta maritima syl. spontanea eiusque varietates. 
Beta maritima syl: minor. 

Atriplex maritima altera Osyridis aut Scopariae fol., sive minima. 

Atripl. maritim. angustifol: 2 et 3. 

Limonium medium Anglicum. 

Hellebor. 2 Clus. sterilis planta. 

Campanula coerulea supina. 

Lychnis arvensis anglica. 

Pulegium vulg: maius minus repens cubitalis altitudinis. 

Scabiosa montana minor capitulo squarroso, Bauh. Pin. 270, in collibus 

Kantii non procul Kingshey. 
G. vulgatiss: pratense elatius tertium. 

G. ruderum etiamque arvorum, L. S. 111. 6, multis locis Ag. Lond. 

G. quoddam modo supinum vulg: latiusculo binum et ternum unciarum 

complicato folio. 
G. maritimum vulgatissimo pratensi gramini congener aut str. 
G. marit. alt. sive 2 elatius. 

G. marit. 3 vulgari str., supinum, exigua avenacea gluma. 
G. dulce udorum, vid. Bauh. pag. 2, Gr. vi. 
Gr. minimum Anglo-Brittan. 

Folio 4. 

Gr. exile vicinorum maris aggerum, P. 1278, numerosa gracillimorum latius- 

culorum uncialium foliorum sobole. 
Gr. omnium minimum, Anglo-Britan. alterum. 
G. aquat. longius radicatum spicata avenacea gluma. 
G. tenuifol. exile Britan: ex genere Xerampelini graminis 
G. maritimum Vectis Insulae Anglo-Britt. 

G. cuspid: tenui torosa villosa spicata gluma, Panici granulis prodita. 

G. phalaroides tremulum max: comosa elegantius gluma provenit in 

quibusdam collibus Britan. 
G. tremulum minus alterum Aquitanicum et Anglicum. 
G. hirsutum nemorum latioribus maioribusque foliis praecox vernum. 
G. hirsutum sive exile ferrugineum. 

G. Anglo-Britan: exilis hirsuti graminis differentia Boelii. 
G. cyperoides aculeatum, sive . . (?) natum aquaticum alterum. 
G. cyp: minimum panicula subflava. Lob. Ad: part. 2. 
G. cyp: minimum nigricante panicula. Lob. Ad. p. 2, nullis uliginosis 
pratis Anglo-Br. 

G. cyp: palustre longius spicatum Anglo-Brit: acerosum et echinatum. 

G. cyp: minimum Boel: tenuifol: puis percaulem dissectis torulis. Provenit 

in Angl.-Britt. 
G. cyp: sparsa panicula altae portae ( = Highgate). 



G. cyp: aquat: tenui, triquetro, longoque caule, meduUoso, junceo, bicubi- 

tali altioreque caule. 
G. cyp. comosa torulis distincta sparsa panicula palustre. Anglo-Britan. 
G. cyp. eleganti multifera congesta spica. Anglo-Britt. 
G. cyp. sylvarum tenuius spicatum. 

G. cyp: gracile alterum glomeratis torulis, spatio distantibus. 

G. iuncoides alterum minus granatum, comitat: Kantii. 

Gramines parvus gracilis Juncellus Altae Portae. 

G. iuncoides tenuissimum subfuscis torulis apiculis carentibus proditum. 

G. iunc: minimum An.-Britt. Holosteo Math: congener, aut Bufonis 

gramini Flandrico et varietas. 
Mentha syl: verticillata tetri odoris. 
G. Xerampelinum exile. Ang. B. 
Angl. B. Panici effigies Gn. syl: L. S. 111. 

Verbascum nigrum flore albo betvveene Chesilhurst & Greenwitch. 

Plantago latifolia incana spicis variis, Bauh. Pin. 789. 

PI. peregr. latif: Gareti Clus. Hist. 

Plantag. latif. rosea multiformis, P. 494. 

PI. ros. incana latifol: L. MS. gave ye Engl, name of Park. 

PI. angustif. rosea, Park. 495. 

PI. 5-ner. alt: sive angustif: roseo, folioso, sparso radiato fastigio. L. MS. 

In borealibus Angliae tractibus utramque latifoliam, incanam roseam 

et banc spontaneam esse intellexi. 

Sium foliis dissectis. ) ^ i^ 

c,. u 11- J 1 J- f C^^^. P. ye name place. 

Smm umbellis ad caulem nudis.) ^ -> ^ 

Pimpinella saxifraga maxima. I • -pT 

Pimpinella saxifraga maior foliis dissectis. j ^ 

Spina acuta biflora Britannica. Park. 1025, sive Oxyacantha. 

Erynus Math: in Hampshire. 

Juncus triquetrus by ye horsferry. 

Sambucus laciniatis foliis Dr. Jolyff^ neere Winchester. 

Origanum roseum surculis densis, on Polstead downe in Compton 

parish nigh Gilford. 
Geranium violaceum at Putinham neere Gilford. 

Orchis foliis sessilibus non maculatis, Bauh.: 5 Clus. rar. Plant, pag. 268. 

Similem etiam observabam mdxxci in pratis urbi Londinensi in 

Anglia proximis, ubi et aliam eruebam grandiore paulo fiorum purpu- 

rorum spica teterrimi foetoris. 
Gentianella angustifolia autumnalis minor floribus ad latera pilosis^, Bauh. 

Gent, autumnal: fol: Centaur: min: flor: coerul: Eyst:, Gentianella 

^ Probably GEORGE JOYLIFFE, who entered Wadham College in 1637, 
migrated to Pembroke, and took his M.A. in 1643, being then a lieutenant 
under Lord Hopton in the Royalist army. He, with Dr. Clayton, discovered 
the Lymphatics in the liver about 1651. Samuel Pepys was one of his patients. 
Power, Trans. Med. Soc. xl. 

HOW'S MS. RrXORDS 1650-6 


autumnalis Centaur, minor fol: Park: pag. 406. Among his names 
there hee informes you yt it is ye x Gentian of Clus: wch if you 
compare theire Icons you will find it to bee Gentiana ir minima 
Clus: pag. 316, and further affirmes it to be Gentiana minima of Lob: 
wch Plant Bauh: worthily rankes under ye following title, not farre 
from ye ruines of ye old Citty Verulam neere S*^ Albans. 

Gentianella brevi fol:, Bauh: Gentianella minima. Lob: Gentiana x sive 
Gent, fugax 4 Clus: rar. Plant, pag. 315. Memini et in Britannia 
observare, non procul Douera Sept: partim dilutiore colore florentem 
partim semine pregnantem. 

Alsine hirsuta minor, Bauh:, prope Rochester. 

Fucus marit. alter tuberculis pauciss:, Bauh. marinus 4 Dod. 

Fucus spongiosus ramosus. 

Fucus foUiculaceus foeniculi folio longiore, Bauh. Ferulaceus, Lob. 
Helleborus pratensis latifolius, it growes in meddowes about Lich- 

borough in Northamptonshire. | Br. lett ^ 
Serratula flore albo. j non descr. 

How's MS, additions on leaves introduced in body of book. 

Acorus verus offic. falso Calamus cum Julo, Calamus gromaticus vulgo Ger. em. 
pag. 63. I received from Mr. Th. Glyn of Glynrlhinon in Carnarvonsh: 
ye pretty Julus or flower of this plant, which I could never see heere 
about London, though it groweth with us in many gardens and yet in 
great plenty. I rec'^: divers of them wth elegant flowers in June from 
Dr. Browne ^ who found them in severall places of Norfolk, theese grew in 
Witton fens. 

Alnus nigra baccifera, Tab. Lob. Frangula, Matth. 

Est et species Frangulae fructu rubro proveniens in Angliae Comit. 
Somerset: prope aedes D. Thyn, an Vaccinium Plin: Lugd: 
Althaea Ibiscus. Marsh Mallowes. 

Variat maioribus foliis et stipite littoreis circa Gravesend. 
Anagallis foemina flore caeruleo. Female Pbnpei'nell. 

Faemina folia habet paulo quam in mare maiora, ima parte punctis nigri- 
cantibus multis insignita. Crescit copiose inter segetes iuxta Stanford. 
Anonis foliis maioribus leniter crenatis flore luteo, in viis pratls non procul 

Aquilegia flore caeruleo. Coliunbine. In a wood within 10 miles of London 

Arbutus unedo. At Bellamont 3 miles from Dublyn. 

Asarina foliis Asari, Bauh: Asarina, Math: Nec dispar foliis et odore Asarina 
devexa angusta via qua itur Clover versus Mendiep ubi efifoditur plumbum. 
Florem videre non contigit illo tempore quo iliac iter faciebam cauliculis 

Ballote, Marrubium nigrum foetidum. Stinking Horehound. 
Variat flore albo neere Gravesend. 

^ The well-known author of the Religio Medici. 



Bellis minor vulgaris. Little Daisyes. 

Bellis minor flore viridi globoso, at Mr. Sheldens wood at Weston, 

Betonica vulgaris. Betony. 

Variat in sylvis angustioribus aut rotundioribus foliis. 

Calamogrostis hue referenda pro Calamog: Syl. D. J. Bapt: vid. non . . . Pin: 
Bauh: Calamus aromat. vid: Acorus verus. 

Campanula media. Ista campanulae rotundifoliae similis, sed magna ex parte 
caulem habet unicum aliquando tamen plures sed hoc rarius, striatum, folia 
alterna per caulem rapuntii fere, sed latiora nec adeo longa, caules et 
folia sunt leviter hirsuta. Flores omnino purpurei campanulae praedictae 
floribus similimi, sed maiores et longiores multo. Radix parva paucis 
fibris. Provenit copiose inter Herefordiam et Kyneton, ac per totum Wye 
Flu: tractum. 

Cannabis spuria altera flore purpureo. In agris. Nettle-hemp. 
Cardamine pumila Bellidis folio. Alpina, Ger. emac. Rock-cresses. 

By Shawford neere Gilford abundantly. 
Christophoriana. Herbe Christopher. 

Ad radices mentis Ingleborrowe copiose inter saxa. 
[A coloured drawing inserted.] 
Cirsium Anglicum. Single-headed Thistle. 

Radix nigricans fibrata quundoque per magnas fibras fere propagans ut 
in figura. 

[A coloured drawing inserted.] 
[? The last or] C. Anglicum minus, Park. 

Crescit in pratis ad radices montis Ingleborrow totius Angliae altissimi 
in Comitat. Eboracensi 12 miliaribus a Lancastria. 
Cochlearia rotundifolia sive Batava, Lob. Round-leaved Scu7'vy-grasse, It 
groweth nigh unto a castle in ye Peake of Darbyshire which is 30 miles 
distant from ye sea. 
Cochlearia rotundifolia marina. 

About ye walls in Bermonice abundantly. 
Echium flore alb. Vipers Buglosse. 

Et in Cretaceis collibus ad Thamesim prope Greyn-hey tribus miliaribus 
a Gravesend. 
Erica tenuifolia, Ger. 

Coris fol. 6 Clus: rar. Plant', pag: 43. Nascentem banc vidi in Anglia 
supra Wi'ndesoram mense Sept. florentem (Angli Boreales Ling vocare).^ 
Erica coris folio 6 Clus: flore albo. 

Erica coris folio 13 Clus: flore albo Saepius reperiuntur in ericetis circa 

W^orplesdowne in Comitat. Surriae. 
Gentianella alpina. 

In ye mountaines betwixt Gort and Galloway abundantly, Mr. Heaton. 

^ In Goodyefs copy of Parkinson's Theatrwn, in the margin of p. 1480, is a 
note in the handwriting of the botanical friend of Goodyer (? Dr. J. Dale) who 
wrote MS. 9. Referring to Fig. 2, Erica vulgaris hirsutior, Com7non rough 
Heathy the writer observes, ' The 2 is the figure of Erica Coris folio, Clus. 
hist. p. 41, and not of the Ericae myricae folii similis found by Clusius about 
Windesor '. 



Gramen plumosum elegans, FetcJted ^rass. 

Vepretis et quibusdam aridis agroriim marginibus Dorcestriensis Anglo- 
Britan: gaiidet priori inutile. 
Gramen tremulum. In upland cornefeilds at Hatfeild. 

Gramen typhoides maximum spica longissima. The largest Catstaile-grass. 
With a very large eare at ye entrance into Chelsy feilds. 

Hederula aquatica. Water Ivy. 

In a ditch by Bermondsey house neere London. 
In aquis residibus iuxta Petriburgum. 

Hieracium alterum foliis obtiisa laciniatis fibrosa radice. Londinensis agri 
pratensibus, via Hackneum, Stepneum, et alibi passim obviam. foliis 
item humi stantis, hirsutis, duas uncias cum dimidia ternasque longis, 
obtusis dentatis laciniis : cauliculis dodrantalibus et pedalibus floribus 
luteis papposis Hieracio longius radicato paribus et similibus donatis 
radice tamen non ita longa, sed fib rata. 

Hieracium lactescens frutex est sesquicubitalis quandoque altior, caules multos 
ab radice fibrata satis, emittens, tenues tristes, intus fungosos et medulla 
alba plenos. Folia oblonga, serrata leniter, mucronata, parte ima modice 
pilosa, alterna per caulem, multis vel brevissimis pediculis cauli habentia, 
obscure virentia. Hores versus summos caules e cavis foliorum exeunt, 
pediculis longiusculis Tragopog: floribus omnino similes sed minores, lutei 
cuius foliola in extremis in quatuor partes dissecta. Flores nocte clauduntur 
mane sese expandunt. Floret Augusto, Septembri vero in pappos abeunt: 
Semen parvum oblongum sapore est ex dulis subamon, flores foliis sunt 
amariores paulo. Tota planta lactescit. Crescit in sylvis Comitat: Hertford. 

Horminum sylvestre Lavendulae flore. 

Nascitur satis frequens ad Regium oris (?) Grenwicii Hippodromum. 

Hyoseris mascula, Ger. Male Swines Cichory. 

Non difl": ab Hieracio minimo Clus: pag: cxlii. Provenit inter segetes 
locis parum arenosis, et terra friabili ; frequens in Anglia multis in locis. 

Jacobaea, sive Senecion minimum. Radice pro plantae proportione maiuscula 
fibrata; folia Bellidi fere sed breviora parum incana 5, 6 vel 7 supra terram 
strata, e quorum medio caulis assurgit dodrantalis aut minor singularis 
in quo una, 4, 5 vel 6 quandoque folia sunt alterna, angusta mucronata. 
Caulis et folia lanugine Candida sunt obducta. In summo caule flores sunt 
quatuor, 5, 6 rarique 7 breviusculis pediculis Senecii maioris, sive pubae 
Jacobaeae, pappescentes. Radix fibrata non vaga. Floret Julio et initio 
Augusti. Crescit in Agro Cantabrigiensi in parvis collibus non procul a 

Jacobaea 3 Clus. Pann: latifol: s[essi]lis Planta Flore intense luteo et folio nigriore, 
vulgari Jacobaeae fere paribus, rivulorum sectatim Anglo-Britaniae. 
[With a coloured drawing.] 

Juncaria salmaticensis. Small stone Woodrooffe of Spain. At ye lower end of 
Grayes Inne lane by London neere ye water course, 

Linariola parva planta dodrantalis aut brevior, caules aliquot a radice teretes et 
duriusculi, in quibus folia fere lini bina per intervalla. Flosculi parvi lini 
fere sed albi ex quinque foliolis in summis ramulis. Semina valde minuta 
lini efflgie fusca. Floret Junio, Julio et Augusto in pratis Angliae frequens 
a nullo descripta. 

[With a pen-and-ink drawing.] 



Militaris aizoides, Lob. Water soldier. 

Si non est Stratiotes Dios : certe similima est, sed non sine radice vivit. 
Copiose prope pagum Over Jun. Julio et Augusto floret in aquis stagnantibus 
et fossis limosis Eliensis Insulae. 

Muscus coralloides lacustris. 

Corallii fere modo crescit, sed plures caules ab una radice, certo tamen 
spatio a se modice (?) distantes, utpote tres, 4, 5, et quandoque sex caules 
dodrantales aut paulo longiores emittit minimi fere digiti crassitudine, 
teretes, spongiosos, ut et substantia totius plantae spongiosa est et porosa, 
et spongiae fere consistentiam in aqua habet. 

Sicca vero dura et friabilis est, ex caulibus unus vel duo quandoque tres in 
summo sunt ramosi, in duos vel tres ramos ad cornu cervi similitudinem 
sunt divisi. Nec folia alia, nec flores nec fructum profert (quantum potui 
observare). Radix lapidibus in fundo adhaeret, supraque eos sese expandit. 
Tota planta unius est coloris, in aqua viridis saturate cum quadam nigredine, 
sicca vero diluta virescit. Invenitur in fluviis ex arborum truncis vel radici- 
bus in aquis exiens ut in fluvio iuxta Petriburgum. 

[An early description of the Fresh-water Sponge, Spotigilla fliiviatilis^ 
illustrated with an excellent coloured pen-and-ink drawing.] 

Myrrhis. Fuch., Cicutaria, Ges. hort. Wild Sweete Cherville» 

Napus syl: minimus Montosis agris hoc pusillum Napi syl; genus iuxta 
pistrinam ventillatam sive ventimolam D. Rich. Garth semiliari ab aedibus 
antiquis Drayton vocatis e regione Vectis Insulae reperi ; tota planta 
admodum parva est, foliis Napo syl: longe minoribus, angustioribus, 
parum .... [4 lines of description follow]. 

Nidus avis flore et caule violaceo purpureo colore an Pseudo-limodoron, Clusii, 
hist. rar. Plant, pag. 270: A mile from Alton in Hamshire. Mr. Goodyer. 

[To this printed note. How has added in MS.] Limodoron Austriacum 
Cliis. Hist. Orchis abortiva violacea, Bauh: 

Orchis minor flore carnato Eyst: Pannonia 4 Clus: Cynosorchis minor 
Pannonica, Ger. em: The lesser Austins dog-stones. On Scosby lease. 
Mr. Stonehouse. 

Oxalis major. Great leaved Sorrel. 

Ad Shackerforth-mill loco uliginoso. 

Papaver corniculatum flore rubro. Copiose crescit Vectis Insula. 


Folia radici proxima superne obscure rubent, interne virent. Lobelii 
mutilam et depravatam iconem Lugd:, Dod:, Ger. em.. Park. etc. exhibent 
Omnes esse sequest (?) maturam e vivis naturae typis exhibeo. 

[With a coloured drawing.] 
Pedicularis flore albo. White Rattle. 

Severall places of Warwickshire. 
Polygonum minimum. 

Plantula vix unciam altitudine excedit, ramosa, ut arbor assurgit, 
surculosa, erecta magna ea parte, foliola parva binatim coniuncta, e geni- 
culis cxeuntia. Flores in summo parvi numerosi, albicantes. Radice nititur 
minima singulari paucis fibris, crescit locis hyeme udii, aestate veneniatii. 
An potius ad Alsines speciem referenda ? 

[With a small neat drawing in pen and ink.] 



Pulsatilla vulgaris. Purple passe-Jlower. 

About Oxford. 
Pirum foliatum. 

[Coloured drawing of a pear, with well developed green leaves growing 
from the apex.] 
Pirum supra pirum. 

[A fruit with a second pear growing among the leaves at the apex.] 
Ranunculus minimus Septentrionalium herbido muscoso flore. D%va7'fe Crow- 
foot, or Small Bunikifis HollivortelL 

In Anglia frequens praecipue versus Septentrionem Folia odorem epirant 
moscho similem, sed valde imbecillum. 

Fumaria cubica vel capnos Moschatella Cordi. 

[A coloured drawing marked] Haec effigies praeferenda. 
Ranunculus montanus, Cam. globosus. Globe Crowfoot. 

Floret in fine Jun et Jul: ad radices mentis Ingle-borrow. Angli boreales. 
Lockcr-G owing vel locker goling, a flore clauso non est venenatus. 
Ranunculus pumilus floribus deciduis. 

The whole plant seldome exceeds 3 inches in compasse and in his full 
strength and flowring is not above an inch or 2 high, amongst a hundred 
plants of them yt I found not far from Oxford though it were in ye time 
theire flowring I could not find one with a whole flower, severall of these 
had 3, 4 or 5 little yellow leaves of flowers, about a small thrum of yellow 
pointells, and every plant had fresh yellow pointells, with the leaves as it 
were new fallen of. [it has not yett flowred in my garden.] ^ 
Rosa sylvestris odora Eglenteria. Sweet Briar bush. 

Oritur in Bathonica Angliae proximis collibus non procul ab aedibus 
D: Laur. Hyde. {Quoted from Lobel, Obs. 618.] 
Rubia sylvestris laevis radice perenni. 

Omnino priori similis sed radice vivace ac perenni, humi maxima ex 
parte procumbit planta et multis surculis brachiata, folia paulo latiore 
stellatim disposita leniter serrata flores coerulei ex quatuor foliolis mucro- 
natis. Caules quadranguli geniculati, e singulis geniculis folia stellatim 
decussata quinq, quatuor, sex septem et octo. Radix longa fibrata valde 
rubescens. Juxta Harwica prope littora maris. 
Sagittaria minor. S??iall Arrow-head, 

Radices — multas fibrosas, pallidas vel albicantes, prolixas inter quas 
aliquas utpote 4, 5 vel 6 maiores radices chordis maioris Lyrae instar reliqui 
longiores in extremo bulbosas bulbi oblongi mucronati, incurvi, membranulis 
duabus aut tribus tecti, colore ex albo et coeruleo mixto, bulbi magni- 
tudine inaequales, nucis avellanae magnitudinem aequantes, quorum caro 
alba, solida. 

[A pen-and-ink drawing entitled] Sagittae minoris radix cum bulbis. 
Sambucus foliis variegatis neere Totnam. 

Sedum arborescens Anglicum. Frutex est varius multis lignosis duris, cuius 
folia sunt magis longa, similiter disposita, non adeo carnosa, nec crassa, 
Sedum vulgare situ et ortu aemulantia, radice satis longa, et crassiuscula 
non multis fibris. Crescit in Insulis Rooms vocatis sinus Bristoiensis, 
Oceani Anglici. 

^ Erased. 
U 2 

'Z()2 HOW'S MS. RECORDS 1650-6 

Sium alterum Olusatri facie. Long-leaved Water Cresses. 

In fossis prope Petriburgum frequens, nec non procul ab Oxbridge in 
quibusdam puteis Londinum versus iuxta viam publicam. 
Spartum spica secalina. Great English Mat-weede. 

On ye further side of ye Isle of Tenet. 
Trachelium majus Belgarum. Giant Throat-wort or Bell/lower, 

Pratensibus ad radices cretaceosas collium prope Dartfort et Greehyth. 
Trifolium flore viridi foliaceo elegans. 

In mine owne Orchard at Darfield : it grew with mee one yere plentifully 
but I have not since observ'd it. I have now sent some of it dried as it 
was gathered about 9 yeeres since. Mr. Stonehouse. 
Turritis major. Towers Mustard. 

Non procul a meta antiquissima diruta, miliari a Colchestria et in agris 
prope Dedtfort. 

Typha minor crescit in fluvio Petriburgum praeterfiuens nusquam alias vidi. 
Vaccinia nubis. Cloudberry. 

Chamaemorus Anglica, Park. Chamaemorus Cambro-Brittanniae sive 

Lancastriense vaccinium nubis. Radix utcunque nodosa, et ex nodis 

fibras paucas dimittit ; radice se propagat (sicut Cirsium Anglicum vid. 

fig.) et quam longissime serpit adeo ut brevi tempore maximum spatium 


Vicia maxima sylvatica nondum descripta, spicata Bathoniensis Goodyeri. 
Umbilicus Veneris. 

About Bath and North Wales plentifully. 
Umbilicus Veneris maximus Anglicus rudentibus foliis maior ac elegantior 
quam precedens est. Pilleter. Plant: Synon: pag. 126. 

MS. additions at end between pp, 132 and 133. 
Cotula non foetida flore pleno latiore. . 
Chamaebuxus fl. colutea, Bauh: sive Rhus Plin: myrtifol: 
Carduus lanceolatus fl. alb et fl. purp: Q. Chyrurg: for ye places of 

theese plants growth from Morgan. 
Taxus tantum florens on ye chalky hills in Hampsh. J. Goody: 
Persic, minor non urens sine maculis in Tuthill Feilds. 
Antirrhinum medium Hispan: flore albo, Hunnibon and what other 

spontaneally hee hath with all other simples. 
[Species of Cynoglossum, Hypericon, Orchys, and Sium from Browne 

See p. 302.] 
Oxyacanthus flore rubro 
Alsine foliis variegatis ■ Qu. Hunnibon. 
Seseli pratense 

Qu. ye Sium in ye pott with small leaves per Phy. Br. 
Gentiana altera dubia Anglica punctato medio flore. 
Helleborines uti superior forte cognata, L. St. 111. 
Gentiana dubia Anglica, Park. 
Q. Newarkes Turritis. Pentaphyllum. 
Q. ye Opuntium marinum on Oyster shells. 



Nymphaea foliis hederaceis. Qu. Stevens. 

[Species of Carduus, Plantago, and Echium from Browne. See p. 302.] 
Prunella vulg: fl. al. incarnato et fl. purpureo. 

in Chappell on ye heath. Bobert. 
Stevens his Becabunga maior Plantago Aquat. latif. maior. 
Geranium columbinum foliis magis dissectis, pediculis longissimis flore 

magno. I found it wild in ye beginning of August 1654, it is not 

described or pictured yt I find. John Goodyer. Q. ye place of growth. 

vid. Phyt. 47. 
Erysimum ii Tab. Q. locum. 

growes in ye streetes neere white chappell east from Algate London, 

J. Goodyer. 

Anonymos aquatica rubida, foliis Anagallidis flore luteo. This growes in 
a little lake in a heath neere Petersfeild in Hamshire, in a hott summer 
some parts of ye lake are drie in August, sometimes before, there and 
then ye flowers are to bee scene. 

Holosteum perpusillum growes in ye same lake ^ in ye East part of ye said 
heath greene all ye winter under water, and flowers when ye water 
is vanished in August, and sometimes much sooner. I first observed 
this plant in a pond neare Holburie in ye new Forrest in Hamshire. 
J. Goodyer. 

1 The waters of this lake this 2 of June 1656 about 4 of ye clocke in ye 
afternoone was well neere as warme as ye Bathwater at Bath in Summersetshire 
although 3^e day was cloudy. 

Holosteum juncifolium repens Goodyeri copiose inveni in Comit: Surriae 
juxta Purbright (an diff: a priore, Qu. Goody). 

But How's good intentions for a revised edition of his Flora were 
not destined to bear fruit. Chance appears to have cast the Lobel 
manuscripts in his way : he purchased them with his own money, 
but his store of vital energy was unequal to the task of producing 
a second Phytologia Britannica. 

The circumstances of his dealing with these manuscripts have 
been often described. A contemporary account of the matter is 
given by the Rev. J. Ward in his Commonplace Book'. 'Dr. How 
hath put out a piece showing what Plants Parkinson stole out of 
a manuscript of Lobel's wch. never was put out, but came by chance 
to Dr. Modesy's [= Morison's] hand.' How has been universally 
reproved for the violence of his language, re Parkinson, first by 
Pulteney and then by later historians, who, however, quote his 
remarks with some gusto. 

If How had found the Lobel MSS. in anything like the disorder 
in which they were when I first saw them, and if he attributed the 
mutilations to Parkinson, his expressions might be considered as 



well justified. It is more likely that the vigour of his language was 
partly due to haste consequent on failing health, and perhaps to 
a presentiment of death and to the knowledge that his time and 
resources were insufficient to do his author more than scant justice. 
How died in 1656, a few months after the publication of his book. 

We have consulted William Howe's will (P. C. C. Berkeley 315) 
at Somerset House. He described himself as of Milke St., co. 
Middlesex, Gent., ' being in perfect memory though much erased 
in Body'. He willed that his body should be 'very humblie 
interred in St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, on the left side 
of my mother. The earth to be taken up att least 6 foote, my 
funeral I desire may be observed about ten at night. I would not 
have above 6 of my choyce friends accompaning'. His wife 
Elizabeth Howe was appointed absolute executor, but as regards 
his Library he * would have her advised by some knowing person 
to putt of, and by no means to part with any particular book from 
the whole'. Will proved, 22 Sept. 1656. 

It is probable that Goodyer then acquired a selection of his 
books and manuscripts. The most important of these, which are 
still in the Library at Magdalen College, are the Lobel Manuscripts, 
How's own annotated copy of his Phytologia, Johnson's Descriptio 
Itineris 1632, both with the MS. additions printed below, certain 
loose papers including Goodyer MS. 11, ff. 169-73, described on 
p. 355, and a few printed books including editions of Tabernae- 
montanus^ Matthiolus, and Renealmus. 

William Cole or Coles of New College gratefully acknowledged 
the help that How gave him in the preparation of his Adam in 
Eden 1657. ^Furnished' with How's 'best advice and with some 
of his select and choicest papers for perfecting his design', it is a 
pity that Coles did not produce a sounder book. 

xiii. Dr. John Dale, d. 1662. 

In the Latin introduction to his Pinax reriim naturaliiim Britan- 
nicarum. Dr. Christopher Merrett, F.R.S., tells us that the one 
and only comprehensive Flora of Britain that had ever been printed 
was almost out of print, and that PuUeyn,^ a publisher living in 
St. Paul's Churchyard, had asked him to undertake a new Catalogue 

^ Octavian PuUeyn was the publisher of How's Phytologia in 1650; Cave 
PuUeyn published Merrett's Pinax in 1667. Octavian sold to How the copy of 
Tabernaeinontaimis which was afterwards acquired by Goodyer : his signature 
is inside the cover. See pp. 202 and 226. 



of all the British plants then known, to be followed by a History, 
and that the work was to be done in association with a Dr. Dale, 
* Botanologus peritus 

The only botanist of that name in Merrett's time who is at all 
well-known, or indeed appears in Messrs. Britten & Boulger's Index 
of British Botanists, is Dr. Samuel Dale of Braintree, who in after 
years gave such valuable assistance to Ray, and was often mentioned 
in his botanical works. It is, therefore, but natural for an uncritical 
reader, on encountering a solitary mention of Dr. Merrett's proposed 
partner Dr. Dale, to assume unconsciously that the reference was 
to Dr. Samuel Dale. Merrett was, however, writing at the College 
of Physicians in August 1666, a few days before the outbreak of 
the Great Fire, and Samuel, who is believed to have been born in 
Whitechapel in 1659, could not- then have been a distinguished 
' Botanologist Nor must he be confused with William Dale of 
Queen's College, the helper of the younger Bobart.^ 

John Ward,^ writing in 1662, also mentions Dr. Dale, and rather 
as if he were the originator of the idea of re-editing the Phytologia 
Britannica ; and, lastly, John Ward's editor, Sir D'Arcy Power, 
notes that ' no record of his (Dale's) attainments in botany seems to 
have survived '. Ward had, however, a high idea of him : * there 
are in London but two doctors y"^ have any great skill in simpling, 
y^ is Dr. Moddesey {i.e. Morison) and Dr. Dale'; and in 1661 he 
noted one of his prescriptions. 

' White Mullen or Higtaper : wash itt and fume itt and boyl itt with hog's 
grease, add Red Lead and Linseed OIL It is said to bee excellent good 
against y® piles. Dr, Dale. I find ye same in a manner in Gerard's Herbal 
with but very little difference.' ^ 

Except in a single instance I have not met with any mention of 
the name of Dale among the Goodyer papers, but nevertheless 
there are good grounds for attributing to him the authorship of 
certain manuscripts, and a few notes in the margins of Goodyer's 
copies of Parkinson's Theatrtim\ Twxw^xs Herbal^ P« 10; Thalius 

^ ' Mr. Bobart, the Botanist, was greatly assisted in the 11^ vol. of ye Oxford 
History of Plants, by Mr. Dale of Queen's College, who revised the whole and 
put it into proper Latin for him. Presently after the Death of the said Mi-. Dale, 
I had a sight of a Folio Book in MS* drawn up by himself, being Tables & 
Explications on Aristotle's Rhetorick' (Hearne, Diary 1705, Nov. 6). 

2 The Rev. John Ward of Christ Church had taken his M.A. in 1652. His 
sixteen commonplace books are now preserved in the library of the Medical 
Society of London. (D'Arcy Power, Attn. Med. Hist, ii, p. 123.) 

' Information from Sir D'Arcy Power, who has been kind enough to tran- 
scribe for me the paragraphs relating to Dale in J. Ward's Diary. 



Sylva Hircynia, P* 5^ > Gerard emac.^ p. 800, and other books. At 
any rate, it appears more likely that Dr. Dale, rather than any one 
else, should have written them. 

Dale's botanical partnership with Goodyer dates at least from 
1651, as is shown by the latter's entry in his copy of J. Bauhin's 
Historia Plantartim. This work was purchased of Robinson on 
15 March 1651, and sold by Dr. Dale, then living in Long Acre, to 
Goodyer on the 22nd for ^3 is. 6d. 

The Goodyerian Lists and Descriptions of British plants were 
undoubtedly written during the sixth decade of the seventeenth 
century. One paper is dated 22 January 1651, another April 1659, 
and during part of this period the writer was evidently in close 
touch with Goodyer himself. The four principal manuscripts are : 

1. Descriptions of Plants extracted from Lobel's MSS. (in Latin). 

2. A Catalogue of Grasses, foreign as well as British, with brief 
descriptions and synonymy, comprising 203 species, written two on 
a page, on loi leaves. 

3. A Catalogue of British plants, with synonymy, comprising , 
922 species (including 70 grasses), written four on a page (with 
blanks), on 276 leaves. 

4. A Supplementary List of British plants comprising 1 53 names. 
If these are to be regarded as different from the 922, the British 
Flora as known to Goodyer and Dale (?) in 1659 would comprise 
1,075 species — a figure which comes very near to the 1,050 of Ray 
in the year 1669. How, by including varieties and exotic plants, 
had accumulated 1,220 names in the Phytologia of 1650. 

The work is exactly what would be expected from the author of 
a new Phytologia. None of Dr. Dale's plants are quoted under his 
own name in the printed Phytologia of 1650, but among How's 
MS. additions (1650-6) we have noted 

' Acinos anglica flore albo in Salisbury feild neere Basing stoake, D. Dale.* 
*Foeniculum at Rie. — Leucoii folii : Qjii. D.' 

He was the first person to point out 'J uncus caule Triangulati' 
(? the rare Galingale Cyperus longiis) growing at the Horse ferry at 
Westminster and to record 'Vicia fol. gramineo siliqua porrectis- 
sima' about Tyburn and Maribone Park. Merrett, who printed 
these records in 1667,^ designates him as ' insignis Britannicus '. 

' Typha 

' Senetio sentilis 

^ Merrett, Pinax, 67, 125. 



There can, therefore, be no doubt that there was such a person : 
the trouble is to identify him among the numerous Dales who were 
living at the time. Unfortunately his christian name is nowhere 
mentioned. I was at first inclined to think that Sir D'Arcy Power, 
who has the credit of a first attempt, was right in identifying 
Dr. Dale with the Dr. Robert Dale, said to be of Magdalen 
College, who was admitted an Kxtra- Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians in 1663.^ But this is rather too late a date for our 
botanist. Merrett alludes to his death, but not as if it were 
a recent event. It may have occurred before the Fire and the 
Plague, probably shortly before Goodyer's own death in 1664, for 
else it would be hard to explain the presence of Dale MSS. among 
the Goodyer papers. 

While engaged in an unsuccessful hunt for Robert Dale's will at 
Somerset House, I found the v/ill of Dr. John Dale, which connects 
many of the clues and is a surer guide to the identity of our 

JOHN DALE, Doctor of Physick, of the parish of St. Martin's in the Fields, 
bequeaths to poore neighbours of St. Martin's Parish ^5 ; to poore of East 
Meon ; to poore of Petersfield ^5 ; to poore of Gosport ^5 ; to Mr. Hunt 
^5 ; to Mr. Gray £^ ; to brother Andrew Vidian and wife ^5 ; to sister Codd 
20^-., to sister Browne 20s., to Mr. Darlaston and wife 40j-., for rings ; to wife 
Blanche Dale, his sole exor, lease of house in Long Acre and lease of his impro- 
priate parsonage of East Meon. Brother-in-law Andrew Vidian and ' my very 
good friend John Goodyer of Petersfield ' to be overseers and to have a ring of 
40j-. Will dated 30 Apr. in the presence of W. Darlaston, Mary Robinson, 
Ehz. Coleman. Proved 27 May 1662, after the death of Blanche his widow. — 
Abstract ofV. C. C. Laud. 63. 

We hope that some local genealogist will follow the family 
further. ' Sister Browne ' may have been related to the Brownes 
of East Hoo, already mentioned ; and Mr. Gray may have been 
the herborist friend of O. Bilson (p. 201), but the names are too 
widespread to be a trustworthy guide. 

^ Munk records that Robert Dale was a Bachelor of Arts of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, who practised medicine at Stourbridge in Worcestershire and 
was admitted an Extra-Licentiate of the College of Physicians of London on 
October ist 1663. {Roll of the Royal College of Physicians.) But I have not 
as yet been able to find any Robert Dale in the books of Magdalen College. 
John Ward elsewhere refers to an incident in the practice of a ' Mr ' Dale, and, 
in the next sentence, to * An ichneumon frequent about Sturbridge '. Unfor- 
tunately Ward nowhere mentions his Dales' Christian names. Sir D'Arcy 
Power, to whom I mentioned the difficulty, has again investigated the matter, 
and has found among the Prattinton MS., vol. 31, at the Society of Antiquaries, 
an entry: 'Robert Dale Ludimagister of Free school at Stourbridge, 9 Nov. 



It seems probable that Goodyer, if not already in possession of 
Dale's botanical papers, would have annexed them as part of his 
duty as overseer of the will, and on his death (1664) they may have 
been among those which Yalden lent to Merrett. 

Dr. John Dale, unlike Robert, does not appear to have been 
licenced by the College of Physicians, of which institution Dr. Mer- 
rett was the resident Librarian. The College of Physicians was 
then situated in Amen Corner — very near the house of Pullej^n, 
the friendly publisher who persuaded Merrett to co-operate in the 
proposed work. ' I could not strive against his honourable wishes', 
as Merrett afterwards put it. How far Dr. Dale did co-operate, we 
are not told. He died before the day of publication. 

Merrett certainly engaged in the work with great energy. He 
purchased 800 figures of plants, which Johnson had caused to be 
engraved, with the intention of using them to embellish his book. 
He engaged Thomas Willisel to search for plants in those distant 
parts of the kingdom which, owing to his London duties, were 
beyond his range. His son, Christopher, also made excursions for 
the same purpose, and he procured the loan of Goodyer's MSS. 
from Edmund Yalden. 

By the inclusion of exotics and many varieties, which he had not 
the critical acquaintance with the subject to omit, he brought up 
the list of the British Flora to some 1,400 species, a number which, 
only three years afterwards, was reduced to 1,050 by the ' accurate 
Mr. Ray '. 

xiv. William Browne, 1629-1678. 

Several of the plant-records of William Browne are quoted in 
the interleaved copy of How's Phytologia Britannica bequeathed to 
Magdalen College by John Goodyer. They are all in the handwriting 
of William How. 

William Browne was known to Wood as his examiner, and also 
to Peshall as a native of Oxford, his father being described alterna- 
tively as William Brown, a Mercer of Oxford,^ or as John Browne, 
a Bailiff of the City.'^^ He had a distinguished career at Magdalen 
College, becoming B.A. in 1647, M.A. in 1650, and B.D. in 1665. 
He succeeded to a Fellowship in 1657, was Praelector of Moral 
Philosophy in 1658, Dean of Divinity in 1659, and Vice-President 
in 1669-1670. He died suddenly about the age of fifty, and was 

^ Peshall, City of Oxford, add. 29. 
2 Wood, Hist., p. 344, ed. Gutch. 



buried in the Antcchapel of his College. A gravestone of black 
marble preserves his memory : 

H. S. E. 





OB. MAR. 25, AN. AET. 49° 

Canon Vaughan ^ favours the view that the presence of so well- 
known a botanist at Magdalen College would account for Goodyer's 
gift of botanical books to the College ; and this idea would gain in 
probability if we could establish a close kinship between William 
Browne of Magdalen and Goodyer's Hampshire neighbour of the 
same name. But so far we have not found any evidence on this 

Mr. Druce {Flora Berks. ^ p. cvi) is not quite right in saying that 
no certain writing of Browne's has been discovered, for we have 
specimens of his signature at Magdalen, and for several reasons \ye 
believe that Druce is also mistaken in suggesting that the MS. 
notes in one of the Bodleian copies of Lyte's Herbal were made by 
Browne : they are obviously by an earlier member of Magdalen 
College who had studied at Padua. 

Browne is best known through the Catalogus Horti Botanici 
Qxoniensis prepared by Bobart, Dr. Stephens^ the Principal of Mag- 
dalen Hall, and himself in collaboration, but both Anthony Wood 
and Merrett agree 'that he had the chief hand in it', and the MS. 
copy in the British Museum gives his name as that of the author. 

Attention has been drawn to the fact that in this edition the 
authors have, in every instance where it was possible, not only 
adopted the scientific appellation given by Gerard and Parkinson 

* Cornhill Magazine^ 19095 P* S02. 




to each plant, but also quoted the page of their works. Druce^ 
claims priority in England for this procedure for the authors 
jointly. It is quite likely that Browne, rather than Bobart, was 
responsible for the innovation, but as the quotation of authorities 
by pages had been the usual everyday practice of Browne's friend 
Goodyer for the past thirty years, any credit for priority or precept 
in this matter should be given to the latter. 

There are many citations from him printed in Dr. Merrett's 
Pinax, and although he does not appear as one of the contributors 
to the Phytologia^ perhaps because How was not acquainted 
with him before 1650, or because he had not then paid much 
attention to botany, yet he was able to supplement that work with 
several valuable additions which How duly entered in his inter- 
leaved copy of the PJiytologia already referred to. Most of these 
citations are distinguished by a peculiar mark, a A in a square. 

The Plant Records of William Bi'ozvne^ entered by How in his 
copy of the ' Phytologia\ 1650-1656. 

Anagallis aquatica, sive Becabunga flore albo. Veronica Beccabimga L. 
in fossis aliquibus sub colle Haddington prope Oxonium. Guil. 
Browne Oxon: 

Atriplex marina latifolia tola rubra. Atriplex patida L. 

E radice tenui et fibrata caules exit sesquicubitales ramulis donates 
frequentissimis folia ferentes in extremitate angusta et acuta in 
media et una parte lata et acuminata ubique densa et admodum 
rubra hortis translata ruborem fidelissime servat, flosculi ex viridi 
rubescunt, semina sunt angularia, et eiusdem ruboris cum Asteris (?) 
plantae partibus occurrit ad maris littus prope Shoram comitat: 
Sussexi. Guil. Browne Oxon: 

Behen album hispidum. Silene Cucubalus Wib. 

Planta est ubique obvia adhuc tamen non descripta. Guil: 
Browne Oxon. 

Colchicum Anglicum purpureum duplici serie foliorum in flore. 
Colchicum Anglicum saturationis purpureae. 

Colchicum Anglicum florum foliis ex albo et purpureo dimidiatim 
variegatis. Colchicum autu7?male L. 

Haec tria proveniunt in prato amoenissimo prope pagum verna- 
culem Combe, Comit: Oxon:, ubi flore albo plurima sunt et vulgaris 
purpurae millia. Guil. Browne Oxon. 

^ Druce, Flora Oxford, p. 373. 




Colchicum Anglicum, foliis elegantissime striatis. 

in prato prope Corneberry, Comitatu Oxon., gramen striatum. 

pulchritudine multum superat colores horto meo pluribus annis 

iactavit. Guil. Browne. 
Cotula alba. Mayweed. Anthemis Cotula L. 

Et flore pleno ex luteo viridi reperitur [juxta Oxon. erased\ 

Uorcestria versus Comit. Oxon. via regia vulgo Honey Fixlong. 

Guil. Browne Oxon. 
Geranium columbinum minus foliis magis dissectis et foliis minus 

dissectis in agris sterilibus. variat. flore albo. Guil. Br. Oxon. 

Geranium molle L. and G. dissectum L. 
Lysimachia, sive Gratiola latifolia flore albo in pagulo vulgo Purbright 

Comitat: Surriae. Guil. Browne Oxon. Scutellaria minor Huds. 
Orchis Antropophora trunco pallido, brachiis et cruribus saturate 

rubescentibus. The Red Shanke. Roy Satyrion. Hasce Orchides 

rariores in cretaceis quibusdam coUibus observant non procul a via 

communi qua itur Wallingfordio Reddingam per Comitatum 

Bercherium. Guil. Browne Oxon. Orchis simia Lam. ? 

Orchis, sive Cynosorchis militans holosericea, banc orchidum merito 
reginam inveni juxta mediam partem viae communis inter Nettleton 
et Bathe communicante D.D. Stevens Botanico perito. G. Browne 
Oxon. Orchis militaris L. 

Orchis, sive Cynosorchis Austriaca flore albo colle Chilswelliensi 
prope Oxonium. Guil. Browne Oxon: Orchis ustulata L. 

Periclymenum syl: 3plici serie florum ex luteo virentium, alioqui toto 
habitu a vulgari non dissimile, colle vulgo Shotover juxta Oxonium. 

Lonicera Periclymenum L. 

Periclymenum alterum quercinis foliis, perelegans planta ; observavi 
in colle Chilswelliensi prope Oxonium. G. B. Oxon. 

Plantago quinquenervia fimbriis latis ex aureo argenteis, banc nitidam 
plantam juxta Corneberry exploravi Comitat: Oxon. Guil. Browne 
Oxon. Plafitago major L. var. 

Ranunculus pumilus floribus deciduis. ? Ranunculus parviflorus. 
The whole plant seldome exceeds 3 inches in compasse and in his 
full strength and flowring is not above an inch or 2 high, amongst 
a hundred plants of them y* I found not far from Oxford though it 
were in ye time of their flowring I could not find one with a whole 
flower, severall of these had 3, 4 or 5 little yellow leaves of flowers 
about a small thrum of yellow pointells, and every plant had fresh 
yellow pointells, with the leaves as it were new fallen of. [It has 
not yet flowered in my garden. Erased.^ 

Rosa pimpinella foliis flore suaverubente, in agris sterilibus prope 
Worcestriam. Guil. Browne Oxon: Rosa spinosissima L. 



Saxifraga aurea. maior, foliis, pediculis longis insidentibus. Juxta 
radicem tenuem albam et repentem folia edit rotunda ex luteo 
virentia innata itaque hirsuta, paediculis paene triuncialibus saniculae 
guttatae foliis non dissimilia ; cauliculos profert pluiimos palmares 
juxta summitatem parum divisos vel plurimum unico tantum folio, 
aliquando altero ornatos ; flosculi aurei foliis plurimis decora lute- 
scentibus longescunt. Hanc saxifragam vere auream copiose inveni 
in paludoso nemori non procul ab aedibus D. Fanteleroij in pago 
vulgo Hedley vocato Comitati Hamptonis ubi Dryopteridis Trag. 
iuxta et Calami Aromatici cum Julo ad humanam altitudinem assur- 
gentis gliscit copia. Guil. Browne Oxon. 

Chrysosplejiium alter tiifolium L. 

Solanum marinum Dulcamarare congener. Solamwi Dulcamara L. 
E radice longa dura et perenni, caulem profert crassum glabrum 

. atque humi procumbentem^ pedalem vel sesquipedalem longitu- 
dinem nunquam superantem ubi sponte emergit, folia ferentem 
Solani lignosi duplo densiora et saturationis multo viriditatis, Augusto 
floribus ornatur et albis et violaceis, utrius coloris copiose: reperitur 
ad maris littus iuxta Shoram Sussexio. Guil. Browne Oxon: 

Trachelium minus flore albo in pago Worplesdowne vocato, Comitat. 
* Surriae locus floribus albis admodum insignis. Guil. Browne Oxon: 

Campanula glomerata L. 

On blank page at end. 

Cynoglossum foliis variegatis. 
Hypericon flore albicaster. 
Orchys Sphegodes flore albo. 

Mrs. Yalding about Guilford. ) Qu. Br. 

Slum cubitate fol. variis non des[criptum] : a very 

beautifull plant about Redding plentifully. An difl". 

a Sio foliis variis Phyt. ? Apium i?iundatum Reich, f. 
Carduus pratensis caule folioso is a common plant about 3 foote 

high and has ye same filmy stalk as ye Aster Virg. caule membran- 

aceo Park: wee often find it with white flowers. C. pratensis L. var. 
Plantago marina foliis tenuissimis, haec singulis partibus alteri non 

dissimilis est, sed foliolis multo tenuioribus praedita. 
Echium scorpioides minus flosculis luteis Bauh. Pin. 254 growes 

within 3 miles of Redding plentifully. Myosotis versicolor Sm. 

On blank page^ f. 4 v. 

Helleborus pratensis latifolius, it growes in meddowes "I 

about Lichborough in Northamptonshire. H. viridis. I ^^^^ 

inn o 7 • . -r X J^OJ^- descr. 

Serratula nore albo. {Serratula tinctoria L.) j 

[Goodyer MS. 18. 


Hugh Morgan of Coleman St., 1569-87. See under No. xiii 

i. Oxford and Winchester Gardens, 1570-2. 

ii. Sir John Salusbury of Lleweni, 1596, 1607-8. 

iii. Simon Forman, 1597-1608. 

iv. Lord Salisbury, 161 i. 

V. Richard Shanne of Woodrowe, Methley, 1615. 

vi. William Coys of Stubbers, 1604, 1616, 1621-2. 

vii. Franquevilles' Garden in Long Acre, 1600-4, 1617. 

viii. John Parkinson, c, 1618-20. 
ix. John Goodyer, 1622, &c. 

X. John Tradescant, the elder. Hatfield, 1611. Lambeth, 

xi. George Gibbes, ? and 1634. 

xii. Walter Stonehouse of Darfield, 1640-4. 

' xiii. Edward Morgan of Westminster, 1662, and HuGH MORGAN, 

xiv. Robert Morison of Blois, c. 1651 ; of London, 1661-2. 

The earliest English garden list that has been published is that 
of the Holborn garden of John Gerard, which, first printed in 1596 
and again in 1599, has been re-edited in a valuable form by my 
friend Dr. Daydon Jackson in 1876. One of the first results of the 
re-examination of the Goodyer books and papers was the recognition 
of one of his manuscripts as a very early list of the garden of the 
Rev. Walter Stonehouse at Darfield Rectory in Yorkshire, 1640-1644. 
By the courtesy of the editor of the Gardeners Chronicle, this was 
printed in full in the numbers of that Journal for May 15, 22, 29 
and June 12, 1920. No sooner had this list been identified than in 
the same collection of papers, several other garden lists were found 
that successively antedated the Stonehouse list and one another, 
and finally gave the clue to the finding of the list of a garden that 
is probably older than that of Gerard. 

First in importance is the unique copy of the printed plant list of 
the Lambeth garden of the elder John Tradescant, in which more 
than 7 50 plants are named. It is the only work known to have 
been printed for the author in his lifetime: it is dated 1634. 

Then were found short lists of the gardens of John Franqueville 
and George Gibbes of Bath, both extending the list of plants 



already known to be grown by them, and the highly interesting 
lists of the gardens of William Coys of Stubbers in Essex and of 
John Parkinson in Long Acre. Lastly, the mention of the name of 
Richard Shanne has led to the rediscovery of his, the oldest garden 
list of all that are still unprinted, in the British Museum. 

The Goodyer MSS. have thus provided a richer store of definite 
horticultural facts relating to special English gardens, and dating 
from the first half of the seventeenth century, than any that has yet 
been published. To this material we have added a few other 
contemporary notes and lists, not previously published, which we 
came across when searching for matter relating to the early annals 
of English horticulture. 

i. Oxford and Winchester Gardens, 1570-2. 
The following notes of plants growing in gardens in Oxford and 
Winchester are written by a sixteenth-century botanist in his copy of 
Du Pinet's Historia Plantartim, now in the library of the Botanical 
Department of the British Museum.^ When no locality is men- 
tioned, we provisionally assume the garden to have been in or near 
Winchester. In one case only is another county mentioned : the 
Olive, ' Olea sativa', p. 81, ' at belnys nothers in Suffolk (that is not 
wild) showing that in spite of Tacitus's adverse opinion of our 
climate the olive was being grown in England a full quarter of 
a century before the date of Gerard's garden list. We have sug- 
gested that the writer may have been Dr. Walter Bayley of New 
College, p. 235. 

Henry Crosse's Oxford Garden, 1570. 

The friend of the unnamed botanist may be identified with 
Henry Crosse, Bedell of Theology, who was Registrar of the 
University from 1566 to 1570. His house and garden are of great 
historic interest, because there in after years (1654-68) Robert 
Boyle lodged, had his laboratory, and invented his famous air- 
pump.^ There on the south side of the High Street, and not far 
from the quarter of the ancient Apothecaries in Oxford, Henry 
Crosse cultivated simples which may have been of value to his 
successor (and ? descendant), Crosse the apothecary,^ whose drugs 

* See p. 235. 

An engraving of the front of Crosse's house is reproduced in Gunther, Early 
Science in Oxford, 1 920, p. 1 1 . 

^ Perhaps we owe the first evidence of the Lily of the Valley as an Oxford- 
shire plant to Crosse. ' Lilly of ye Vallies, Crosse, ye Apothecarie, had a basket 
full of ye flower. They grow about Stokenchurch.' John Ward's Diary, 1665. 
(Information from Sir D'Arcy Power.) The first printed ^ x^zoxd.' for the Lily 
of the Valley in Oxfordshire is ^ Blackstone, 1746'. 


and scientific entourage doubtless proved no small attraction to 
Robert Boyle. 

Our author mentions the garden thrice. 
Hedysarum aut Securidaca, Du Pinet, p. 402. Coronilla varia^ L. 

' In Crosses Garden at Oxford in 1570.' ' In Mr. Watson's booke.' 

Aethiopis, p. 557. Salvia Aethiopis, L. 

' In Crosses Garden at Oxford.' 
Scorpioides, p. 639. Ornithopus scorpioides^ L. 

'At Oxford in Crosses garden 1570.' 

[John] Watson's Winchester Garden, 1572. 

Six of the plant-records are associated with the name of a 
Watson, who I think must be the John Watson (1520—84) who 
took an M.D. degree at Oxford, and began life practising as 
a physician. A native of Evesham, he became a Fellow of All 
Souls in 1540. 'At length, about the time Queen Elizabeth came 
to the throne, if not happily before, he entred into holy orders, was 
made prebendary of Winchester, archdeacon of Surrey, and Master 
of the Hospital of St. Cross near Winchester' (1559)- In the 
fifteenth year of Queen Elizabeth, 1572, the date of our notes, 
he was made Dean of Winchester. He evidently kept up his early 
interest in medicine, for in 1575 he was admitted to the degree of 
Dr. of Physick. He became Bishop of Winchester in 1 580. 

Some of the notes refer to a ' booke ' which we take to be 
a Hortus siccus^ which may have also included wild plants. His 
garden is likely to have been at St. Cross. 

Myrica s. Tamarix, Dti Pinet ^ P- 55* Tamarix gallica, L. 

'In Mr. Watson's booke and garden 1572. Of this there is said to be 
2 kyndes, the greater bearing fruit like to the lesser oake apples or gaules, 
the other bearing grayeish leaves without fruite.* 
Ornithogallum, p. 207. Ornithogaluin umbellattmt^ L. 

' In Mr. Watson's booke.' 
Gratiola, p. 290. Gratiola officinalis^ L. 

' A kynd of the lesser Centaurie in Mr. Watson's and S. Cross, 1 570.' 
Althaea Ibisc, p. 420. Althaea officinalis, L. 

' Mr, Watson's garden.' 
Althaea sive Bismalva, p. 421. Malva Alcea, L. 

' Mr. Watson's garden.' 
Centauriuni maius, p. 270. Centaurea Centauretcm, L. 

' In Mr. Barnaby's garden and Mr. Watson's booke.' 

James' Winchester Garden. 

Cornus, p. 108. Cornus ?7ias, L. 

' In Mr. Jeames garden at Winchester.' 




Barnaby's Garden. 

Cicer, p. 136. Cicer arietinmn, L. 

* Chiche. Mr. Barnbyes garden.' 

Centaurium maius, p. 270. Centaurea Centaureum, L. 

* In Mr. Barnaby's garden and Mr. Watson's booke.' 

Acanthus, p. 277. Acanthus mollis^ L. 

* Mr. Barnbyes garden.' 

Ammi, p. 329. Ammi inajtis, L. 

* Mr. Barabyes garden.' 

Alchimilla, p. 571. Alchemilla vulgaris, L. 

* Mr. Barabyes garden.' 

Heyden's Garden, 1570.^ 

Aristolochia longa, p. 268. Aristolochia longa, L. 

' In Mr. Heden's garden.' 
Stachys, p. 366. Stachys geniianica, L. 

' In Mr. Heiden's garden 1570.' 
Hypecoum, p. 410. Hibiscus irio7ium, L. 

* In Mr. Heidens garden.' 

Mandragoras, p. 512. Mandr agora officinalis, L. 

' In Hedans garden.' 

Galega, p. 584. Scandix Pecten- Veneris, L. 

' Sheperds neydle. In Mr. Heides garden.' 

Tithymalus cyparissias, p. 609. Euphorbia Cyparissias, L. 

* In Mr. Heides garden.' 

The Gardens of Norton, Wallop and Basket, and that 
OF Dummer Rectory. 
All names are well known in Hampshire. The Nortons owned 
land in Nutley, which is near Dummer. 

Anemone altera, p. 250. Anemone sp, 

* In Norton's garden.' 

Trifolium odoratum, p. 372. Melilotus officinalis, L. 

' In Mr. Basket's garden.' 
Antirrhinum, p. 579. Antirrhinum 7najus, L. 

* At Dumer in the pstes garden.' 

Cupressus, p. 40. Cupressus sempervirens, L. 

'Wallops Gardens at hapton.' [? Southampton.] 

[Sir Henry Wallop was a very important personage at the time.] 

ii. Sir John Salusbury's Garden at Lleweni, 1596, 1607-8. 

The botanical records entered by Sir John Salusbury in his copy 
of Gerard's Herbal have already been described, p. 343. Two docu- 
ments in Oxford mention the Lleweni gardens in the seventeenth 

* A Benjamin Heyden of Hants matric. at New College in 1586, and became 
a master at Winchester College. 


century, and it has been suggested that a passage in a poem by 
Salusbury's friend and ' Court poet ', Robert Chester, described the 
site.^ Elsewhere Chester records in verse a failure of fruit due to an 
unusually cold spring about the end of the sixteenth century.^ The 
lines were written for A merrimt of christmas at the house of the 
Right WorsJiipfidl John Sahisbury of Leweny, Esq. After stating 
that the occasion was one on which ' we of Arcadia sometime 
frolique swaines ' 

'should heare present as newe yeares homely gift 
peares Apples fild bieres or the hazell nut 
or other fruite that this faire clymatt yelds 
but nipping winter and a forward spring 
blasted our trees and all our summer budds 
whose blossomes should have yelded dainty fare ' 

the poet goes on to propose a hornepipe, songs, and a dance. 

Sir John grew three novelties which he considered worthy of 
mention in his Herbal. Two of them he raised from seed, which 
he may have obtained from Gerard, and to his evident satisfaction 
they proved true to the pictures in the Herbal. 

Helianthus annuus, L. 

' This galant greate sunflower grewe in Sir John Salusbury's Garden at 
Llewenye & cam to the full perfection of this portraiture the yeare 1607. 
Datura Metel, L. The Smooth Thorn Apple introduced by Gerard from 

' This faire herbe grewe to full perfection accordinge to the portraiture in 
Sir J. S. his Gardeyne at Lleweny in the yeare of our Lord 1607.' 

Paris quadrifolia^ L., he transplanted to his garden in 1608. 

Marks in the margins of the book show that he was well acquainted 
with a large number of garden plants, but the only one that is 

* Chester, Love's Martyr, p. 11 : 

Hard by a running streame or crystal! fountaine, 
Wherein rich Orie?it pearle is often found, 
Enuiron'd with a high and steepie mountaine, 
A fertill soile and fruitful plot of ground, 

There shalt thou find true Honors lovely Squh-e^ 
That for this Phoenix keepes Prometheus fire. 
His bovver wherein he lodgeth all the night. 
Is fram'd of Caedars and high loftie Pine. 
An ancient well-head is one of the antiquities at Lleweni, and there still 
remains the stump of a very old cedar that is figured in one of the engravings 
of the old Hall near the artificial lake. 

^ It has already been noticed that the weather about this time was most un- 
propitious. ' For a series of years, wet summers had raised the price of corn, 
and in 1596 wheat in London reached the famine price of ^5 4 o per quarter; 
this too when the purchasing power of money was fully six times its present 
value.' Jackson, Gerard's Catalogue, vii. 

X 2 


further described is a variety of Clove Pink : ' At Seaton in 
Northumberland at the House of the Right Worthy Sir Ralphe 
Delavale ^ is a Clove Gilloflower almost perfecte blacke.' The pro- 
duction of artificial varieties among Gilliflowers was known to 
Shakespeare, see p. 6i. 

Sir John's garden continued to flourish long after his death. 
I have recently found unexpected evidence as to its state in the year 
1680 in a letter contained in the H or ties siccus of Edward Morgan 
in the Bodleian Library (Ashm. MS. 1797). This collection of 
plants seems to* have been begun in 1672, and to have received 
additions until 1682 ; unfortunately the plants, which are arranged 
alphabetically are not localized. The collection includes specimens 
of Vicia Bathoniensis Goody eri and of the four species of Elms 
described by him. 

The letter is addressed 

ffor Mr. Edward Morgan living att 

Bodesclen, theis deliver with a Basged with Care. 


Morgan my humbell servis to you returning you humbell thanks for my 
plants & seeds I have send you theis seeds folwing which I thought would 
bee exceptabell to you. And I have send you what plants as I know of what 
you have send for and if you have a mind of any thing that you know to bee 
in Leweny gardens I shall bee redy to serve you in other plants or seeds ; 
and so with my humbell serveis to you I rest and remane to serve you whilst 
I am 

Tho Thornes. 

Lleweny 20*1^ day of Sept. \c. 1680] 

Dubell wh popy Littell snipt Canpion 

evear lasting pece Venus Lookinglas 

Dubell throtwort Pollyanthus out of ye Litell Garden 

Sweet William out of ye potts ffenill flower 

Jarman Cachfley Marsh mallows 

Pollyanthus harey sen Johns wort 

Scarllet Popys hashed fish 

Ross Larkheell Sweet Scabious 

Bedford pinke . dubell Collanbine 

2 faces under a hood Vulnearia for yor oneld (oueld ?) Cock 

blew bodell 

I pray if you have any of theis plants to send mee a few of 

Sanicell Moon wort Spare wort 

Parsly Ston broke Cotton tree Laser wort 

Barren wort Balm of Gilead Iron wort 

As bodill Lavender Cotton Mony wort 

Anons Claver Moth wort 

Fraxsenella ore Dittany Corall wort Pony wort 

Dragon wort Cross wort 

Glass wort Fig wort 

Mr. Harisson presents his servis to you and Will. Tomas & Coocke. 

[At end Morgan's List of Plants in the Appendix to his Hortus sica^s.] 

* Craster, Bz's/. Northimiberland^ Tynejuouth, describes his coal-mining. 


At the present day, alas, the splendours of Lleweni are no more. 
The far-famed agricultural wealth of the Vale of Clwyd has not 
proved sufficient to maintain the larger country houses of the 
Tudors, let alone their gardens, and the great house of the Salus- 
burys is now only represented by a couple of large farm houses, 
the one in the stables and the other in the offices of the old 
mansion. A huge walled orchard still remains, though the trees 
have run wild and its high walls have been partly removed for 
building material ; and there are scattered fruit trees in the 

The original flower gardens seem to have been altered before 
the demolition of the house, in accordance with the cult of the 
* landscape ' inculcated by the eighteenth-century school of Kent 
and Capability Brown, while the architecture of the house was 
being remodelled in the style of Adam. The present tenant, 
Mrs. Roberts, informs me that the present garden is largely within 
the lines of the foundations of the old Hall, but that all tradition 
of the original gardens has been lost. 

iii. Dr. Simon Forman's Lambeth Garden, 1608. 

The strictly scientific character of Goodyer's writings, revealing 
the practical attitude of his mind, is remarkable in an age when 
so many of his ' scientific ' contemporaries were seduced by the 
specious promises of astrology, alchemy, and divination, legacies 
from Arabian civilization. The astrological gardening of the time 
is illustrated by a fragment from the diary of a former member 
of Magdalen College, which will at any rate be of interest to those 
who make a detailed study of the topography of London. 

Thurneiser, Winckler, and Culpeper have all emphasized the 
importance of gathering roots and ' enchanted herbs ' under particular 
stars, but Forman evidently believed in the influence of the moon 
on planting as well. 

The first entries evidently refer to the acquisition of the site. 

1596. 29 Jan. at 4 I went first to see the garden. On 30 Jan, ... I went to 
spek with Mr. Katerins for his garden. 

1597. This yere betwen Michehnas and Christmas I toke Lambeth House 
and entred yt a moneth after Christmas. Lambeth House at Westminster, no^a, 


15 July at 7 p.m. I began to cut and bush up the garden of Roses at Lambeth 
Marsh ^ and I began in the north west part and made som dossen bushes or 

30 Aug. I put the gilliflowers in the flower (?) garden. 

^ Lambeth Marsh was due east of the end of Westminster Bridge. Seven 
houses only are shown there in a map of 1560. 



Trees planted in 1608. 

Anno 1608 the 29 of November post mer. I set the framboy trees under the 
west pall all along at Lambeth Marshe post mer. at 30 p. 3 in Haufilds garden. 

The 7 dai Decemb. 9 I set the willovves all alonge towarde the Lane, and at 
afternon at 33 set the first rose tre at the bankes end toward the door by the 
Lane d in 0 d 

The 8 dai 11 p.m. at 2, I set the rest of the rose tres all along the bank towards 
the Lane d in 0 . . pt a $ ap A in >^ & 6 more rose tres on the bank at 
Davies syd toward the lane. 

The 9 dai $ I set all the other rosse .... toward Davies syd from the pryvi 
Doun toward the Lane but only 6 which wer set the night before those that stand 
towards Davies syd towards the Lane. 

Also the 9 dai December I set the 6 philberts and the 2 pech trees and they 
stand right against the postes at the ends, vz. toward the lane & towards the hous. 
The camonill on the banck by the pryvi and the premrose were set the 9 dai at 
3 p. merid. 

The 16 dai of Decemb. $ p.m. I set the roses and 2 apple tres all along by 
the palle toward Hammons garden & Mr. Walters garden except those west the 
arb exept to Mr. Walterers garden d in iij^. 

The roses by the gose berryes and all the small roses under Waterers pall wer 
set 1609 the 4 of January a.m. between 9 & 11 of the pmeks (?). 

The first beanes I set this year 1609 wer set the 7 dai of January ^2 • • • between 
8 & 9 &; they wer set in Haufilde garden all along from the corner of the pall 
from the pryvi by the Raspis & so along by John Davies garden to the lane, & 
all along the banck by the lane in both gardenes, & they wer watered 24 howares 
befor, 4 daies befor the d was at full. 

[MS. Ashm. 2402, f. 37.] 

iv. Lord Salisbury's Garden at Hatfield, 161 i. 
See below under J. Tradescant. 

V. Richard Shanne's Garden List, 1615. 
See p. 264. 

Richard Shanne of Woodrowe near Methley in Yorkshire was 
planting woods and orchards as early as 1577. The entries in his 
diary come down to 1617, so that it is exceedingly probable that 
many of the plants named in his list were being cultivated by him 
long before the date of the writing out of the list. His observations 
on the weather are of great local interest. 


growinge together at this daie in my Garden^ 
and fyrst of the plants called gram en striatum. 

Richard Shanne. 161 5. 

Ladies Girdle. Bulbed blewe flower de luce. 

Blewe flower de luce. Bulbed Chaungable flower de luce. 

Purple „ „ An other bulbed „ „ 

Whit ,, „ Stinkinge Gladon. 

Narrowe leaved flower de luce. Kings Speare. 

An other flower de luce. Gladeolus cleare red. 

Velvet „ „ „ way red. 

SHANNE 161.5 

Yellowe Lillie with — blades. 
Day „ 
May „ 

Great red Lillie. 
Small red 
Pearle red „ 
Calcedonian Lillie. 
Mountaine „ 
Swete yellowe „ 
Imperiall „ 
Hyachinthus Whit flo: 
„ purple. 
„ Ash ciilloiir. 
„ Skye collour. 
„ Botroides. 
„ bush topp. 
Narcissus yellowe Circle. 
„ redd Circle. 
„ doble flowers. 
„ yellowe flowers. 
Tulipa w*-' yellowe flowers. 
Tulipa precox with yellowe flowers. 
„ with flowers redd & yellow. 
„ bright red flowers. 
„ darke red flowers. 
„ whit flowers. 
„ apple blome cullour 

and thirtie or fortie more 
Fritillaria Chekered Daffodilly. 
Doble Daffodillie. 
Snowe Dropps. 
Saffron three kynds. 
Starr of Jerusalem. 
Starr of Bethlem. 
Sarpents Molie. 
Orach whit. 

„ redd. 
Winter cherries. 
Yellowe henbane. 
Doble poppie divers kynds. 
Anemone scarlet coullour. 

,, blewe flowers. 
Munkes Ruberbe. 
Scurvie grasse. 
Adders tounge. 
Herbe Trewlove. 
Lunaria minor. 

„ maior. 
Rose plantaine. 
Goulden Rodd. 
Sopewort Gentian. 
Bell flowers. 

Dames violetts. 
Doble campions. 
Flower Constantinople. 
Lysimachia blewe flower. 
„ purple flower, 
yellow flower. 
Thorowe leafe. 

Time of Candie. 
Yellow Time. 
Winter Savourie. 
Sommer „ 
Whit Hyssope. 
Yellow „ 

Lavander gentle. 

„ spike. 
Maile Lavander. 
Gilliflowers manie kindes. 
Sweet Williams. 
London Tufts. 
Sneese wort. 
Cost Marie. 
Doble Tanseie, 

Sweet marjerome. 
Pennie Riall. 
Mints divers kynds. 
Avicen's Agrimonie. 

Betanie w*^ whit flowers. 
Mountaine Scabious. 
Great blewe Bottell. 
Marigoulds all the kynds. 
Sage divers kynds. 

Oculus Christi. 
Doble Cowslipps. 
Double Primrose. 
Bears eare. 
Spotted sanicle. 
Sanicula alpina. 
Ladies mantle. 
Enula campana. 
Borage w*'^ whit flowers. 

„ blewe „ 
Comfrey w*^ whit „ 
„ purple „ 
Cowslipps of Jerusalem. 




Whit Double Violets. 

Blew „ „ 

Ladies Bovver or Virgins Bow. 

An other Virgins Bower. 

Periwincle w*^ whit flowers. 

„ purple flowers. 

„ blewe flowers. 

Salamons scale. 

Double holihocks sundrie collours. 

Single „ divers kynds. 

Mary mallowes. 

Musled Cranes bill. 

Double Gouldins. 

Globe flowers. 

Wolves baines two kynds. 

Hellibor Blacke. 

Bastard Hellibore. 

Double peonie redd. 

„ „ white. 
Female the lesse. 

M „ „ great. 
Maile „ 
Bastard pellitorie. 
Herbe Gerard. 

Clounes AUheale. 





Fennell (giant). 



Myrhis or Sifilis. 



Setwall Valerian. 


Larkes peele redd, white & blew. 

Columbines all cullours doble. 

Romaine wormwood. 

Oke of Jerusalem. 

Lavander Cotton. 



Carduus benedictus. 

Ladies thistle. 



Kidnie beanes. 




Red Rose. 
Whit „ 
Damask Rose. 
Provence „ 
Yellowe „ 
Cynamon „ 
Muske „ 
Gelderland „ 

Woodbine thorow leafe. 


Pescod tree. 


Yellowe Goosberies. 
Red Goosberies. 
Savey Tree. 
Chesnut Tre. 
Sycamor Tre. 
Quince Tre. 
Medler Tre. 
Mulberie Tre. 
Job's teares. 
Firr tre. 

vi. William Coys' ^ Garden 1604-1616. 

William Coys' garden at Stubbers in Essex has already been 
described, p. 17. It will always be remembered in horticulture as 
the classic locality where the Yucca first flowered in England, 

^ Mr. C. B. Russell has very kindly supplied extracts from the Parish 
Register of North Ockendon which show that William Coys was buried on 
9 March 1627, having lost his wife Mary ten years previously. His tomb- 
stone which is not now visible, is stated in the Essex Archaeological Society^ s 
Journal^ to have borne an inscription, the dates of which do not agree with 
those given in the Register. It probably ran as follows: 

Here under ly buried the Bodies of William Coys of Stubbers in this 
parish Esquier, who decessed the 6 day of March 1627 and of Marie his 
wife, the second daughter of Giles Aleyne of Hasleigh Hall in the County 


and whence Goodyer obtained so many Spanish plants from the 
stock recently imported by the traveller William Boel. We now 
know that it was the station whence the newly imported Ivy-leaved 

Noitailoriofeeku & of 'mtA XV C A. 

(iitlm Clari^mus & piiffimus V.D. G:tiLCoy: 

Coys' Yucca, after Lobel, 1605. 

of Essex, Esq who decessed ye 13*^ Day of March 1617 who had issue 
8 sonnes and 6 daughters 

And here 's the worst that envious Death could doe 
Let loose two soules that long'd to Heaven to goe. 
Of his fourteen children, Matthew, bapt. 1594, bur. 1595 ; Daniel, bur. 1595 ; 
Maralah, b. 1596; Matthew, bapt. 1596; and Sylvanus, bur. 1613, are ali 
mentioned in the Register. Giles Coys, whose children were born between 
1627 and 1632, was the eldest son. The signatures of both William and Giles 
Coys are written on the title-page of a copy of Dalechamp's Historia generalis 
Plantarum, 1587, now in the Sherardian Collection in the Botanic Garden at 
Oxford. Both volumes are inscribed ^ Liber Gulielmi Coys^ ab M"*''^ Riniee 
Junii 18, 1604, nunc vero Aegidii Coys Sept. 4, 1627 *. 

By inquiry at Somerset House I found his will (P.C.C. 37 Skynner). It was 
dated 8 Dec. 1618 and proved 2 April 1627, Giles Coys being named as sole 


Toadflax spread over England, where Goodyer learnt about a new 
species of Elm, saw many other plants for the first time, and whence 
he stocked his Hampshire garden at Droxford. 

Veast and Bee7\ 

If in 1 5 15 so supreme a genius as Leonardo da Vinci did not 
despise the petty details of the preparation of his national drink, 
and wrote letters thereon deprecating a bad habit of making wine 
in uncovered vessels, so that the essence escaped to the air during 
fermentation, surely a scientific history of cultivators of plants 
should take cognizance of the first advances in practical brewing. 
With the name of Coys may be associated some of the earliest 
recorded experiments of an exact nature in what is the most 
fundamental operation in the whole of Biochemistry — the production 
of alcohol from malt. Beer has not always been the national drink 
of the Englishman. Only a very few years before Coys' childhood, 
an English author on Dyetary thought it necessary to define in 
print what this new drink, beer, really is. ' Bere is made of malte, 
of hoppes, and water : it is a naturall drynke for a Dutche man. 
And nowe of late dayes it is moche used in Englande to the 
detryment of many Englysshe men.'-^ 

The older recipes give hardly more detail than this.^ Without 
knowing of its existence as a plant William Coys had made a 
detailed study of the culture of the Yeast plant, the results of which 
he communicated to Lobel, who printed them in 1605.^ It is 
clear that he knew from experience that a small rise or fall of 
temperature would profoundly alter the working of yeast, and 
that he introduced improvements in the brewing of beer. Coys 
may not improbably have received his first lessons in the art 
of brewing from persons who could recall a time when no hop- 
brewed beer was made in England, for hops, it is believed, came to 
England from Flanders on one and the same ship with ' peacocks 
and heretics', or, more precisely, between 1520 and 1524. An 
account of brewing as practised in France had recently been 
published in 1600 in Surflet's translation of the Maison Rustique 
by Charles Stevens (Estienne), but the use of yeast is not as well 

^ Boorde, Dyetary, x. 256. 1542. 

^ Possibly Dr. Walter Bayley's MS. entitled ^ Explicatio Galeni de potu . . . 
et praecipue de 7iostrae Alae et Biriae paratione, might be helpful, but though 
said to have been in the Library of Robert, Earl of Aylesbury, it is not now 
to be found' (D'A. Power). 

^ Lobel, Adversaria pars alte7'a, 1605, pp. 471-2. 


explained as in Coys' account. Owing to the improved methods 
of brewing advocated by Coys and others, English Beer made 
from Barley and Hops, became ' famous in Netherland, for England 
yields plenty of Hops '.^ 

The following is a somewhat free translation of Lobel's Latin 
version of Coys' recipes. 

The fullest and most precise directions in the English language for 
the brewing of the most agreeable and wholesome of all German & 
English Cerevisia or Beer^ that is at once most siiitable for use in 
warm countries, received from the illustrious Mr. William Coys, the 
highly skilled Botanist. 

^ Heat 40 gallons of river water, but do not let it boil. Draw off a third 
• part into a tub and soak in it one measure of the best malt, crushed 
soft, for a whole hour or longer, but without heating. At the end of this time 
the liquor, known in England and Belgium as Wort, is strained into a suitable 
vessel by withdrawing a spigot from a hole at the bottom of the tub. While the 
straining is in progress, heat another third of the water, as described, and pour 
it on the liquor that has been strained for an hour. 

But if you wish to brew a larger quantity of rather stonger beer, pour the 
second part of the hot water on to the strained malt and let it infuse for an hour 
or an hour and a half. At the same time heat the strained wort first prepared 
with 4 ounces of flowers of Hops — and for the same time (i-i^ hours), then 
strain through a hair sieve and cool by pouring it into a tub. In this tub the 
wort must not be more than a foot in depth, though in winter it may be a little 
deeper. When it has got cool in summer (but luke-warm in winter), take up 
a fair quantity in a convenient vessel, and put to it half a pound or 8 oz. of the 
best barm of beer, called in English Yeast, in Belgian Gyst, and in French Gy. 
The yeast should be diluted and thoroughly stirred in another vessel or pitcher 
with three or four times its quantity of the strained 'W07^t. The pitcher is stood 
in the remainder of the wort in the tub, and the scum frothing up in the pitcher 
is allowed to overflow into the strained wort in which the pitcher is standing, so 
as to work up the whole of the strained wort into a state of boiling and fermenta- 
tion. The second infusion of strained wort is then poured in gently, so as not 
to hinder the boiling. All this is done until the barm has risen sufficiently ; 
it often rises a foot, and without reheating ; and the beverage begins to smell 
like the strained liquor, but not bitter (for Cerevisia rapidly acquires a flavour 
of vinegar). Finally, the Cerevisia is kept in vessels that are filled and closed 
after the effervesence is over. 

Light Beer. If you want a light beer (such as we usually find agreeable in 
summer), mix the first and last strained liquors : heat, add a sufficient quantity 
of hops, and proceed as aforesaid. Pour the third and last part of the hot water 
on the malt to yield the weakest beer of all : let it soak for two hours, and then 
proceed as before. 

Moryson, Itinerary, 1617. 



Then follow recipes for making : 
Cerevisia Martia (March Beer) invigorating, most nutritions, 
very lasthig, keeping a year. 

Ale, an agreeable drink, of the flavour of wine, as used by the 
first nobility of England. 

Coys' Garden .1604-5. 

Several early printed references to plants grown by Mr. Coys 
show that he was the most enterprising amateur grower of his day 
of new and rare plants in England. His success with Primulas was 
praised by LobeV who noted three new kinds at Stubbers, 'Primula 
verisgemino flore, altera superior e luteo, alteri inferior e viridi innato\ 
two varieties of the ' Primula veris ex luteolo subviridi altius laciniata 
aut fimbriata \ and ^Primttla veris flore viridi umbellifera \ At that 
time, c. 1604-5, Coys had in his garden : 

Allium silvestre perpusillum, luncifolium moschatum. Rec. from D. Leister ^ 

from Montpelier. 
Bellis spinosa elatior et fructicosior Herbariorum. 
Colchicum minimum tenuifolium Gallaecium. 
Crocus syl. Byzantinus serotinus candidus. 
Frittillaria nigra, Pyrenaea. 1605. 
Gladiolus minimus, flowered in May. 

Narcissus Cyprius luteus polyanthes, flore pleno. Dec. 1604, 

Introduced by Lete^ from Cyprus. 
Parvulus Hyacinthus stellaris vernus. April 1605. 

Received from George le Seigneur. 
Yuca gloriosa. July 1604. 

The English names in italics, taken from Gerard, are given in 
the case of those plants which can be identi-fied as having been 
included in Gerard's garden list of 1599. The plants without 
English names, were presumably not cultivated by Gerard. The 
difficult task of the determination of the greater number of the 
species was undertaken by Dr. Daydon Jackson who in the most 
friendly way gave up a part of his Christmas holiday to the work. 

^ Lobel, Stirpiian adversaria Jtova, altera pars. Lond. 1605. 

2 Perhaps Dr. Edward Lister, c. 1556-1620. Physician to Queen Elizabeth. 

^ Nicholas Lete a London merchant 'greatly in love with rare and faire 
flowers ' traded in the Levant. In the Bodleian Library there is an Account 
of his, dated 1601-3, to Richard Sandy for £7.0 worth of drugs, including 
Salsaperiglia, Sassafras, Rebarbe, Licoris, and Agarick. There are notes on 
the ailments of himself and his family in the same book. One of the symptoms 
of his malady, recorded by his astrologer-physician, was that ' he picketh his 
nose '. He died ' about a quarter of a year after *. MS. Ashm. 181, f. 66 b. 



Mr, Coys his Garden. 24 & 25 of March i6i6-i6jy. 

Thymbra Boelii. 
Cymbalaria italica. 
Cochlearia mi. 
Chamaelia tricoccos. 
Cistus foe. 

„ mas. 
Lamium 2 Clus. 

Cytisus maior semp. virens. 
Arbor Judae cum flo. 
Chamaedris laciniatis fol. 
Eryngium Alpinum. 
Echium flo. rubro. 
„ angustifol. 

omnium maximum. 
Scrophularia lusitanica. 
Heliotropium indicum. 
Jacea capitulis hirsutis. 

„ „ albo flore. 

„ repens luteo flo. 
Caput monacorum. 
Melilot German alb. flo. 

„ Italica. 

T^e herbe Mas tic ke. Thynms Mastichina L. 

\Linaria Cymbalaria MilL\ 
Cochlearia danica L. 
Widow waile. Cneoriun tricoccos L, 
Female Holly Rose. Cistus salvifolius L. 

Cistus ladaniferus L. 
Male Holly Rose. Cistus parvijlorus Lain, 
Scrophularia vej-nalis L. 
Rharmius Alatermcs L. 
Cytisus canariensis Steud, 
ludas tree. Cercis Siliquastrum L. 
Jagged Germander. Teucritim Botrys L. 

Eryngium alpinum L. 
Echium violaceum L. 
Echitan creticum L, 
Echium australe Lain. ? 
Scrophularia frutescens L. f 
Helianthus tuberosics L, 
? Centaur ea nevadensis B. d^* R, 
Centaurea scabiosa L. 
Great Knapweed. Centaurea so 1st iti alls L, 
Cnicus eriophorus Roth. 
Germain Claver. Melilotus L* 
Ltalian Claver, M. italica Lam. 

? Hedge Hyssope. Gratiola officinalis L, 
Hieratium indicum belgicum an Pylosella Syriaca. 

Sweete wilde Horehound. Sideritis syriaca L. ? 
Galeopsis Clus. Hungarie Dead Nettle. Lamium Orvala Z. 

„ flo. rubeo Clus. 
Cattaria media. 
Cynoglossum boeoticum. 
Scorzonera latifolia. E.R. 

„ angustifolia. 
Valeriana flo. albo. 
Salvia indica. 

Tithymalus characias monsp. 

„ serratus. 
Sesamoides argentea. 
Teucrium arborescens. 
Stoebe Sarmantica altera. 

Lamium var. ? 
Nepeta Cataria L. ? 
CynoglossuDi pictmii Ait. ? 
Vipers grasse, Scorzonera hispanica Z. 

Scorzonera angustifolia L. 
Centranthus ruber DC. var. 
Indian white Sage. Salvia officinalis L, 
Spurge. Euphorbia Characias L. 

[Etiphorbia serrata L.\ 
Astrocarpus Clusii f. Gay? 
Tree Germander. Veronica Teucrium L. 

Great Silver Knapweede. 
Centaurea salmantica L., vel C. splendens L, 
Cnicus alter Clusii. Carduncellus caeruleus Less, 

Jacea palustris lusitanica. n. d[escriptum].^ 

Centaurea Seridis 3 maritima Lange ? 
Phaleris bulbosa. Phalaris bulbosa L. 

Beros ex Hispa. g. Barbarae spec. Barbarea praecox R. Br. ? 

Cirsium maius. Cnicus dissecttis Willd., vel Cn. heterophyllus Roth. 

Dr. Jackson considers that this must be the 'Jacea marina' of Parkinson. 



Matricaria grata odore. Sweete Feverfew. Pyrethruvi Partheniufn Sm. 
Hieratium Baeticum. Cjiicus Acarna L, 

Telephium legittimum Imperati. Telephhun hnperati L. 

Petroselinum virginian.^ Selinum. Conioselinuni canadefise Torr. Gray f 
Anthyllis valentina, vel Herniaria Boelii. Frankenia hirsuta L, 

Aconitum luteum ponticum. Yellow Wolfes bane. 

Aconitum Lycoctonum L. 
flo: Delphinii. Larkesheele Wol/esbane. Delphiniii7?i elatU77i L. 
Nepitella vel Cattaria minima. Nepeta Cataria Z., vel ^V. Nepetella Koch, 
Cattaria tuberosa. Nepeta tuberosa L. 

Daucus cretensis. Candle Carols. AlkaTnanta cretensis L. 

Gramen plumosum. Calatnogroslls Epigeios Roth, vel Stipa pennata L. 
Branca ursina. Garden Beares breech. Acanthus mollis L. 

Acanthus silv. acculeatus. [Acanthus splnosus Z..] 

Scolymus Theo. Golden Thistle. Scolymus hlspanicus L. 

Pimpinella agrimoniaefolio. Poterlmn hybridum L. 

Primula veris minima. Primula minijna L.f 

Smyrnium creticum. Alisanders of Candle. 

Smyrnlum rotundifolmm Mill. 
Hedysarum clipeatum. B tickler Hatchet Vetch. 

Hedysarum coronarhmi L. 
Rha Ponticum verum.^ Rheum rhaponticum L. 

„ Helenii folio. Centattrea Rhaponticum L. 

Abrotanum foam. Female Southernwood. Arteinisia arborescens L. 
Buglossum scorpioides. Echium vulgare L. ? 

Hipposeii[n]um marittim. Quick.^ Sfnyrnium Olusatrum L. 

Valeriana petraea. Valeriana tripteris L. 

Buphthalmum i Mathioli. Anthefnis tinctoria L. 

Foeniculum silv. lusitanicum. Foeniculum piperiium DC. f 

Lychnis vectensis. Silene ??iaritima L. ? 

Mentastrum montanum. Nepeta nuda L. 

Alsine major baccifera. Creeping Chick7veede. Cucubalus baccifer I.. 
Bell is spinosa. Chrysanthemum flosculosum L. 

Viola mariana. Marian Violet^ or Coventrie Bels. 

Campanula medium L. 

^ There is no ' Petroselinum ' in the flora of U.S.A. 

- ' Found wilde in some of the lies about our own land by Mr. William Quicke, 
a worthy Apothecarie in his time, who gave me and Mr. William Cois a famous 
gentleman, and a great lover of plants, some of the seede, supposing it to be 
differing from the common sort, but after they were growen up, we all saw 
there was no diversitie.' Parkinson, Theatrum, p. 930. 

^ Perhaps the first dated mention of Rhubarb in an English Garden. 
Parkinson, 1 heatj-um, p. 157, narrates how it was brought from Thrace to 
Prosper Alpinus at Padua, from whence some Apothecaries in Venice had it; 
and Master Doctor Matthew Lister, being in Venice, obtained 3 or 4 seeds, 
which he sent to Parkinson who flattered himself that he was the first to grow 
the plant in England. His plants seeded within two or three years and he was 
able to furnish 'many other his friends, as well in England as beyond Sea': 
Coys may have been among the number. 

COYS 1616-17 


Myagrum thlaspi facie. Erysimum cheiranthoides L. 

Oenanthe apii folio. Oenanthe pimpinelloides L, 

„ & cicutae folio. Hemlocke Dropwoort. Oe?ianthe crocata L. 
Hysopus flo. albo. White fiowred Hyssope . 

Hyssopus officinalis L. var. 
Millefo ium odoratum. Achillea odorata L. 

Carduus Aspho. radice monsp. Cnicus pratensis Willd.? 

Trachelium gyganteum. Giants Throatewort. C. latifolia L. 

Herba Doria. Captain Doreas Woutidivoort. Senecio Doria L. 

„ „ altera Virg. [aurea ?]. Golden rod. Solidago Virgaurea L. ? 
Absinthe insipida. Unsavorie Wormwood. Artemisia inodora Mill. 
Oxalis franca. Round-leafed Sorrell. Rumex scutatus L. 

Selicio Italorum. Sea cabbage rom. Brassica oleracea,wz.Y.sabellica DC. 
Chondrus dens leonis . . . lob. [writing indistinct]. Leontodon tuberosus LJ 
Chamaemelum albo duplo. flo. Double Cammomill. 

Anthejnis no bills L.Jl. pleno. 
Betonica maior Danica. Betonie. Stachys Betonica Benth. 

„ „ albo flore. ."^ Stachys Betonica, Benth. var. 

Colus lovis. Jupiter's Distaffe. Salvia ghctinosa L. 

Heptaphillon maius. Alcheinilla alpina L. ? 

Levisticum verum Gerrar. Siler mont. Lob. True Lovage. 

Laserpitium Siler L. 
Geran. haematodes rubro flore Clus. Storks bill. 

Geraniu7n sanguineum L. 
Clematis surrecta Pan. Clus. Ladies Bowre. Clematis Viticella L. 

Libanotis. Herbe Franc kincense. Seseli Libanoiis Koch. 

Seseli. Spanish Toothpikes. Amini Visnaga Lain. 

Mentha Romana. ^Mentha spicata L.] 

Ranu[nculus] globosus. Globe Crowfoote or Locker gowlons. 

Trollius europaeus L. 
Anemone nemorum albo pleno flo. Double Wild White Wind/lower. 

Aneinone nemorosa L. var. 
Crassularia maior Hispanica. Great Orpin. Sedum Telephium L. ? 
Ptarmica imperati. Xeranthe77iui7i aiinuum L. 

Arisarum latifol. Broad leafed Friers Hood. Arisaru77i vulgar e Targ^ 
Lactuca virgiana. Lactuca canadeiisis L. ? 

Hypecoum Clusii luteo flore. Horned wilde Cu77iin. 

Hypecou77i procu77ibens L. ? 
Rosa sine spinis. Rosa alpina Z. 

„ semper virens. Rosa se7npervirens L. 

Hepatica coerulea mult. Blew Liuerwoo7ts. 

Hepatica triloba Chaix. var. 
N Asphodelus bulbosus maior. t Bulbous A sphodill. 

Or7iithogalu77i pyrenaicum L, 
Rhamnus Clusii. Rha77inus Alaternus L. 

Cyclamen Rom. ) Cycla7nen europaeu7n L. 

„ hederac. j Sowb7'ead with leaues like luie. 

Cycla77ien hederifolitmi Willd. 
Flos Adonis. Ado7iis flower. Ado7iis autU77inalis L. 

[Melilotus Italica {erased).'] 



Pulmonaria maculata. 

non maculata. 
Scabiosa montana. 
Cerinthe flo: rubro. 
Abies vel Biota. 
Halymus surrect. Clusii. 
Periclymenum rectum. 
Eruca maior flo. albo. 
Papaver spinosum. 
Hyosciamus albus. 
Lysimachia flo. coeruleo. 
Amomum Plinij. 
Nux vesicaria. 

Cowslips of Jerusalem. 

Pulmonaria officinalis L. 
Scabiosa sylvatica L, 

Bastard Sea Purslane. 


? Ceriftthe inajor L. 
Picea excelsa Link. 
A trip lex Haliinus L. 
Lonicera alpigeiia L, 
Eruca sativa Mill, 
Laburnum anagyroides Medic. 
Argemone mexicana L. 
White He7ibane. Hyoscyamus albus Z. 
Blew Willow herbe. Vei'onica spicata L. 
Bastard Ginnie Pepper. Solanum pseudo-capsicum L. 

Bladder mtt tree. Staphylea pin?tata L. 

Silybum minus flore nutajite (hanginge downwards). Carduus lacteus. 

= Silybujn ebuj-neum Coss. &^ Dur. ? 

The lists next following are written on the same sheet of paper, 
though not under the same heading, so we cannot tell for certain 
whether the plants mentioned were cultivated by Coys or not. 

g.^ Aster atticus. Some of them are like to Hieracium^ nomentionof Milk 392. 

Blew Starzuoort. Aster Afnellus L. 
2, 3. have milk in y® roots, whether all have or no. 

Inula crithmoides L. f var. 
Great Spanish Orpin. Sedtim Telephium L. ? 

Bishops weede. Ammi inajus L. 
Amaranihus Blitum L. vel A. sylvest?'is Desf. 

Argemone mexicana L. f 
Purple Passeflower. Aneinone Pulsatilla L. 

Golden rod. Solidago Virgaurea L. 
Parsley piert. Alchemilla arve?isis Scop. 
Jtipiter's Distaff e. Salvia glutinosa L. 
Winter Cresses. Barbarea vulgai'is R. Br. 

Lpomoea pandurata Mey. ? 

Hieracium atticus,'' i. 

Ammi vulgare. 

Argemone. 300. 
Pulsatilla. 304. 
Virga aurea. 348. 
Perchepier. 453. 
Colus Jovis. 627. 
Barbarea. 188. 
Battata virginiana. 

True Pellitorie of Spaine. 

Stramonium peregri et Spinosum. 

\S . peregrimim = Smooth Thorn apples. Datura Mete I L.] 

Anacyclus Pyrethrum DC. 
Andryale ifttegrifolia L. 

[Lis I of Virginian Plants^ 

Prunus Virginianus, Diospyi'os virginiana L. 

Passiflora incarnata L. 
Zephyranthus Atamasco Herb. 

Attamusco bulbus. 
Mosarus (?). 

Aquascomense inter asterem et iaceam. {Some Composite.) 

* g. probably added by Goodyer to indicate plants described in Gerard's 

^ Dr. J. notes that the false concord suggests that Goodyer must have written 
' Hieracium ' in place of ' Aster ' from its yellow, not purple, flowers. 

COYS 1621-2 


anapcor (?). Pepo. 
Cerastus virginianus.* 
Vitis virginiana. 

Sumac Anonymos virginianum. 
Solaniim virginianum. 

Cucurbita Pepo L, ? 
Prunus virginiana L. ? 
Vitis Labrusca L. 
Gonolobus suberosus R. Br. f 
Rhus typhina L. 
Solaniim carolinense L. ? 

Alopecuros altera maxima Anglica paludosa. 469. 

Polypogon monspeliensis Desf. 
Beane. 47 1 . Vicia faba L. ? 

Pabulus Hyacinthus stellatus vernus. 486. Starrie lacint. 

Scilla bifolia L. ? 
Italian Daffodil. Narcissus Tazzetta L. f 
496. Fritillaria pyrenaica L. 

Chrysanthemum flosculosum L. 

Yucca aloifolia L. 
Yucca gloriosa L. 
Gladiolus imbricatus L. 
[MS. ff. 24 V, 25. 

Nar. Cyprius. 49. 
Frittillaria nigra Pyrenea. 
Bellis spinosa. 508. 
T//acori Clu. 48. 

Gladiolus minimus. 511. 

William Coys' Second and Third Garden Lists. 

Later lists in Goodyer's handwriting, dated 1621, 1632, probably 
include many of Coys' plants described by Goodyer either at 
Stubbers, or when they flowered in his garden at Droxford. 

Yet another list of Coys' plants is contained in a comprehensive 
list of garden plants known to Goodyer, which we have printed in 
the form of an index. Coys* plants are marked with the letter C. 
324 names are so marked. See p. 387. 

In the 1622 list, plants already included in the 162 1 list are 
omitted, but are marked with an asterisk in the 1621 list. 

1621. 1622. 
Acarna flo: rubro. 

Alsine maior baccifera. Antirrhinum. 

Arum quorundam. 
*Aracus maior Boet. 

Argemone Pavio. 
*Asperula flo: coeruleo. 
*Astragalus marinus Lusit. 

Astrantia nigra. 

Atractilis flo: luteo. 

Behen rubrum monspel. 
Beros ex Hyspania. 
Beta marina. 
„ alba. 

„ rubra. Beta Candida et rubra. 

Blattaria flo: albo et luteo. Borago sempervirens. 

^ Cerastus, probably = Cerasus. 



Blitum spinosum Creticum. 
Brassica monospermos. 



Brassica multifida. 

Caltha silvestr. Baet. 

Capons taile gras. 

Caput monachorum. 

Carduus globosus. 

Cerefolium vulgare. 
*Cerinthe flo. rubro. 

Chrysanthemum inscript. Baeticum. 

Calami ntha mont praestantior. 

Caucalis maior Baet. 
Centaurea ma us. 

creticum flo: luteo. 
tenuifolium Baet. 

*Cicer rubrum. 

Cicutaria marina. 

Clymenum Matthioli. Lathyrus. 
*Cochlearia Batavorum. 

Consolida regalis. 

Convolvulus coerul. minor Baet. 
Conyza odorata. 
Cucumer agrestis. 
Cyanus varius. 
„ flo. albo. 

Delphinium elatius variorum colorum. 


*Eringium Alpinum flo. albo. Eringium Alpinum flo. coeruleo. 


Faba veterum. 

„ foliis serratis. 
Flos Adonis. 

Flos Africanus maior multiplex. 
*Foenum graecum. 

Geranii Baet. spes. 
* Geranium Creticum. 
Gramen cristatum Baet. 

lupuli glumis. 

*Heptaphyllon maius. 
Herba Doria Narbonensis. 
Hieratium stellatum. 

Hedysarum clypeatum. 


Hippolapathum rotundifol. 
Hordeum nudum. 
Hyosciamus luteus. Nicotiana. 
Hypecoum Clusii. 

Lagopus flo. ruberrimo. 

Lamium 2"^ Pannonicum exoticum Clus. 


Hormium flo. coeruleo. 
Hyssopus flo. albo. 



Lapathum sativum Rhabarbarum 

Linaria minor aestiva. 
Lathyrus Dumetorum Baet. 

„ flo. miniato. 

„ palustris Lusit. 

„ edulis Baet flo. albo. 

„ Baet. flo. coeruleo. 

„ aestivus flo. luteo. 
Legumen pallidum, vlissiponensis. 
Lens maior. 

* „ minor. 
Lychnidis Baet. spes. 
Lychnis Calcedonica flo: carneo. 

J, „ flo. rubro. 

Lychnis coronaria flo: suaverubente, 

„ „ flo. rubro. 

*Lysimachia virginiana. 

* „ flo: coeruleo. 

*Malva flo. ampio Baet. aestiva. 

Medica maxima spinosa spes. 
*Medica maioris Baet. spes prima. 

* „ „ spes altera. 
Medica Anglica minor. 
Medica maior pericarpio piano. 

*Melilotus Italica. 

* Indiae orientalis. 

* „ Germanica. 

* „ officinarum flo. luteo. 
*Melissa Turcica. 

Mill mountaine. 
Myagrum monospermon. 

* Thlaspi facie. 

Napellus vulgaris. 
Nasturtium hortorum vulgare. 
„ crispum. 

Oenanthe angustifolia. 
Orobus hebariorum receptus. 

Panax heracleum alterum. 

Papaver multiplex variorum colorum. 

Rhoeas Baet. 
Petroselinum virginianum. 
Petum Indicum foho pene obtuso. 
*Phalaris maior. 

„ minor Baet. semine nigro. 
Phu minus. 


Millium nigrum. 
Millefolium odoratum. 


Good neighbourhood. 
Nigella Damascena. 

Papaver cornutum flo: rubro. 

Phalaris Baet. 

Y 2 




Pisum maculatum. 
,, quadratum. 
*Pomum spinosum flo. albo. 

*Ptarmica Imperati. 

Raphanus hortensis radice albo toto, 
„ niger 
*Rubia spicata. 

Scabiosa montana maior flo. luteo. 
Scorpioides Bupleuri folio. 

„ siliqua crassa. 

„ Matthioli. 
Scorsonera latifolia. 
*Securidica maior. 


Pimpinella Agrimoniae foliis. 

Sanicula guttata. 

Silibum minus flo. nutante. 
Sinapi sativum alterum. 
*Solidago Saracenica. 
Sonchus Africanus Boelio. 

Tanacetum inodorum. 
*Thlaspi Drabae folio. 
Trifolium odoratum. 

Valeriana graeca flo. coeruleo. 
* „ mexicana. 

Verbascum 4*^^"^ Matthioli. 
*Vicia Indica fructu albo. 

Vrtica Romana. 136. 

Smyrnium Creticum, 

Stachys genuina Gerardo. 
Spina solsticialis. 

Redd storks bill. 
Tanacetum incipidum. 
Trachelium flo. coeruleo et albo. 
Tragopogon foliis laciniatis. 

„ flo: purpureo. 
Viola Mariana. 

Lobi a Dn6 Zouch.^ 

1621 — 136 

1622 — 70 


Sent 23 sheets wherein are 103 descriptions. 

* Edward Lord Zouch had a fine Physic garden at Hackney, of which 
Lobel had charge. He had travelled abroad and introduced to English gardens 
the Thorn Apple from Constantinople, the 'Small Candie Mustard' {Iberis 
umbellata L.) which grew in ' Austria, Candy, Spain, and Italy, in untoiled 
places and by high waie sides and the Great Honie woort {Cerinthe major L.) 
(Gerard, Herbal, pp. 207, 277, 431). Lobel tells us that his plants included 
' Sedum Norvegicum minus', ' Linaria lutea minima altera', ' Betonica Danica 
maxima', ' Phaseolus . . . Indicus ', and that in 1605 he had a ' new Physic 
Garden ' in which (presumably) he grew ' Hyacinthus stellaris Bizantinus alter 
elegantissimus serotinus bullatus ' from Constantinople, ' Moly luteum Botani- 
corum, fl. 1604' and 'Pancratium Indicum alterum vernum, fl. 1605', Lobel, 
Adv, altera pars. y pp. 467, 486, 502. 



Seeds rec.froin Mr. Coys 22 Marcii 1622. 
The greater aples of love. 
Smaller aples of love, 
blevve sommer byndweed. 
Rose Columbines. 
White rose Columbines. 
Partie cullered Columbines. 
Duble redde Columbines, 
flov^^er gentle, 
fether grasse. 
greate Larkes peeles. 
the lesser duble french marigolds, 
the greater duble french marigolds. 
Duble nigella. 
Spanish Nigella. 
Duble Pansyes. 
The marvells of Peru. 
The square pease. 
Crimson Scabious, 
flowers of y*^ sun wth white seed. 

wth black seed. 
Trefoyle wth a crimsen bush.^ 
Balme tyme. 

In toto 22. 

This seed list being in Goodyer's handwriting probably relates to 
seeds sown by him at Droxford. 

vii. The Franquevilles' Garden, 1605, 161 7. 

The List of Plants seen in Franquevilles garden is very short. 
It does not even include the Jerusalem Artichoke, in connexion 
with which his name will always be famous, for he supplied the 
original two roots to Goodyer in 1617. It is possible that he had 
no very great collection of novelties at the time of Goodyer's visit. 

There were two John de Franquevilles, senior and junior, and 
it is now impossible to distinguish their respective horticultural 
successes. Both were described by Lobel in 1605 as ' mercatores 
Cameracenses or merchants of Cambrai, and their trading was 
evidently with France and the eastern Mediterranean. 

Franqueville's Plants noticed by Lobel c. 1600-4. 

Acorus indicus aromaticus from Th. Warner from the W^est Indies. 
Colchicum polyanthes. sive multiflorum. Collected by J. Franqueville in Cambrai 

— a mile from * Niervi '. 
Colchicum polyanthes candidum eleganti rubore varium. 
Corona polyphyllos sive foliosa. 



Crocus luteus. 3 vars. 
Gladiolus minimus. May. 

„ flore albo. From J. Robin in 1601 
Hyacinthus minimus serotinus elegans. 

„ stellatus Byzantinus v. exoticus Someri. 
Iris bulbosa alba. 

Lilium Corona platicaulos, sive laticaulis. 1600. 

Lilium montanum luteum. 3 vars. 

Lilium sylvestre — Martagon imperiale. 

Moly luteum botanicorum. Pyrenees. 1604. 

Narcissi toti lutei praecocis Septentrionalium. 

„ floris lutei multiplicis varietates. 
Narcissus Cyprius luteus polyanthes fl. pleno. 
Ranunculus tripolitanus. 

20 Marcii i6iy in Franqzievils. 
[g. = In Gerard's Garden List.l 
Agnus castus. Vitex Agnus Castus L 

hellebo alb. ver. flo. rubente. {See below). 
g. Clem[atis coerulea surrecta] Pan[nonica Clusii]. Bitsh Ladies Bouure. 

Clematis integrifolia L. 

Mart[agon] alb. flo. 

Phalan[gium] AUobrogicum. Anthericum Liliastrum L. 

Leucoium magnum. 
Hy[acinthus] lilij bulbus. 

Jesi luteum seu Trifolium fruticans. Yellow Jas?mne. 

Jasminum fruticans L. 

g. Anagyris. Beane Trefoile. Anagyris foetida L. 

Rhuum (?) plantaginis foliis albo fl. 
g. Tulipa pumila. Tulipa sp. 

g. Pseudo-nar[cissus] ampl. calice. Daffodill, Narcissus. 

g, Lilium conval[lium] flore rubente. May Lillie with red flowers. 

Convallaria majalis L. var. 
g. Lotus arbor. Nettle Tree. Celiis australis L. 

[Cf- p. 339.] 

Cerasus pumilus. Prunus cerastts pumila L. 

Seseli Peloponense alter, 
g. Condrilla coeruleo flore. Sowthistle with blew fiowers. 

Laciuca perennis L. 

Mentha Danica. Mint. Mentha sp. 

g. Ribes . . . ruber. Red Corrans. Ribes rubrum L. 

[MS. f. 25 V. 

Of the 8 plant-names marked F in Goodyer's List of Plants (1620?), 
the following are not included above. 

g. Chamaecerasus. Dwarf e Cherrie Tree. Lonicera alpigena Z. 
g. Helleborus albus flo. dp. atrorubente. White Hellebore with flowers of 

a dark red colotir. Veratrwn 7tigrum L. 

Laurocerasus Clusii. 


viii. John Parkinson's Garden List, c. 1620. 
There is no separate list of Parkinson's plants that is identifiable, 
but there are convincing reasons for the belief that Goodyer, in his 
comprehensive list of Garden Plants, p. 387, marked those which he 
knew to be growing in Parkinson's garden, or which he had obtained 
from Parkinson, with a capital P. 250 plants are so marked. 

ix. John Goodyer's Garden Lists. 

None of the many separate lists of garden plants preserved 
among the Goodyer papers can be indubitably produced as that 
of his own garden at Droxford or at Petersfield. The long list in 
his handwriting which we print as an index includes names of many 
plants known to him, and not grown either by Coys or Parkinson, 
but we cannot be sure that he grew them himself. And the same 
criticism applies to several short lists of plants in his handwriting 
to which neither date nor locality is attached. Such are the lists 
on MS. II, ff. 23, 26, 27, 28, 45, 83. 

The following short list on f. 28 certainly seems to refer to his 
own plants. 

my Cameline similis is Leucoium sylvestre Clusii. 

my Sium agrorum is Petroselinum macedonicum parvo semine. 

Esula rotunda. Pomum spinosum flo. albo. 

Drabis. Phyteuma mons. 

Thysselinum. Buphthalmum, it came for Millefolium 

Stoebe. rubrum. 
Oenanthe angustifolia. Pseudodictamnus. 

& altera. Cochlearia minima. 

Digitalis ferruginia. Galega. 

minor flo. luteo, seed. Helleborus niger. 

Acanthus. Scorzonera by Sorbus. 

Mercurialis. Arbor vitae. 

Herniaria. Geranium Romanum. 

Stachys. Daucus Hispanicus like wild chervile. 

Trifolium fruticans. Tabaco. 
Blattaria purp. Carduus globosus. 

Iris Italorum. Leucoium melancholicum. 

[MS. ff. 18, 28. 

And the list of 95 names dated 16 Januarii 1620 (MS. 11, f. 83) 
has every appearance of being a list of the more interesting plants in 
some private garden, with references to the pages in Gerard where 
they are described. This list includes ' Trinidado Tabacco 

More probability attaches to two lists of plants dated 1621 and 
1622 and ending with a list of seeds obtained from William Coys 
in the latter year. We believe that these, or a fair proportion of 
them, flowered in Goodyer's garden at Droxford, and were described 
by him then and there. 



X. The Garden Lists of John Tradescant, the Elder, 

d. 1638. 

The Garden of Lord Salisbury at Hatfield^ 161 1. 
In 1 611 Tradescant was in the service of Lord Salisbury, who 
had planted an extensive vineyard at Hatfield on a property which 
had been given to him in exchange for Theobalds by James I in 
1607. The site was on the north side of the River Lea, on a piece 
of ground sloping to the south, hedged in with privet and sweet briar. 
The vineyard had been stocked with some 30,000 vines sent by 
Mme. de la Broderie, wife of the French ambassador, 500 vines 
from the Queen of France, and the few Muscats mentioned below. 
In the winter of 161 1 Cecil commissioned Tradescant to plant his 
garden with a selection of good fruit trees and flowers then in 
cultivation by the best Dutch and French growers. The original 
bills, still preserved at Hatfield, contain several items of horti- 
cultural interest. 

John Tradescant his bill for Routes flowers^ seedes, trees and 

plants by him bought for my Lo: [the first Earl of Salisbury\} 

J and / January^ 161 1. 

Roots of flowers, of Roases and shrubs of Strang and rare bought at Leyden 
in Holland ^3 o o. 

Number, Price. Tot ah 

£ s. d. 

Anemones (C. Helin of Harlem) 5 o 

Aprycoke, The whit i dsl 6 o 

(the archedukes gardener called Peere Vyens) 10 2S. 20 o 

Arbor vita trees (C. Helin) 2 6d. 10 

Rathe ripe cherry trees (C. Helin) 32 4^. 680 

Archedukes cherye (prob. of Peere Vyens) 12 \s. 12 o 

Biggandres (Robyns) 24 2s. 200 

Boores cherye, an excedyng greatt cherye (Harlem) i 120 

Currants Great Blacke (Harlem) 12 id. i o 

,, Great red (C. Helin) 6 2d. 10 

[Cypress] Sypris trees (? Robyns) 2 ^ 200 is. 10 o o 

Echatega, double (John Jokkat) 

Frittelarias (C. Helin) 40 ^d. 10 o 

Fyg trees, Whit (Robyns) 2 2s. 40 

Genista hispayca (Parrys) 2 o 
Gilliflowers, Bubble whit stok ) , n 
Other I (? Robyns) 

Irys calsedonye John Jokkat^ 

„ susyana „ 
Martygon pompone blanche 

pompong orang coller 
Medlar, Great M. of Naples (Brussels) 

* Abstracted from the History of Gardenings 1895, by the Hon. Alicia Amherst 
to whom I am also indebted for the loan of the portrait blocks of Lobel and 
Parkinson. The items have been arranged in alphabetical order. 

^ Tradescant's son introduced the American Cypress from Virginia. 






















1 2 





















2s. 6d. 









I 14 


2s. 6d. 



- _ n J 
2S. oa. 




4 0 















4 0 






Mulbery (C. Helin) 2 

„ , Blak (? Robyns) 17 

Myrtil tre (Parrys) 7 

Ollyander „ 6 

Orrang trees of on years growthe grafted „ 8 
[Peaches] Alberge (? Robyns) 

„ Male cotton peach „ 

The Troye ? „ 4 
Pomgranat withe many other small trees at the root (Parrys) 

Quince, Lion's (Brussels) i 

Rath ripe Porlingall i 

Rose, Province (C. Helin) 16 

Tulips (Harlem) 800 
Vines, Muscat (Master Robyns) 

The plants were purchased in France and Holland. Cornellis Helin lived at 
Haarlem. ' Master Robyns ' was Jean Robin (1550-1629), a famous botanist of 
Paris and first curator of the 'Jardin des Plantes ' : several of his introductions 
are mentioned by Gerard to whom he sent Apocynum rectum {Marsdenia 
erectd), A. repens {Periploca graeca), Christophoriana {Actaea spicafa, L.), 
Croats hiteus, Epimediiim alpinu?n, Tropaeolum majus, Lepidium sativum^ L. 
van, Geranium lucidum^ L., Dattira Metel^ L. ; ' peere vyens ' we have inter- 
preted as the name of the Archduke's gardener ; the name of Vines is still 
remembered in connexion with the Cambridge School of Botany, but in 
Tradescant's bill it may denote a particular kind of vine. A re-examination 
of the MS. might settle the question. Of Mr. John Jokkat we have no further 
information. A few of the plants grown in a French garden of the period are 
exquisitely depicted in an album recently exhibited in the S. Kensington 
Museum for its beautiful late sixteenth-century binding. The volume contains 
the name de Morogttes, and may turn out to be a horticultural work of great 
interest.^ The watermark of the paper is French, c. 1570. 

To this first period may be referred the interesting collection of 
coloured drawings of fruit-trees, popularly known as ' Tradescant's 
Orchard', now in the Bodleian Library (MS. Ashmole 1461). It 
has been suggested that the artist was the Alex. Marshall mentioned 
in Musaeiirn TradescantianMm, p. 41. Among the names of the 
fruits, written by some person who was evidently quite as illiterate 
as the elder Tradescant, is an entry ' The Amber Plum which J.T. 
as I take it brought out of France and groweth at Hatfeld This 
shows that the writer of the names is not likely to have been 
Tradescant himself. The collection of trees illustrated, which are 
arranged in the order of fruiting, may have been similar to the 
selection chosen by Tradescant for Lord Salisbury : the pictures 
were certainly painted as a guide-book for the use of visitors to the 
garden ; on the first page is written ' Heare by the figures you may 
finde each fruite '. 

For the sake of facilitating comparison, we have printed the 

^ Since identified by Mr. S. Savage as the work of ' Jaques le Moyne dit de 
Morgues Paintre', author of La Clef des Cha7nps^ 1586. 



names of the fruits in italics in the right-hand column alongside 
Tradescant's own fruit catalogue of 1634. See p. 343. 

In 161 8 Tradescant was engaged in ' A Voiag of ambasad ' to 
Russia with Sir Dudlie Diggs/ and had, botanically speaking, 
a most successful campaign. After rounding the North Cape on 
6th July, he landed at Archangel on the 16th, and finding a ' bery 
growing lowe ' (the yellow Cranberry), which was eaten by the 
people ' for a medsin against the skurbi ', he proceeded forthwith to 
dry * sume of the beryes to get seed whearof ' he * sent par to Robiens 
of Parris '. 

On 20th July he had ' one of the Emporer's boats to cari him from 
Hand to Hand to see what things growe upon them', and there he 
found ' pinks growing natturall of the best sort we have heere in 
Ingland, withe the eges ^^f the leaves deeplie cut or jaged very 
finely also the Rosa Muscovita that he grew in his Lambeth 
garden later. None of the other plants observed by him on the 
Rose Island or elsewhere can be proved to have been introduced to 
western horticulture by him at this time. 

In 1627 Tradescant was botanising in the Island of Rhe, where 
he went as a member of the Duke of Buckingham's expedition,^ 
and whence he obtained the * greatest Sea Stocke Gillofiower ' 
(Matihiola sinuata), 

Lambeth Garden, 1629-33. 

Thanks to Goodyer and Ashmole, we have unexpectedly full 
notes of the plants that the elder Tradescant grew in his garden at 
Lambeth from 1629 onwards. He appears to have kept notes of 
additions to the garden on a few blank pages at the end of his copy 
of Parkinson's Paradistis, printed in 1629. This copy was acquired 
by Ashmole, who also wrote in it, and it has recently been added 
to the Bodleian collections at a cost of £%'^? 

1 MS. Ashmole 824. 

2 A MS. account of this adventure is in MS. Ashmole 824, ff. 187-192, imme- 
diately after Tradescant's autograph account of the Russian Expedition, so that 
it may also have belonged to him. 

3 The volume has been described in the Bodleian Quarterly Record and in 
greater detail by Mr. Boulger in A seventeenth-century Botanist Friendships 
J. Bot. 1918, p. 197. There is stated the evidence for the identification of the 
MS. additions as the work of Tradescant and Ashmole, but the quotations from 
them leave much to be desired in point of accuracy, ^r's are often transcribed as 
t's,p as q, 16 as i 6, &c. It should be mentioned that the entry of Elias Ashmole's 
monogram-signature in the body of the book is dated 1680. 



Reseved since the Impression of this Booke. 

In primis. 

from Morine. 

from Mr. Robine. 
fro?n Holland. 

from France 

from Moimser 

Sittissos Amarantinum. 
Barba Jovis. 

Digitalem lutem maior. 
Frittillaria Aquitanica. 
Rosam Vittriensem. 
Cogciggrum Plinnii. 
The great whyt Renunculus single, 
on other sort of whyt Renunculus single. 
Renunculus Drape de Argent, 
Anemone Duble Greene with a littill leafe. 
A thrice fayer Duble Anemone whyt Anemone, 
on other sort of Bubble whyt Anemone. 
Tulipa perte maior. 
Cardinalis planta 2. 
on Aster. 

on Vyola matronallis. 
Plattanos arbor 
Cogciggra or shumahat 

Iris Affracanis. 
Iris pertyca. 

6 Anemones tenuifoUio Duble. 
4 latifollio Duble Anemones. 

on German Rose of Mr. Parkinson from Mounser Robine, 

whiche is called Rosa Austriaca flore phenissio. 
4 more Roses whereof Mr. Tuggy hathe two. 
on Strang vyene. 
on Red Honnysoccle. 
Two Irisses without name. 

from Mr. Humfry Slaynie. 

Arbutus slipes. 
Tragacantha slipe. 

Reseved in the yeare 1 630 from forrin partes. 
on Narciss. 

fro7n Constanti- 
noble. Sr 
Peetter Wyche. 

on Ciclamen. 

4 Renunculuses. 

Tullipe Cafifu. 

Tullipe perte. 

4 sortes of Anemones. 

Reseved in the yeare 1631. 

W. on Tulype called the Coronell & on of hir owne. 

T. S, on Tulipe Brewer 3 collers sh welcom Horn Best Golyathe. 

on Palmer more good Tulipes unknowne. 
Mr. Colfe. on Tulipe Beau without a Circle. 

Blanck swisant. 

Unick De Armenitier. 

Mr. Groves olyas. 

HoUias Beu. 

From W. Win. Blienborgh Admirall of 3 collers olli van Dusport. 

flamed Red & Whyt Crowne. 
Mr. Rene. Two Holliasses. 

Reseved in 
In primis. 

the yeare 1631 from Mr, Rene Morine} 

Renunculus Asiaticus flore duplice luteo. 

Narcissus Jacobei, Narcissus indecus, Narcissus flore rubro. 

Semper eternum flore luteum. 

Geranium noctu odorato. 

1 Cf. p. 279. 



From Bmxsells. 6 Hiasinthes. 

Narcissus medio luteo. 
,, Narboniensis, 
„ Mussart.^ 

In the ye are 1632. 

Lotus libica. 



Smilex aspera. 


Agnus Castus. 

Cittissis maranthe. 

Absinthum arborescente. 

Cittisus panonicum Clusii. 

Pseudo Dictamnum. 


Lauristinus folio glabro. 
Cistus folis chrispus. 
„ popelium folyo. 

Cortusa Americana. 

Thimum verum verum Hispanicum. 

Hisopium tenuifolio. 


Amanker lobelii. 

Frutex Coronaria flore pleno. 

Mirtis florence. 

Sesely Ethiopicum. 

Caradathe Americana. 

Narcissus Tobago. 

Ornithogalum arabicum. 

Iris percicus. 

Absinthium umbelatum. 

folio lavendulum. 
Auriggunum verum Hihipanicum. 
Tumariscus Itallica. 
Lutea Creatica. 
Linaria odorata. 
Feratium Indicum. 
Arum mius. 
Iris gloriossa. 
Coulchicum frittilaria. 
Fraxinello flore rubro. 
Fraxsanela minor. 
Herunde Hispanica. 

In the ye are 1632. 

Fraxinella flore albo. 

„ minor flore albo. 
Dronicum maior. 
Eupatorem Nove Belgicum. 

In the ye are 1633. 

Abrotanum unguentaria. 
Androsaca Mathioli. 
Renunculus Lusetanycus odorata luteo. 
Colis Jovis. 

Chama Iredis 3 sorts. 
Iris Anglica variagata. 
Dentaria Herundelesie. 

,, trefolia. 

„ setfolia. 
Telethium maius & minus. 

Sentaurum magnossi. 
Ciclamen flore albo. 

Geranium 3 spetius. 
Tithemali caratius. 
Hiasithus flore albo. 
Chamalea tricockos. 
Tulipe Chistmaker. 
Tulipa se bloome. 
Tricoler Nomvull. 
The Lyon. 

Brandmburg . v 


De Turbone. 

Tulipe svvice, 



Otho Demeine. 

Oliva Cappadocia. 
Fro7n the frenche7nan. 

The vvhyt Crown Tulipe. 

Hiasinthus Brumalis. 

Narcissus totus albus. 

Fro77t Mr. P loves brother. 

Narcissus virginianus. 
„ totus albis. 
„ De Diverse specie. 

Millefolium flore luteum. 

Virga Aurea virgine. 
from Briissells 16 tulipes. 

Papaver Reas flore luteo, Radx papo- 

ti. (?). 
Pulegium servinom. 
Frutex Canadencis Epimedium folio. 
Aquilegi variagata rubro et albo. 

Bell is maior Americanum Arboressente 

Cepe Lobellii. 

^ Query David Mostart, mentioned by Clusius, Ctcr, Post.^ p. 19. 



Buglosa minor sempervirente. 
Fumaria arboressente flore luteo 

semper virescente variagata. 
Asarum maius Americana. 
Absinthium innodorum. 
Poligon Creticum verum luteo. 
Phalangium virginianum flore albo. 
Scabiosa Alpina vera. 
Galliosus panonica Clusii. 
Teucrum arboressente. 
Aposinum Americana foliis Ascle- 

poydes floribus purpureo. 
Viola luteo Americana arboressente. 
Tordillum maius sive Sesseli Crettica. 
Alkamilla pese leonis. 
Stelaria argentina. 
Fillapedulla altra. 
Campanella lactencis piramdalis. 
Barba hersi Coronopi folio. 
Millifolium flore luteo. 
Cianus Constantinopilus. 
Cottila marinum. 
Absinthium tridentinum. 
Hisopium mirtifolio. 
Mar Rubium. 

Renunculus minor bulbose flore pleno. 
Sanicula guttata montana. 
Aster 4 speties. 
Abrottinum altra. 
Cardus bulbosus monspellesis. 
Balsamum sive Osimum oderatum. 
Ciclamen vernale flore rubro odoratis- 

Ciclamen Antiochum & withe them 

2 others. 
Narcissus Virginnianum. 

„ Indicus squamosus. 
Ciclmen flore pleno, albo et rubro. 
Denis caninis flore luteo. 
Frittilari flore luteo. 

„ Hispanica. 
Hiasinthus Indicus tuberosa radice. 
Prumela flore flore purpureo. 
Gladiolus Canadencis. 
Alowaye mucronata. 
Mirtis flore pleno. 
Sedum arboressence. 
Casie Quorundum Clusii. 
Hipericon arboressence. 
Mispilis arona. 
Piemetum realie. 
Alipum motcsetie. 
Annagiris feotida. 
Jugibie Arabum. 
Zisipha Capadocia. 

Limonium minus angusti folio. 
Mariaranum sempevirence. 
Sabina bacsiffira. 
Phlirea lattifolio. 
Sicorum grumosa radice. 
Capris vera. 

Gnapphalium marinum et Cotonuri 

vulgi sive Bumbax humlis. 
Martigon Canadencis. 
Saldanella Alpina. 
Philex bacciffera. 

In 1634, the year of the printing of the Catalogue, Tradescant's 
Museum and Garden were one of the sights of London, and were 
described as such by Peter Mundy whose manuscript is preserved 
in the Bodleian Library.^ 

' Haveing Cleired with the Honourable East India Company 
whose servant I was, I prepared to goe downe to my freinds in the 

In the meane tyme I was invited by Mr. Thomas Barlowe ... to 
view some rarieties att John Tredescans, soe went with him and one 
freind more, where wee spent that whole day in peruseing, and that 
superficially such as hee had gathered together . . . 

Moreover, a little garden with divers outlandish herbes and 
flowers, whereof some that I had not seene elswhere but in India, 
being supplyed by Noblemen, Gentlemen, Sea Commaunders etts. 
with such Toyes as they could bringe or procure from other 
parts.' 2 

* MS. Rawlinson A. 315. 

^ Hakluyt Society's reprint of Mundy's Travels. 



The existence of a printed list of plants grown by the elder 
Tradescant in his Lambeth garden appears to have been quite 
unknown to bibliographers until the recataloguing of the Goodyer 
Library once more drew attention to this unique possession, which 
I had the pleasure of describing in the Journal of Botany in 1920. 
It is of course possible that the little book was never published, and 
that the copy in the Magdalen Library is to be regarded as a proof 
of a work that was never put into circulation. And this view 
derives some support from a glaring grammatical mistake on the 
title-page, which we reproduce. No printer of repute would have 
permitted such a blunder to issue from his press. 



loHANNEM Trade*' 
SCANT! nafcentium 



Solis vulgata exhi^ 


Abrotanum mas. 

„ foemina, id est, Chamae 
*Abrotanum montanum. 
*Absinthium arborescens. 

„ folio Lavandulae. 

„ marinum, id est, Seri- 

„ umbellatum Clus. 

„ vulgare. 

Acanthus sylvestris. 

„ sativus, zV/^j/, Branca ursina. 
Acetosa Hispanica major. 

„ Franca rotundifolia lobelii. 
„ Indica. 
Aconitum coeruleum, id est, Napellus. 
* „ lycoctonum ; Luteum hiemale. 
Aconitum luteum ponticum majus. 

„ luteum ponticum minus. 
Acorus verus. 

* Plant naines inarked with an * do ?iot appear in the later edition of 
the catalogue pri?tted in the Museum Tradescantianum in 1656. 

' First sent over from 1. of Rhe by J. Tradescant. Ger, emac. IC99. 



Agnus castus, id est, Vitex. 



Alcea Veneta, id est, Alcea vesicaria. 


Allium sativum. 

„ maius (z) Scorodoprassum. 
*Alopecuros vulgaris. 

„ spica aspera. 
*Alsine repens maxima. 
Althaea arborea flore purpureo. 

„ arborea flo. alb., mentis 
Alyssum Clusii, Alyssum Plinii. 
*Amaranthus spersa Pannicula. 

„ tricolor. 

,, holosericus. 
Ammi vulgatius. 
Amomum Plinii. 

Anagallis tenuifolia flore coeruleo. 
Anemone latifolia Pavot. ma. flo. plen. 
„ latif. Calcedonica flo. plen. 

* „ latif. la Bruyne flo. plen. 

latif. rosea flore pleno. 

latif. albicans flo. pleno. 
„ latif. coccinea flo. pleno. 
„ latif. potorine flo. pleno. 

latif. superisse flo. pleno. 
„ latif. Constantinopol. flo. plen. 
„ latif. aliae diversae species. 
„ tenuifolia rubro flore pleno. 
„ tenuif. albo flo. plen. 

tenuif. albo dilut. flore pleno. 

tenuif. mutabilis flore pleno. 
„ tenuif. viridis flo. pleno. 
„ tenuif. carnea vivacis. flo. pi. 
„ tenuif. scarlata flo. pleno. 
,, tenuif. Pijtk colour, flo. plen. 
„ Coma-amaranthina. 
„ tenuif. flore pie. roseo. 

tenuif. flore pleno variegata. 
„ tenuif. flore pleno purpureo. 
„ tenuif. flore pleno purpureo 

Anemone tenuif. flo. simplici Brancion. 

„ flore simp, diversae species. 
Angelica sativa. 

Anthyllis leguminosa erecta flo: rubro. 
Antirrhinum maius flore albo. 

,, minus flore variegato. 

minus flore albo. 

* „ minus sylvestre. 
*[Apium, see Petroselinum.] 
Apocynum Americanum. 

,, alterum. 

Aquilegia variegata albo & purpureo. 
,, variegata albo & rubro. 
„ rosea. 
*Aquilegiae magna diversitas. 
Aracus Baeticus. 

„ clematites. 
Arbor vitae vel Thyia. 

„ Judae. 
Arbutus, sive Unedo.^ 
Aristolochia clematitis.* 

rotunda radice. 
Armeria holoserica. 
„ flore pleno. 

,, flo. simpl. magna diversitas. 
Arum sylvestre. 
„ maculato folio. 
„ maius. 
Arundo Hispanica, Donax. 
Asarum vulgare. 
Asclepias flore albo. 

„ flore nigro. 
Asparagus sativus. 
Asperula flore albo. 
Asphodelus minor, Clusii. 

Aster caeruleus serotinus fruticans. 
* alter minor fruticans & pre- 

Astragalus Baeticus. 

Astrantia nigra. 

Atriplex baccifera maior. 

„ minor. 
Atriplicis varietates. 
Avellanae diversitates. 
Avena nuda. 
Auricula ursi flore albo. 

„ „ flore luteo maximo. 

„ „ folio glabro. 

„ folio luteo medio. 

„ „ albo & rubro variegata. 

„ „ albo & purpureo varie- 

Auricula ursi flore holoserico. 
„ „ flore rubro. 

„ flore violaceo. 
„ flore fusco. 

„ „ holoserica, Potrine. 
„ „ altera, Potrine. 
„ ,, maxima Tradescanti flore 
Auricula ursi diversae species. 

Balsamina foemina. ^ 
•Barba Jovis frutex. 
Barba Hirci Tragi.^ 

^ Two trees, 'the largest I have seen', noted as still living in the garden in 1749 by 
Sir W. Watson {Phil. Trans, xlvi). 

^ A. Cleniatitis L. reported by Sir W. Watson in 1749, I.e. 
' ' Barba capri ' was noted by Johnson in 1633, 



Be[he]n album. 

„ rubrum. 
Bellis maior. 

Bellidis minoris magna diversitas. 
Beta sativa. 

„ spinosa Cretica, Bauhinii. 
Betonica maior Danica. 
Bistorta maior. 
Blattaria flore luteo. 

,, flore albo & violaceo. 
„ maxima obsoleta. 

maxima odorata flo: luteo. 
Borago flore albo. 

„ semper virens.^ 
,, flore caeruleo minima. 

Brassica marina latifolia. 
,, perfoliata. 
„ foliis crispis. 
,, Sabaudica, varietas. 
Brunella flore albo. 
Bolbocastanum maius. 
Buglossa sativa. 
Buxus maior. 
„ minor. ^ 
„ auratus. 

Calamintha montana praestantior. 
Calceolus Mariae. 
Calendula flore pleno. 

„ prolifera. 
Caltha palustris, flore pleno. 
Canna Indica flore rubro. 

„ Indica flore luteo. 
Cardamine flore pleno. 

„ trifolia. 

„ impatiens. 
Carduorum diversae species. 
Carduus globosus. 

* ,, chrysanthemus. 

*Carlina, i. Chamaelaeon albus. 
Carobe Americana. 
Caryophyllata montana. 
Caryophyllorum elegantium magna 

Caryophyllus globosus latifolius. 

* Cassia quorundam, Clusii. 
Castanea equina. 

„ vulgaris. 
Centaurium maius fol. Helenii. 

„ maius flore luteo. 

„ alterum Clusii. 
Cerasorum diversae species. 
Chamae-irides variae. 

Chamelaea tricoccos. 
Chamaepitys secunda. 
Chelidonium maius. 

„ maius fol. quernis. 

„ purpurea. 
Chrysanthemum Creticum. 

„ segetum bellidis fol. 

Cichorium sativum. 
Cinara sylvestris Boetica. 
Cistus annuus Clusii. 
,, mas. 
,, foemina. 
„ ledum. 

flore albo. 
„ flore albo alter. 

foliis crispis.^ 
„ ledum primum Clusii. 
„ ledum latif: secundum Clusii. 
„ ledum quartum Clusii. 
„ ledum septimum Clusii. 

Halimi folio. 
„ quintus Clusii. 
Clematis flore pleno. 
„ flore coeruleo. 
„ flore rubro. 
„ Virginiana. 
Cochlearia Batavorum. 

Colchicum atropurpureum. 

„ vernum. 

„ flo: albo. 

„ flore pleno. 

„ fritillariae facie. 

„ Bizantinum. 

„ variegatum. 

„ vulgare. 

„ ex Insula Chios. 
Colutea vesicaria. 

„ scorpoides. 
Coniza major vera. 
Convolvulus minor folio Althaeae. 

Comus fructu rubro. 

„ fructu albo. 

„ sylvestris. 
Corona imperialis. 
Coronopus maior. 
Cortusa Matthioli. 

„ Americana. 
Crocus, Neapolitanus. 
flore albo. 

„ Maesiacus luteus. 

„ Maesiacus flore albo. 
flore luteo. 

,, violaceus maior. 

^ Anc/iusa sempervirens reported by Sir W. Watson in 1 749, /. c. 

2 Cistus laxus, crispus, populifolius, and monspelieiisis were introduced by Tradescant. 
Loudon, Ar bo )'ct 11771^ p. 50. 



Crocus, violaceus minor. 

,, flore cinereo. 

„ Maesiacus argentinus. 

„ Maesiacus luteo Due. 
Croci florc variegato diversae species. 
Cruciata Gentiana. 

Cucumer asininus. 
Cyanus maior. 
Cyani hortensis varietates. 
Cyclamen flo. albo. 

„ folio Hederae. 
„ folio Hederae Italicum. 
Cynoglossum minus. 

„ non descriptum. 
*Cyperus longus. 
Cytisus Maranthae. 
,, primus Clusii. 
„ secundus Clusii. 

Delphinium flore pleno. 
Dens caninus flo. albo. 

„ caninus flo. rubello. 
Dentaria tryphylla. 

Dentillaria Rondeletii. 
Digitalis flo. albo. 

alba maior. 
„ variegata. 

ferruginea maior & minor.'^ 
Doronicum Americanum. 
Draba flo. albo. 
Draco herba. 

Dracuntium maius, Serpentaria.' 

Elleborus albus.^ 

albus flo. atrorubente. 
„ niger. 
Endiviae species. 
Equisetum Marinum. 
Eruca perigrina Clusii. 

Eryngium Constantinopolitanum. 
„ flore luteo. 

Eryngium marinum vulgare. 
Esula major. 

,, montana. 

,, minor. 
Eupatorium Novae Belgiae. 

Faba Americana. 
Fabarum diversae species. 
Ferula Galbanifera. 

„ Indica. 
Flamula Jovis. 
Flos Africanus. 

,, „ flo. pleno. 

„ Constantinopolitanus fl. Miniato. 
Constantinop: flore rubro. 

„ Constantinop; flore pleno. 

„ Passionis. 

„ solis maior. 

„ solis prolifera. 


Fraga fructu albo. 
„ fructu maiora. 
„ fructu viridi. 
„ spinosa sive hispida. 
„ communia. 
Fraxinella flo. albo minor. 
„ purpur. maior. 
„ flore rubro. 
Fritillaria flore rubro. 
„ flore albo. 
„ vulgaris maior & minor. 
„ Aquitanica. 
Frumenti Turcici variet. triplex. 
Frutex Canadensis Epimedii folio. 
„ Coronaria flo. pleno, Syringae 

Galega flore albo. 

,, flore carneo. 
Genista Hispanica. 

,, hortensis. 
Gentiana maior. 

„ foliis Asclepiadis. 
Gentianella alpina Helvetica. 
Geranium Virginianum. 

„ odoratum longius radicatum. 
„ muscatum. 

^ Tradescant's Virginian Cypresse ' Cupressus Virginiana Tradescanti ' in the 1656 
catalogue does not appear in 163^. It is Taxodium distichum Rich. Parkinson reported 
English seedlings in 1640. 

^ Seen in 1632 by Johnson. 

3 Dracunctihcs vulgaris L. seen by Sir W. Watson, 1749 {^Phil. Trans, xlvi). 

* ' Gladiolus.' * lohn Tradescant assured mee, that hee saw many acres of ground in 
Barbary spread over with them.' Parkinson^ 1629, P- I9°- 

^ White EUebor ( Veratrum album L.) grew ' in some partes of Russia, in that aboundance, 
by the relation of that worthy, curious, and diligent searcher and preserver of all natures 
rarieties and varieties, my very good friend, lohn Tradescante, . . . that as hee said, 
a good ship might be loaden with the rootes hereof, which he saw in an Island there 
Park. 1629, p. 346. He accompanied Sir Dudley Digges to Russia in 161 8, and was the 
first man to investigate the flora of that country. 




Geranium Creticum. 

Indicum nocte odoratum. 
• „ tuberosa radice. 
„ non descriptum Dodonaei. 

Gladiolus Byzantinus. [See note S 
flo. albo. p. 337.] 

Glaux aestiva supine Lusitanica. 
Gnaphalium flore albo. 
Gramen striatum. 
Graminis diversae species. 

Grossularia maxima. 

maxima longa. 
„ rubra major rotunda. 
- „ media species longa. 
„ rubra minor, 
Guaiacum Patavinum. 

Halimus arborescens. 

Hedysarum clypeatum Lob. 

Helleborus, see EUeborus. 

Hepatica flore albo [twice]. 
,, flore coeruleo major, 
,, flore coeruleo minor. 
„ flore albo cum staminibus 

Hepatica coerulea flo. pleno. 

„ coerulea flore pleno altera. 
Herba Doria. 
Hesperus Italica. 
Hieracium medio nigrum. 

„ lanuginosum flore luteo. 

„ dentis leonis facie. 

Hippomarathrum Lusitanicum. 
Horminum sylvestre Lusitanrflorealbo. 
„ sylvestre Lusitan: flore coe- 

Hyacinthus botroides flore albo. 

„ botroides flo: coeruleo. 

„ brumalis. 

„ comosus. 

„ Orientalis flore albo. 

„ Orient: flore coeruleo. 

„ Orient: atro-rubiens. 
Peruvianus flore albo. 

„ Peruv: flore coeruleo. 

„ paniculatus. 

„ Pyrenaeus flore albo. 

„ Pyrenaeus flore coeruleo. 

„ flore obsoleto, Clusii. 
Hyoscyamus albus. 

„ albus medio-purpureus. 

Hypericum latifolium Lusitanicum. 
Hyssopus sativa. 

„ prolifera. 

,, comosa. 

Jacea maxima odorata. 
„ spinosa. 
„ flo. luteo. 
„ aestiva elegans. 

„ marina. 
„ . latifolia Baetica. 
Jasminum Catalonicum flo: albo. 
„ flo. albo. 
„ flo. luteo. 


Impatiens herba Dodonaei. Persicaria 

Irides maiores variae. 
Iris gloriosa. 
„ Susiana major. 
,, Clusii flore pleno. 
„ Clusii flore albo. 
„ Clusii flo: coeruleo. 

bulbosa Anglica maior flore albo. 
„ ,, minor flore albo. 

bulbosa Anglica flore coeruleo. 
„ bulbosa Africana. 

bulbosa Anglica variegata. 
bulbosa flore luteo. 
Iridis bulbosae aliae diversitates. 
Irides humiles sive Chamaeirides va- 

Juniperus minor. 

Keyri mains simplex. 

mains ferrugineo flo. pleno. 
„ flore albo simplex. 
5, flore pleno pyramidale. 
,, flore pleno vulgare. 
„ flore pleno auratum. 

Laburnum maius. 

„ minus. 
Lagopus flore rubro. 
Lapathum hortense. 
Lathyrorum elegantium variae species. 

multifido folio. 
Laurea cerasus. 
Laurus tinus. 

„ tinus folio glabro. 

,, Alexandrina. 

„ Gallica. 

Leucojum bulbosum maius. 
„ bulbosum minus. 
„ arbo. flore pleno rubro. 
,, arbo. flo. pleno albo. 
„ arbo. flo. pleno purpureo. 
„ arbo. flo. pleno rubro varie- 

Leucojum arbo. flo. pleno purpureo 



Leucojum marinum.^ 

Liliasphodelus flore luteo. 

„ flore albo. 

Lilium album. 

„ Convalium flore albo. 

Convalium flo: rubro. 
„ flore luteo. 
„ Constantinopolitanum. 
Lilac Matthioli.2 
Limonium minus angustifolium. 
Linaria odorata. 
Locusta Vir^^iniana arbor.^ 
Lotus arbor.* 
„ Lybica. 

coronata maxima Hispanica. 
Lupinus Indicus. 

candidus ex Candia. 
„ flore luteo. 
„ flo. coeruleo minor. 
Lutea Cretica. 

Lychnis sativa rubra flore pleno. 
„ coronaria pleno flo. albo. 
„ coronaria pleno flo. rubro. 
„ sylvestris Pyrenaeus. 


Malva arborescens. 

,, maxima Hispanica striata, 
segetum Lusitanica. 
Malum arantium. 
„ limonium. 
Mandragoras mas.^ 

Martagon Panonicum spadaceum, 

„ Pompon. 

„ flore albo punctato. 

flore pleno. 
Medica spinosa maior. 
„ transversis spinis. 
„ scoparia. 
„ elegans Catalonica. 
„ minor spinosa. 

Medica doliata echinata. 
„ doliata ramosa. 
Melilotus Italica flore luteo. 

„ arborescens flore albo. 

„ crispa. 

Mezereon album. 

„ rubrum 
Milium nigrum. 

„ album. 
Millefolium atro rubente flore. 
„ alba. 

Muscari flore luteo. 

flore albo. 
Myagrum monopermon. 
Myrrhys sativa. 
Myrtus latifolia. 

„ florida. 


Narcissus medio Croceus. 

„ Anglic, flo. pleno Wilmot. 
,, roseus maximus flore pleno 
Narcissus Africanus odoratus. 

J, Africanus major praecox. 

Indicus Jacobaeus. 
„ Capa bonae spei. 
„ tertius Matthioli. 
„ Montis Carmeli. 
„ Virginianus. 
„ medio fimbriatus. 

Robinus maior. 

juncifolius luteo flore pleno. 
„ humilis. 

reflex flo: luteo. 
„ reflex flo: albo. 

oblong: calice flore luteo. 

^ The greatest Sea Stocke Gilloflower {Matthiola simiata L.) was brought out of the 
Isle of Ree [Rhe] by Rochel by Mr. John Tradesoant, when the Duke of Buckingham was 
sent with supplies for Mounsieur Soubise (1627). Park Theatriuti, 624. 

- The Lilac, Syringa persica L., was introduced by Tradescant. Loudon, Arboretum, 
p. 49 

^ Robima Pseudacacia L. 'A very great tree and of exceeding height with Master 
Tradescant,' in 1640. Parkinson, Theatriitn, 1550. Mentioned by Ashmole, in 1662 (?), 
but not by Watson in 1749. 

* The Date Plum {Celtis atistralis L.). ' Lotus arbor Virginiana' {Celt is occidentalis) 
was in the garden in 1656. 

^ The Male Mandrake. Some years previously Parkinson ' saw in my Lord Wootion 
his garden at Canterbury, whereof Mr.y. Tradescant had then the keeping, an other sort 
Theatrum, p. 343. 

^ • The greatest double yellow bastard Daffodill, or lohn Tradescant his great Rose 
Daffodill. This Prince of Daffodils belongeth primarily to lohn Tradescant, as the first 
founder thereof. . . . Whether raised from seed, or gained from beyond Sea, I know not.' 
Parkinson, 1629. 

Z 2 



Narcissus oblongo calice flore albo. 

„ calice brevi. 

,, titesose. 

„ va Hecuus. 

„ omnium maximus. 

„ montanus. 

Non-parell flore albo. 

„ Non-parell. 

„ Constantinopolitanus. 

„ totus albus. 

,, Matineus. 
Nasturtium Indicum. 
Nigella flo: pleno. 

„ citrina. 
„ flo: simplici. 
Nux juglans Virginiana 
„ juglans Canadensis. 

juglans Angliae novae. 

juglans maior. 

„ juglans minor. 

Oenanthe bulbosa marina venenosa. 
Olea sylvestris. 
Oleander flore albo. 

„ flore rubro. 
Ononis non spinosa Pyrenaea. 

„ non spinosa oderata flore luteo. 
„ non spinosa aestiva minor flore 

Origanum verum Hispanicum, 
Ornithogalum Neopolitanum. 

„ Arabicum. 

,, maius flo. albo. 

Orobus Venetus. 

Paeonia mas. 

„ foemina flore simplici. 

„ foemina flore pleno. 

„ flore pleno incarnate. 

„ flore purpureo. 

Papas Americana flore albo. 

„ Americana flo. purpureo. 
Papaver rhaeas fl. luteo radiceperpetua. 
„ rhaeas flore simplici. 

rhaeas flore duplici. 
„ nigrum capit. rotundis. 
corniculatum flore luteo. 
Paralysis flore viridante simplic. 
„ fatua. 

„ inodora geminata. 
„ flo. & calice crispo. 
Pepo Americanus luteus. 

„ Americanus viridis. 
Periclymenum rectum 2. Clusii. 
„ fructu cerasino. 

„ hortense. 
„ Germanicum flo. rubro. 


Petroselinum crispum. 
„ hortense. 
,, Virginianum. 
Phalangium Alobrogium Clusii. 

„ Virginianum Tradescanti.^ 
Philyrea angustifolia. 
Pimpinella maior. 


„ agrimonoides Colum. 
Pistachia sativa.^ 
Pistolochia smilacis folio. 

„ Virginiana. 
Pisum indicum. 
„ perennes. 
„ bacciferum. 
„ maculatum. 
Plantago rosea. 

„ serrato folio. 
Polium montanum. 
Polygala Valentina i. Clusii. 

1 'Nux vesicaria' in the 1656 catalogue may be our common Bladdernut Staphylea 
pinnata L., but it should be remembered that Parkinson, Theatrtim, p. 141 7, says that 
' Mr. Tradescant hath brought a sort from Virginia, having divers nuts in the bladder'. 
Loudon, Arboretum, p. 49, attributes the introduction of Staphylea trifolia to Tradescant. 

2 * Tradescant his Spiderw^ort. This Spiderwort is of late knowledge, and for it the 
Christian world is indebted vnto that painfull industrious searcher, and louer of all natures 
varieties, lohn Tradescant (sometimes belonging to the right Honourable Lord Robert 
Earle of Salisbury, , . . and then vnto . . . the Lord Wotton at Canterbury in Kent, 
and lastly vnto the late Duke of Buckingham [assassinated 1627I), who first receiued it of 
a friend, that brought it out of Virginia, thinking it to be the Silke Grasse that groweth 
there, and hath imparted hereof,'as of many other things, both to me and others.' Park. 
1629, p. 152. In 1617, Tradescant (who may have then been in Wotton's service) paid 
the expense of a passenger to Virginia under 'Captain Argall '. Boulger, y. Bot. 191 8, 
p. 200. 

' Pistacia Terebinthus L. was introduced by Tradescant acc. to Loudon, Arboretum , 
p. 49. 

* P. orientalis. ' There are one or two yong ones at this time growing with Mr. 
Tradescant.' Ger. emac. 1633, P- 1489. P. occidentalis is believed to have been intro- 
duced by Tradescant the younger. 



Polygala Valentina 2. Clusii. 
Polygonatum maius.^ 

„ maius angustifolium. 

„ minus. 

„ alterum. 
Polygonon marinum Lobelii. 
Pomum amoris medium. 
Primula veris flore albo. 

„ veris albo flore pleno. 
•„ veris flore pleno viride. 

veris angustifolia flore albo. 
„ veris angustifolia flore rubro. 
„ veris flo. viride & albo simpl. 
Pseudo dictamnum. 
Ptarmica vulgaris. 
Pulegium regale. 

„ cervinum. 

Radix cava maior flore purpureo. 

„ cava minor flore albo. 
Ranunculus albus flore pleno. 

„ Asiaticus sang. flo. pleno. 
„ Asiat. tenuifol. pleno flo. 

Ranunculus Asiat. flore albo. 

„ Asiaticus flore rubro. 
„ Asiat. flore luteo. 

Asiat. folio papaveris. 
Asiat. Drape de Argen- 

Ranunculus Illyricus. 

„ aliae diversitates. 
Raphanus niger. 
Reseda maior. 
Rhodia radix.^ 
Rhus myrtifolia.* 
Ribes fructu rubro. 

„ fructu albo. 

„ fructu nigro. 
Ribesium dulce. 
Rosa Provincialis. 

„ Provincialis flore albo. 
Provincialis flore rubro. 

„ vitriensis flore pleno. 

„ incarnata. 

„ flore luteo pleno. 

„ flore luteo simplici. 

„ muscata flore pleno. 

„ Italica. 

Rosa cinamomea. 
„ cinamomea flora albo. 
„ Francofurtiana. 

„ alba variegata. 
„ flo: pleno elegans variegata. 
„ flore simplici pomifera. 
„ Virginiana. 
„ Moscovitica.* 
„ canina flore pleno. 
„ Eglanteria flore pleno. 

„ holoserica. 
„ sempervivens. 

flore rubro. 

flore albo. 
„ Damascena. 

Austriaca flore Phoeniceo. 

„ auratus. 

„ coronarius maximus. 
*Ruta canina.^ 


Salvia variegata. 
„ hortensis rubra. 
„ hortensis viridis. 
„ maior foliis crispis. 
5, minor odoratissima. 
Sambucus aquatica. 

„ foliis laciniatis. 
Sanicula Alpina guttata. 
Saponaria flore pleno. 
Saxifraga aurea. 
Scabiosa Hispanica major. 

Hispanica Clusii. 
„ Indica. 
„ Indica Clusii. 
Scorpioides Portulacae foHo. 

„ bupleurifol. siliq. crassa 
Scorpioides minor. 

minor elegans. 


Scrophularia Montis-Serrati. 

Pannonica Clusii. 
Securidaca minor. 
„ maior. 
„ perigrina Clusii. 
Sedum majus. 

„ arborescens. 
„ elegans. 

1 Solomon's Seal was found living in the Lambeth garden by Sir W. Watson in 1749 
{Phil. Trails, xlvi). 

2 Rhamnus catharticus is absent from this list, bnt is in the 1656 list. In 1749 Sir W. 
Watson reported a tree 'about 20 feet high and near a foot in diameter' (/. c.^. Perhaps 
the younger Tradescant planted it. 

3 Rhus Cotimis L. was introduced by Tradescant acc. to Loudon, Arboretum, p. 49. 

* No doubt one of the spoils of Tradescant's Russian expedition of 161 8. Cf. Boulger, 
First Russian Botanist. J. Bot. 1895. 
^ Probably in error for Rosa canina.] 




Seseli Aethiopicum frutex. 
Sinapi Castiliae novae. 
Smilax aspera folio rotundo. 

„ aspera folio maculato. 

,, aspera levis. 
Solanum Lethale. 
Spina Solstitialis. 
Staechas Arabica. 

Stachys Hispanica. 

„ spuria. 
Stoebe Salamantica. 
Stramonia flore albo. 

„ flore purpureo. 
Superbae diversae species. 

Tamariscus Italica. 

„ minor. 

„ vulgaris. 

„ crispum. 

„ inodorum. 
Telephium maius. 

„ minus. 
Terebinthus vera. 
Thalictrum Virginianum. 

Thapsia Neronis Carotif. Lob. 
Thlaspi umbellatum. 
Thymum verum Hispanicum. 
Tithymalus Charachia. 
Tithymalorum diversae species. 
Trachelium album flo. pleno. 

coeruleum flo: pleno. 
Trifolium barbaricum stellat. Tradesc.^ 
Triticum spica multiplici. 
Tuliparum eligant: maxima diversitas. 
Tulipa Num. 50. diversae species. 

Valeriana Graeca flore coeruleo. 

„ Graeca Dodon. flore albo. 

„ Dodonaei. 
Verbascum salvifolium. 

„ blattariae folio. 
Vergae aureae quatuor spec. 
Veronica mas. 

„ foemina. 
Vinca pervinca maior. 

„ minor. 
Viola Matronalis flore pleno. 
Vite sylvestris. 
Vlmaria perigrina Clusii. 
Vmbilicus Veneris. 

„ „ Hispanicus. 

Vrtica Romana. 

A Catalogue of Fruits.- 


Doctor Barchams Apple 
Pome de Rambure 
Master Williams 
Yellow Russeting 
Harry Apple 
Dutch Pearmaine 
Black Apple 
Barfolde Queninges 
Smelling Costard 
lohn apple 
Red master Williams 
Quince apple 
Summer Permaine 
Winter Pearemaine 
Gillefloure Apple 

Ribon Apple 
Pome Mater 
Russet Pippin 
Puffing Apple 
French Pippen 
Tome Crab 
Great Russeting 
Summer Beiliboon 
Quince Crab 
Pome de Chastania 
Pome de Renet 
Pome de Carpandu 
Pome de Caluele 

^ Pulteney {Biogr. Sketches, i. 176) states that Tradescant brought Trifolhim stel- 
latum L. from the Island of Formentera. This visit may have been during the Algerian 
campaign of 1620. 

^ To the names in the 1634 catalogue, for the most part printed in Roman type, we 
have added in the right-hand column and in italics the names and dates of ripening of 
the fruits depicted (? by Alex. Marshall, see Mits. Trad., p. 41) in a book known as 
Tradescant" s Orchard now in the Bodleian Library (MS. Ashmole 1461). 

^ Shakespeare's apples, the John apple, Bitter-sweet or sweeting, Crab, Codling, 
Leather-coat ( — Yellow Russeting), Pippin, and Pomewater are all in this list, but 
curiously enough, though Tradescant had a Poperin pear, he does not mention the 
Warden pear by that name. 



Violet Apple 
Darling Apple 
Stoken Apple 
Sack and Sugar 
Pidgions bill 
The Kings apple 
M. Molines apple 
Grey Costard 
Winter Belliboorne 

Little sweeting 
Yellow Spising 
Dari Gentles 
Mother Pippin 
Russet Peare apples 
Black Pipin 
An Early ripe Apple good in taste 


BInfeild Peare 
Sir Nathaniel Bacons great Peare 
Red Peare 
Rose water Peare 
Greenefield Peare 
Dego Peare 
Scarlet Peare 
French Popering 
Snow Peare 
Winter Boon Critian 
Summer Boon Critian 
Arundel] Peare 
Pallas Peare 
Prince Peare 
Greene Peare 
Hedera De Besa 
Michaelmas Peare 
M. Motts Peare 
Paynted Peare 
Sliper Peare 
Greene Rowling 
Kings Peare 

Poyer Messer Ian 
Nutmeg Peare 
Bishops Peare 
Orenge Burgamott 
May Peare 
Swise Peare 
Summer Burgamot 
Hony Peare 
Mid-summer Peare 
Winter Burgamot 
Poyer de Poydre 
Portingale Peare 
Sugar Peare 
Double floure Peare 
Bloud Peare 
Poyer Fran Rial 
Winter Winsor 
Summer Winsor 
Poyer Irish Madam 
Poyer Dangobet 
Poyer de Valet 
Poyer de Sauoyse 

Aug. 22 


The greet i6 ounce peere 

The grete winter peere 

The Jerusalem Pere 

A f?'ench peare called R. Collar it ripe 


The portingegale Quince 
The peare Quince Oct. 5 

Aug. 29 


MOroco Plum 
Spanish Plum 
Blew peare plum 
Red peascod Plum 
White Plum 
Plum Dine 

Rath ripe Damaske violet 

Red plumordin Plume ripe July 12 
Vilot plum „ July 24 

Maraco piiwie „ July 15 

Early whight pere plum „ July 30 
Denny plum „ Aug. 6 

Grene Oysterly plum Aug. 9 

Grene mother plum „ Aug. 14 

' To this is prefixed a pleasing coloured drawing of ' Martagon vel Leli novae Angliae *. 

2 Plums. ' The choysest for goodnesse, and rarest for knowledge are to be had of my 
very good friend Master John Tradescante, who hath wonderfully laboured to obtaine 
all the rarest fruits he can heare off in any place in Christendome, Turky, yea or the 
whole world.' Parkinson, Paradise^ 1629, p. 575. 



Damaske Violet 
Verdoch Plum 
Friers Plum 
Bowie Plum 
Nutmeg Plum 
White Rath ripe Plum 
Peake Plum 
Apricocke plum 
Orenge Plum 

Michaelmas damaske Plum 

Red Mirabolane 

White mirabolans 

The Monsiers Plum 

The Perdigon Plum 

The Kings Plum 

The Queenes Plum 

The white Perdigon 

The pruneola Plum 

The Diapre Plum of Malta 

The Diapre Plum 

The Imperiall Plum 

The Date Plum 

The Musle Plum 

The Damascene Plum 

The Irish Plum 

White Damaske violet plum 

Nutmeg plum 7-1 




Frier plum 



Red Mussell plumbe 



Sheffell Bullis 




Impryall plum 



Gante plum 



Mussule piu?n 




Grene pes cod pltim 






Pruon Damson 



Red pescod plum 




Whight Date 




Whight mussell plumbe 




Blacke peare pluin 




Amber plum which /. T. 

as I take it brought 

out of France and 

groweth at Half eld 



The Turke Plum 




SWertes Cherie 
I Seelinars Cherry 
The great Hart Cherry 
The great bearing Cherry 
The Arch- Dukes Cherry^ 
The Spanish cherry 
The Luke Ward Cherry 
The Agriot Cherry 
The Chamelion Chery 
The dwarfe Hungarian chery 
Tradescants Chery ^ 
The white Chery 
The cluster Chery 
The double floure Chery 
The May Chery 

Harte Cherry 
Corone Cherry 
Naples Cherry 

ripe Jtme 24 
„ June 19 
„ July I 

Luke ward Che?y „ June 10 

Dwarfe Cherry „ July i 

Tradescant Cherry ,, June 21 

Whighte Cherry „ June 24 

Cluster Cerry „ June 1 5 

May Cherry 

[fune'l 2 


BArbarie Apricocks 2 sorts ^ 
Small Holland Apricocke Roimd Apricock ripe Aug. 15 

Masculine Apricocke The Apricooke that is 

Longe muske Apricock both long and great „ Aug. 2^ 

The ordinary Apricocke 

^ * John Tradescantes Cherrie is most usually sold by our Nursery Gardiners, for the 
Archdukes cherrie, because they haue more plenty thereof, and will better be increased.' 
Parkinson, I.e., p. 574. 

^ The Argier Apricocke * with many other sortes John Tradescante brought with him 
returning from the Argier voyage, whither hee went voluntary with the Fleete, that went 
against the Pyrates in the yeare 1620.' Parkinson, I.e., p. 579. 




THe Roman red Nectorine 
Sir Edward Sillards ed Nectorine 
The little yellow Nectorine 
The white Nectorine 

Ro?nan Reed Nectrion ripe Sept. 2 
Bastard Red Nectrion „ Sept. 4 
Cluster Red Nectrion „ Atig. 22 
Yelloiv Nectrion „ Sept. 1^ 

Grene N. „ Sept. 5 

TRadescants double floured 
The Queenes Peach 
The White Peach 
The Nutmeg Peach 
Peach de Troas 
Newington Peach 
Carnation Peach 
Spanish Peach 
Devine Peach 
Lions Peach 
Roman Peach 
Peach Pavi laune 


Peach Crete early yellowe peech 
Blake peck red all 'withi?t 
Whight peech 


The peach Dutroye 
Nuingetonn Peeche 
Round Carnation peech 
Graunde „ 

which pealleth like a codling 
The Russet Blud peech 

or Durosynus 
The M allycotone peche 
A late ripe yellow peech 

but very good Jirine peech 

Sept. 6 
Sept. 20 
Sept. 21 

Aug. 4 
Sept. 24 
Sept. 4 

Sept. 3 

Sept. 25 
Sept 26 
Oct. 10 


THe Parsly leaved Vine 
The Fronteneac Vine 
The great blew Grape 
The Potbaker Grape 
The reison Grape 
The currans Grape 
with divers other. 


The buxtet Gi'ape wich very seildum rip 

The blue grape ripe Sept. 27 

The Grat Re son Grape „ Oct. 10 
The smalle Reson Grape , , Sept. 1 2 

The grete Roman Hasell Nut 

The great French Fragara, ripe the 20 of M ay. 

A contemporary notice of this catalogue occurs in the Diary of 
Georg Christoph Stirn of Nurnberg (MS. Bodl. Add. B 67). Stirn 
left Dieppe for England on 2 July 1638. His sightseeing in 
London included the Tower, York House, and the Tradescant 
Museum, and he wrote in his diary that in the garden were all 
kinds of foreign plants, the names of which are to be found in 
a special little book which Mr. Tradescant has had printed about 
them. This 'special little book' now shares with Gerard's first 
Catalogue (i 596) the honour of being among the scarcest of printed 
botanical works in the world. 

The contents of the Lambeth garden were again listed by the 
younger Tradescant, who printed the second Catalogus Plant arum 
in Horto Johannis Tredescanti nascentium in 1656. And a few 
years later Ashmole drew up a list of all the trees still surviving in 



the garden, and wrote it out at the end of his copy of Parkinson's 
Paradise^ now in the Bodleian Library. 

Trees found in Mrs. Tredescants Ground when it came into 

my possession. [1662.] 

Platinus orientalis verus. Piatanus oriefttalis L. 

„ occidentalis, aut Virginensis. ,, occidentalis L. 

Arbor siliquosa Virgniensis spinosa, Locus nostratibus dicta. Robinia Pseud- 
acacia L. 

Cerasus racemosa putida ^ Padus Theophrasti dicta. ' Prumis Padus L. 

Periclymenum rectum ^ flore rubro. 
Nux Vesicaria, altera Virginensis. 
Euonymus Theophrasti. 
Lotus Arbor. 
Sambucus Rosea. 
Arbor Judae. 
Cornus Mas. 

,, foemina. 
Latana, sive Viburnum. 
Guaicum Patavinum. 
Syringa alba. 
Castanea equina. 
Laurus Tinus. 

,, „ Lusitanicus flore glabro. 

Acer majus latifolium. 
Rhus Virginiana. 
Vitis Virginensis. 
Apocynum, sive Periploca repens. 

Lonicera alpigena L. 
Staphylea trifolia L. 
Euonymus europaeus L. 
Celtis australis L. 
Viburmun Opulus var. sterilis. 
Cercis Siliqtcastruin L. 
Cornus Mas L. 
Cornus sangtiinea L. 
Viburnum Lantana L. 
Diospyros Lotus L. 
Syringa vulgaris L. var. alba. 
Pyracantha coccinea Roemer. 
Rhaimius Alaternus L. 
Arbutus Unedo L. 
/Esculus Hippocastaneum L. 

Pinus Pinaster L. 
Viburnum Tinus L. 
Pru7ius lusitanica L. 
Tilia vulgaris Hayne. 
Tamarix anglica Webb. 
Acer Pseudo piatanus L. 

Rhus typhina L. 
Vitis quinquefolia Lam. 
Periploca graeca L, ? 

Althea arborea flore albo fundo purpureo Montis Olbiae. Hibiscus syriacus L. 
Seseli ^thiopicum frutex. Bupleurum fruticosum L. 

xi. George Gibbes' Garden Lists, undated and 1634. 

George Gibbes had a garden at Bath which was visited by 
Thomas Johnson and the Socii itiner antes on their tour in the west 
of England in 1634. There is a short, undated list of Gibbes' plants 
among Goodyer^s papers, though it is not in his handwriting. It is 
headed ' To have from Mr. Gibbes'. Johnson printed a list of 117 
of Gibbes' exotic plants in the Mercurius Botanictis, of these only 
six (marked below with double asterisks) occur in the short list. 

It will be noted that none of the plants imported by Boel from 
Spain occur in either list, whereas they do occur in the Stonehouse 

^ Mr. Boulger, who saw the MS. in 191 7 before it had been purchased by the 
Bodleian, by reading the word 'putida' as 'qubida', and conjecturally amend- 
ing it as ' quibusdam ' (!), has illustrated the danger of not minding one's p's and 
q's. In the next line he read ' erectum ' in error for * rectum'. I have, however, 
placed implicit trust in his determination of the modern equivalents of the names. 



list of 1640. Parkinson has an interesting note on Gibbes in his 
note on a Virginian Aster, which was evidently imported after the 
date of Johnson's list. 

Aster Virgineus luteus alter minor. 

' We have had scarce time enough to observe it thorowly since we got it 
from Virginia by the means of Master George Gibbes Chirurgion of Bathe, 
who brought in his returne from thence, a number of seeds & plants 
he gathered there himselfe, & flowred fully only with Mr. Tradescant.' 
Parkinson, Theainiui, 1640, p. 133. 

Gibbes' Garden 16^4. 

Plants marked * are in the Goodyer list only. 
Plants marked * * are in both lists. 

Abrotanum mas. * 
Absinthium tenuifolium, quibusdam 

Romanum, aliis Ponticum. 

Allium max. radice simplici. 
Allium vulgare. 
Antirrhinum majus flo. albo. 
*Aquilegia angustifolia, mult., simpl. 
Arbor vitae. 
Aristolochia Clematites. 
*Armerius latifol. 
Asclepias flore albo. 
Aster Italorum. 
** Astragalus Lusitanicus. 
Astraniia nigra. 
Auricula ursi. 

Blattaria purpurea. 
* „ alba. 
*Bistorta minor. 
Bolbonach, sive Lunaria Greca. 
Branca Vrsina. 
*Buxus versicoloribus foliis. 

Cotyledon altera Ger. emac. 
Crocus vernus. 
**Cucumis asininus, Offic. 
Cyanus flo. albo, carneo et. 
„ major. 

Doronicum Romanum. 

Faba Graecorum. 

Fragaria fructu magno, Boemica, Quo- 

Flos adonis. 
*Flos africanus. 
Flos solis major. 

Gentianella verna flo. amplo. 
Geranium longius radicatum. Lob. 

„ Moschatum. 

,, Romanum variegatum. 
Gladiolus Narbonensis. 
Gnaphalium Americanum. 
Glycyrrhiza vulgaris. 
Gramen Lupuli glumis, sive Tremulum 
max. Bauh. 

*Calceolus mariae. 
Caltha flo. multiplici. 

* ,, palustris. 
Campanula Persicifolio, Lob. 
Caryophyllorum hortensium variae 


*Chamaeiris latifol. 

* ,, angustifol. 
Chamaexyris, Lob. 
Chrysanthemum Creticum. 
Cochlearia Batava. 
Colutea vulgaris. 
Consolida regalis. 
**Convolvulus coeruleus minor. 

Costus hortorum. 

Cotyledon minus montanum, Palmaria 
Tab., Vmbilicus veneris minor, Gr. 

**Helleborus niger verus. 
Hepatica nobilis. 

* ,, albida fl. rub. 
Hyssopus vulgaris. 

* ,, foliis aureis. 

Iris bulbosa. 
„ latifolia vulgaris, 
lacea tricolor flo. amplo lut. 

„ „ vulgaris, 
lasminum album. 

,, luteum, sive Trifolium fruti- 
cans, Polemonium Ger. 

Laurus vulgaris. 
Lavendula vulgaris. 

„ flo. albo. 
Leucoium bulbosum et alia verna, quae 
tunc temporis non apparuerunt. 



Leucoium flo. albis et purp. 
Lilium album. 
„ montanum. 
„ non bulbosum. 
Lotus hortorum, Lob. sive Trifolium 

*Lupinus albus, max., coer., aur., et 

Lychnis Chalcedonica. 
„ syJ. flo. multipl. 
Lysimachia coerulea. 

„ lutea Virginiana. 


Marum sive Mastich Gallorum et 

Mentha sativa rubra. 
Myrrhis sativa. 

Napellus coeruleus. 
Nigella Romana. 

Oxalis rotundifolia. 

Papaver sativum simp, et multipl. flo. 
Parthenium flo. multipl. 
Pentaphyllum surrectum. 
Periclymenum perfoliatum. 
Phalangium non ramosum. 

,, Virginianum. 
Polium luteum. 

* Radix cava. flo. earn. 
Raphanus rusticanus, Offic. 
Rha rotundifolium. 
Rhabarbarum Monachorum. 

„ verum. 
*Rosmarinum aureum. 

* latifolium. 


Salvia angustifolia. 
„ major vulgaris, 
Saponaria flo. multipl. 
Scabiosa montana max. 
Serpilli 3. spec. 
Stoechas vulg. Offic. 
Sumach Virginianum. 

Tamariscus Narbonensis. 
Thalictrum majus Hispanicum. 

* „ virginianum. 
**Thlaspi Creticum. 
Thymum durius. 
Trachelium majus flo. albo. 
Tragopogon flo. purp. 
Tuliparum varietates plurimae. 

Umbilicus Veneris sive Cotyledon 
altera, Ger. emac. Sedum serratum. 

Valeriana Graeca. 

Vinca pervinca, sive Clematis Daph- 

Viola mariana. 

„ matronalis flo. pleno. 

xii. W^ALTER StONEHOUSE's GARDEN LiST, 164O-1644. 

The garden of the Rev. Walter Stonehouse at Darfield Rectory 
is described in a neatly written vellum-bound i2mo volume of 
44 leaves, with a leaf with plans of the garden, known as Magdalen 
College MS. No. 239, or as Goodyer MS. 17. It is entitled Catalogus 
Plantarum Horti mei Darfeldiae Qiiibiis is msirnctus est Anno 
Domini 1640, and though anonymous, is convincingly identified 
as the work of Stonehouse by his anagram ' Theologus servus natus ' 
(= Gualterus Stonehousus) on f. 5 of the MS. The same anagram 
occurs in a MS. volume of Sermons in the Library of Magdalen 
College and at the end of his poems in the Mnsaeum Tradescan- 
tianum (1656). 

Stonehouse's notes and plans show that the rectory grounds 
comprised a 'best garden', measuring 34 yards by 30 yards, the 



Saffron Garth, a long rectangular strip running north and south 
for 83 yards, and the orchard. The plans are clearly drawn to 
scale and are marked with numbers which corresponded to his lists 
of plants. We have even his notes of the exact dimensions of the 
garden in terms of his own paces, from which we may infer that he 
was a man of no great stature. * 2,624 of my usuall paces made 
an English mile of 1,056 paces Geometricall : that is 5,280 feete 
and 1,760 yards. The garden 15 times half round is just a mile; 
16 times is a mile and 57 yards.' 

Though we have their orientation, we have no clue as to how 
the three parts of his garden were disposed, but may conjecture 
that the Rectory stood in the angle of the best garden. Plums, 
Peaches, Apricots and a Pomegranate covered the west and north 
walls ; a vine was trained against a wall, possibly of the house. 
Several rectangles drawn at the ends of paths may represent garden 
ornaments ; an arbour or summer house seems to have stood in the 
north-east corner. 

The beds in the style of the sixteenth century may have been 
the work of an earlier incumbent. They were laid out in five 
* knots ', perhaps enclosed with tile, stone or Box edgings, which 
bordered the ' forthrights as the broader walks were called. 
According to the plan the beds in the knots were two and three 
feet in width, and would, as Parkinson (1629) recommended, have 
contained the greater part of the herbaceous collection. 

' The Safforn-garth 9 times round wants 50 yards of a mile ; 
and 10 times about it is a mile and 140 yards. The long streight 
walke in the Safforn-garth is 82 yards; so that this gone 22 times 
single, or 11 times double, is a mile and 44 yards.' 

The name recalls the fact that in the sixteenth century ' Crocus ', 
or Saffron, was perhaps the most paying crop that it was possible 
to raise in a garden. ' Our English Honey and Saffron,' wrote 
Bullein in 1588, 'is better than any that cometh from any strange 
or foreign land.' 

' A little of ground 

brings Saffron a pound,' 

and in 1539-40, Doncaster Saffron was sold at more than £1 per 
pound weight. Saffron Hill and Saffron Walden recall an extinct 
British horticultural industry, but Darfield Rectory, as the present 
Rector informs me, is noted for a Crocus border 170 yards long. 

Most of Stonehouse's fruit was grown in the Safti'on Garth and 
the Orchard, both of which were walled in. In the former he had 
33 wall-trees, planted 6 feet apart, against the walls on the north 



and west sides, and a selection of 30 Apples and Pears ' in the 
open plotte as well as some more recent acquisitions from the 
garden of his neighbour, Sir John Reresby. 

The best varieties of the original stock were probably obtained 
from Parkinson's ' very good friend, Master John Tradescante who 
had made a speciality of all fruit trees, ' the choysest for goodness, 
and rarest for knowledge,' and especially of Plums ' fit for an 
orchard '. 

In the orchard there were fruit walls along the north and east, 
and a raised walk or ' mount ' along the wall on the west side. 
This ' high walke ' probably dated from before Stonehouse's time, 
for he refers to ' olde plum trees ' upon it. The ' open plotte ' was 
stocked with Apples ol various kinds, with a row of Pear trees 
along the north walk. 

' The high walke in the orchard, 66 times single gone, or 33 times 
double (that is backward and forward) is a just mile — 5,280 foote ' 

'The orchard 9 times round about is a mile and 4 yards.' 

In the open the fruit trees were planted about 18 to 20 feet apart. 
Their positions are clearly indicated upon his numbered plan, from 
which the illustration in Fig. 2 has been redrawn for purposes of 
reproduction. (See Gardeners^ Chronicle^ 3920.) 

The Sir John Reresby, from whom he obtained several varieties 
of Apples and Pears, was a neighbour living at Thrybergh, some 
six miles south of Darfield. His son, of the same name, was the 
well-known Governor of York, who wrote memoirs containing 
a secret history of the Courts of Charles II and James II. 

The manuscript concludes with an epitaph in Latin verse by 
Stonehouse, to his favourite cat, Delia, which died when kittening 
and was buried in the garden. 


Delia {sic ferttir^ coelum invadente Typhoeo. 

Sub Fele, in terris, condidit ova latens. 
Par tubus ilia praeest ; sed et ilia {heu) saepe vocata^ 

Tardat^ parturiens dum mihi Felis obit. 
Ah, factum, Lucina, male! Ah, e a gratia Divae est, 

Praesidii ut possit non memor esse sui. 

The present Rector of Darfield, the Rev. A. E. Sorby, informs 
me that the house has been greatly enlarged and probably covers 
the beds at T and the geometrical beds at S. ' The other four beds, 
V, W, Y, Z, with the star in the centre, are still in existence, though 


not in the same geometrical position. The Saffron Garth is, 
I think, undoubtedly in the walled garden between the Rectory 
and the School Street. The measurements do not agree with the 
existing garden, but the shape is the same and the Saffron Crocus 
borders are still there. To the north of the Rectory and of the 
walled garden is a large orchard, where the Saffron Crocus up till 
lately also flourished and bordered the paths. . . . Our soil is very 
light and most suited to bulbs.' 

The hst of plants in Stonehouse's own hand was evidently 
compiled at different times. The first list, in strict alphabetical 
order, was completed on or shortly before the 27th of August, 1640. 
The names are very clearly written : ten lines on a page, on 
alternate lines for additions. The later entries are therefore readily 
distinguishable. They are in blacker ink, and may with confidence 
be referred to the next four years. Probably the greater number 
of new plants was added in 1644. Stonehouse estimates that he 
had 450 perennials in 1640, or 651 at the later date (probably 1644), 
as well as 215 annuals and biennials raised from seed, making 866 
in all. 

Then, no doubt, came the period of his persecution, banishment 
and imprisonment. A pathetic little note tells us that in 1652 he 
again visited his garden. It is in Latin and appears to mean that 
of the 866 plants, ' Alas ! but few are there to-day, and I have no 
hope of founding a new colony '. 

The lists enumerate 14 species from Virginia, 5 from Guinea, and 
4 from New England, including Juglans, Terrae glandes, ' Maiz ' 
and Pepo. Sir David Prain informed me that he knew of no 
earlier record of English garden plants from this last locality. 

The plant lists have been printed in extenso in the Gardeners' 
Chro7iicle for 15 May 1920 and three following numbers, and 
reprinted with corrections.-^ 

xiii. The Westminster Garden of Edward Morgan, 
c. \6i<^-c, 1677. 

Edward Morgan, ' rei herbariae studiosus,' a Welshman, was one 
of the Socii iiinera?ttes who accompanied Johnson on his famous 
excursion to North Wales in July 1639, and acted as interpreter.^ 
He then made the acquaintance of Walter Stonehouse to whose 
garden he contributed a plant of the Leopard's Bane of America 
' Doronicum Americanum majus ' (1640). Morgan had a garden at 

^ Gunther, Giwden of the Rev. Walter Stotiehouse, 1920. 
^ Johnson, Mercurii Botanici pars altera, Lond. 1641. 



Westminster, where he grew the first Polyanthuses, obtained from 
Great Woolver Wood in Warwickshire, and possibly also Phlomis 
purpurea^ which he is stated by Aiton to have been the first to 
introduce. His name is associated with the following- British Plants 
by How in MS. notes which must have been written between 1650 
and 1656. He evidently knew where to find white and purple 
Spear Thistles in London. 

Primula veris fl. pi. viridi. 

,, ,, sive Paralysis fatua. 
Malva syl: flore albo. 

[Bellis fl. herbaceo globoso non descr. {erased).\ 
Scabiosa ovilla fl. albo. 
Carduus lanceolatus fl. alb. St. James. 
Lychnis syl: foliis variegatis fl. albo. Qu. M. 

Carduus lanceolatus fl. alb. et fl. purp. Q. Chyrurg: for ye places of theese 
plants growth from Morgan. 

On 10 June 1658 John Evelyn 'went to see ye Medical Garden 
at Westminster, well stored with plants under Morgan a very 
skilful botanist'. In 1662 the garden was visited by the Rev. John 
Ward, who recorded in his diary ^ that Dr. Morison commended 
* Ned Morgan's for ye best collection of plants in England and the 
admiration appears to have been mutual, for Morgan affirmed 
Morison to be the best botanist of his age in London, and next 
to him are ' Dr. Dale, Dr. Merit, and Mr. Goodyer \ A few of 
Morgan's plants of special interest are noted in Ward's diary. 
They included 

Leucojum bulbosum. 3 sorts. 

Iris persica, a very pretty Iris, ' Ye flowers open with a mouth like Snap- 
Cinara spinosa et aculeata. 

Muscus filicinus, ' winged like feme. Much of it gathered in Hamden 
woods '. 

Gramen innatans and fluviatile. 

and Burri (= Burre grasse), ' as it hath a yellow spike on top '. 

1. Ilex coccigera. 

2. glandifera. 

3. „ aktae-foliis. 

4. ,, ye common. 
Medler tree. 

Strychnos Nux vomica, ye Physic nut ) 
Yellow Jessemine \ 
Zizipha, ye Bead tree. 
Glaux maritima. 
Cruciata marina. 

^ D'Arcy Power, The Oxford Physic Garden^ Ann. Med. Hist, ii, p. iii. 



Absynthium arborescens ' July 3 

„ insipidum et inodoratum, ' a very pretty plant, very like common 
wormwood, July 3 
A pretty hedge of Spanish broom. 

In 1667 we again get news of the garden through Merrett who 
added five of Morgan's plant records to the Vegetabilia in his 
British Pinax. 

Malva arborea marina nostras. Lavatera arborea L. 

* Mr. Morgan received it from the Isle of Wight.' 
Plantago aquatica major muricata. 

' In a small pond betwixt Clapham and South Lambeth-Common. Mr. 
Primula veris Polyanthos. 

* In great Woolver Wood in Warwickshire, Mr. Morgan, qui transtulit in 

hortum suum instructissimum Westmonasteriensem.' 
Fungus campani formis, niger, parvus multa semina plana in se continens. 

* Mr. Morgan's Garden Westminster, call'd in Wostershire, Corn bells, 

where it grows plentifully.' 
Fungus rotundus superne concavus et translucidus colons succini. 

* In Mr. Morgans garden, et alter coccinei coloris, in St. James's Park in 

the Winter time on old decayed Trees.' 

Edward Morgan's Hortus Siccus^ comprising some two thousand 
dried plants, is contained in three large folio volumes of about 
160 leaves each, now preserved in the Bodleian Library. The 
specimens give us a very complete illustration of the plants, which 
were probably grown in his Westminster garden in 1672, when the 
collection is believed to have been begun. At least two of Morgan's 
garden' plants found their way into the Morisonian Herbarium at 
Oxford. One is the Basil-leaved Red Dead Nettle {Lammin 
ptirpiireiim L. var. ocymifolium Boulger), and the other is the 
Phlomis purpm^ea L. mentioned above. His name is also associated 
with ' Chamaecyse Virginianus E Morgan ' {Euphorbia maculata L.) ^ 

In 1676 the plants were removed from Westminster to the newly 
founded garden of the Apothecaries Company at Chelsea ; and 
in 1677, 'Mr. Morgan, the gardener, asked for increased "con- 
sideration " for keeping the garden and for his plants '. 

The exact site of Morgan's garden is not known. It appears 
to me that it may have been the same as the one by which 
Ralph Tuggy, the correspondent of Johnson, had previously made 
his name as a famous grower of pinks, carnations, and auriculas. 
Bobart referred to him as * Tuggie in Westminster, beyond ye 

^ Noticed on p. 308. I am not quite convinced that Edward Morgan of 
Bodesclen is the same person as Edward Morgan of Westminster. 
^ Vines tS: Druce, Morisoftian Herba7'ium. 



Abbey '.^ We know that Tuggy died before 1633, when his widow 
was keeping up the garden, but he is mentioned by Tradescant in 
1629-30, see p. 331. A Richard Tuggy and Edward Morgan 
appear in 1657 as co-signatories to a letter printed by W. Coles 
at the beginning of his Adam in Eden. 

On the other hand, Edward Morgan has to some extent been 
confused- with Hugh MORGAN, 'the Queens Apothecary' and 
*a curious conserver of rare simples', who had a garden near 
Coleman Street, where he had a tree of Celtis atistralis L. Cole- 
man Street was of course in the City, leading north from Lothbury. 
Hugh Morgan introduced Clematis viticella in 1 569, and is quoted 
by Lobel as having also introduced to English horticulture 

Althea arborea Olbia in Galloprovinc. Adv. p. 294. 

Buphthalmon, Oculus bovis, Millefolii folio, Chrysanthemi flore. Adv, 
p. 343- 

Cicercula altera, an Phaseolus Diosc ?. Adv, p. 394. 

Mount (see p. 256) mentions Maize and the Gladiolus in Morgan's 
garden in 1578. A panegyric advertisement of Hugh Morgan 
addressed to Dr. Bayley ' by your assured loving friend B. G/ and 
dated Alvingham, 14 Aug. 1587, is bound up with the Bodleian 
copy of Walter Bay ley's Discourse of the three Peppers, Obviously 
Hugh belonged to a generation before Edward Morgan. 

xiv. Lists of English Garden Plants wanted by Dr. 
Robert Morison, a correspondent of Dr. William 
How, FOR THE Royal Botanic Garden of Blois, c, 1651. 

These three lists were evidently enclosed in a begging letter 
from an unnamed correspondent, endorsed ' For his much respected 
friend Dr. V. How *. They are written on 5 leaves, measuring 
II inches x 4 inches. The writer was evidently exceedingly anxious 
to obtain the plants. Of the 51, 92, and 70 plants included in 
three lists, 213 in all, How appears to have been able to supply 
the 42 indicated by numerals and crosses in his handwriting. It 
will be noticed that these include a proportion of new plants 
from Virginia ' not yet described '. 

A comparison with the Morison MSS. in the Oxford Botanic 
Garden has convinced me that these lists are in the hand of 
Dr. Robert Morison, a pupil of the Frenchman Vespasian Robin 

* Bobart MS. note in his Cat. of Oxford Garden at Oxford. 

* Amherst, History of Gardening in England, 1895, p. 223. 



who in the year of the publication of the Phytologia had been 
appointed Curator of the Royal Botanic Garden at Blois.^ 

A chance presentation to Charles II in February 1660 resulted 
in his being offered an appointment as Regius Professor of Botany 
•in London, to which he added the Chair of Botany at Oxford in 
1669. In a book primarily about John Goodyer and his contem- 
poraries, I have nothing good to say of Morison. He was 
practically a foreigner, and unlike Ray, he ignored the work of 
English botanists. In the words of Sir Arthur Shipley * He seems 
to have been a somewhat selfish man of science, self-assertive, 
taking every credit to himself, while allowing little to his pre- 
decessors and contemporaries.' ^ 

List i. 

Semina harum primo quoque tempore ad me mitti desidero plantas vero 
tempestate idonea. 

[Followed by an illegible note in How's hand] : — 
Rememb. Vina max. syl, by sending in . . . 

1. Abrotanmn Indorum. 

2. „ unguentarium. 

3. Absynthium album umbilicatum. 

4. Acinos anglica Clus. 

5. „ „ fl. albo. 
Anonis flore purpureo. 

6. Armeria syl. humilis fl. vineo rubello. 

7. Beta maxima. 

8. Cachrys verior Galeni. 

9. Calamintha pulegii odore. 

ID. Makenbuy valde aneo scire quid sibivult et planta haec ipsiusque nomen. 

11. Oxys lutea virgineana. 

12. Chelidonium minus fl. pleno. 

13. Juniperus major. 
Cochlearia vulgaris Britannica. 

vera rotundifolia minima. 

14. Matricaria fl. Bullato aureo. 

15. Mentha crispa. 

16. Solanum lignosum virginianum. 

17. Lysimachia lutea fl. globoso. 

^ It may be noted that while Morison was cataloguing his garden at Blois, an 
Englishman, Sir Richard Browne, then resident in Paris, was at work on 
a Catalogue of Evergreens in which he had been helped by a Mr. Keipe. In 
a letter to Sir E. Nicholas, dated 5 July 1658, he noted that ' Alaternes beare a 
graine like that of privet, which beinge sowed comes upp and prospers without 
difficulty '. Carnden Sac. xxxi, p. 65. Goodyer had noted Rhainnus Alatej-nus 
in Coys' garden in 161 6. 

2 Schuster & Shipley, Britain's Heritage of Science^ p. 234. 

A a 2 


18. Persicaria virginiana. 

Trifolium pumilum supinum liosciilis longis albis non descriptum. 
„ nodiflorum. 

19. Salvia germanica non descriptum. 

20. Saxifraga aurea sane sanicula guttata non descripta. 
Atriplex marina latifolia tota rubra non descripta. 

21. Periclymenum foliis quercinis non desc. 

Plantago quinquenervia fimbriis lat. ex aureo argent, non descripta. 
Acer florescens virginianum non descriptum. 
„ odoratum virginianum non descriptum. 

22. ., virginiana non desc. 

Apocynum virginianum latifolium majus fl. albicast non desc. 

23. minus virginianum angustifolium fl. albo non desc. 
virginianum minus fl. elegantissimo miniato non descriptum. 

„ virginianum minus roris marini folio non descr. 

24. Apium virginianum. 

25. Arbor tinctoria virginiana non desc. 

26. Aster Novae Angliae. 

27. Artemesia (?) foliis variegatis. 

28. Aster foliis (?) et flore minore Novae Angliae. 

29. Battatas virg. 

Beta foliis variegatis. 

30. Bistorta minor nostrarum. 

Blitum majus repens fl. virid. Novae Angliae. 
Calceolus Mariae. 
Caucalis apii foliis floribus rubeis. 
Digitalis flore variegato. 
„ palustris hybemica. 

31. virginiana angustifolia. 

32. „ virginiana fl. luteo. 

33. Lupinus perenni radice virginianus. 
Mentha variegata. 

List 2. 

Plantae excerpta ex Phytologia Britannica quas desidero aut saltern annuaria 

[This list contains 92 names, of which How suppHed 7 plants only.] 

34. Anonis non spinosa purp. Ger. 

35. Bardana rosea s. Lappa rosea. 

36. Bugula s. Consolida media. 

37. Cardamine pumila Bellidis folio. 

38. Cerasus syl. fructu minimo cordiformi non descripta. 

39. Foenum graecum syl. 

40. Vina maxima syl. nondum descripta. 

List 3. 

Plantae solis Johannis Park[inson] scriptae quarum communicationem aut 
seminibus aut radicibus peroptarem. 

[A list of 70 plant names, of which How marked two with numbers.] 

41. Lychnis arvensis minor anglica. 

42. Platanus occidentalis s. virginensis. 




Harum praedictarum tarn in primo quain secundo, 31^ Catalogo contentaruin 
semina penes te, ad me mitti primo quoque tempore non dubito quia hie apud 
nos appropinquat serendi tempus. 

Ouin oratum et exoratum te velim ut ex 400 sponte in Anglia provenientibu 
adjiciendisqiie aliquot rariora semina (quorum tibi est copia) ad me mittas. 

[MS. f. 169-73. 

In 1661 and 1662 Dr. Morison, established in the Keepership of 
the King's Gardens in London, was visited by John Ward.^ Under 
Feb. 1661-2, Ward noted that, unlike Goodyer, Dr. Modesay 'never 
studied grasses and mosses ' Att ye King's Garden Dr. Modesie 
showed us some of his very rare plants as 

Marum Syriacum. Mastick. 
Crithmum spinosum. Samphire. 
Barba Jovis. Silver bush, 

and the conversation turned on Lysimachia purpurea spicata, 
Chelidonium majus and minus, the Sycamore, and Rabelais. Ward 
evidently enjoyed the visit, for he repeated the experience on 
I Sept. 1662, remarking ' itt is a very rare thing to discourse with 
him This time he noted 

Jacobaea crithmifoliis 
Capparis Fabago 
Capsicum polygala 
Valentina Clusii 
and many other rare plants. 

^ D'Arcy Power, Oxford Physic Garden^ Ami, Med. Hist, ii, p. 122. 


The greater number of Lists of Plants in Goodyer's handwriting 
are of English indigenous and garden plants, and are written on 
odd pieces of paper of quarto width. Among them are several 
lists of foreign plants (now bound with Goodyer MS. ii), very 
closely written on narrow slips of paper, 3 or 4 inches in width, 
which have become crumpled, rubbed, and foul with dirt, as if they 
had been carried about in a pocket. They have all the appearance 
of hand-lists of desiderata, such as a London merchant might have 
furnished for the use of travellers visiting foreign regions, who 
required in compact form, catalogues of local plants with native 
names. Some of the lists were obviously restricted to tropical 
produce of economic value : others may be regarded as among the 
earhest exotic floral lists known in manuscript. The handwriting 
of certain of the lists appears to be that of John Parkinson, and 
their date to be about 1636, but several are no doubt earlier. 

These early lists with their flavour of foreign travel recall 
Rauwolfl"'s allusion to * the great Troubles and Dangers those 
that have written of Exotick Plants have sustained and incurred 
in their foreign Peregrinations ^ would not be grievous to me, did 
I not fear that it would extend this Dedication to too disproportionate 
and tedious a length '.^ 

France. List of ^1 plants taken from and with references to 
LobeVs Adversaria, written by Goodyer on the back of the draft 
of a letter dated 16 Jan. 1631. Not printed. [MS. f. 132 v. 

Glossary of French names of Plants^ evidently abstracted by 
Parkinson from P. Bellonins De neglecta Cultura Stirpium [issued 
with Clnsius Exotica), pp. 224, 226. Not printed. [MS. f. 156 v. 

List of Plants, mostly from Italian Localities, abstracted from 
Camerarius, Hortus medicus et philosophicus 1588, presumably by 
J. Parkinson. 

Abutilon Indicum. [f. 162 

Acacalis. Alisma Matth. 

Adonis flora pallido in Thuringis segetibus e Suevia. 
Alnus nigra, Frangula. Siler Plinii non multis (?). 
Amygdalo persicus pulpa persicum nucleus amygdalum sapit. 

^ Epistle Dedicatory to Rauwolft's Travels in Rafs Collection of Ctirious 
Travels, 1693. 



Antirrhinum pulcherrimum flore luteo, grandi, sponte nascitur inter Savonam 

et Genuam. 
Apocynum verum non repens. 

Aristolochia rotunda vera. In montibus Euganeis prope Patavium crescit. 
Asphodelus autumnalis sive maior ex Italia missus : hyemem non fert nisi 

in fictili asservetur. 
Camphorata Monsp. ^ [Carduus bulbosus.] Card, pineus Narbon. 
Chamaelaea Germanica flore albo. 

Chelidonium minus flore pleno. Francofurt. [ex horto A. Keck]. 
Cistus flore luteo Ledi [Ladani] folio Italici. Florentia. 
Clematis altera flo: albo ; Flammula repens Dodon. 
Clinopodium Matthioli flore albo. 

Colchicum vernum subobscuro flore circa Tigurum Helvet. 

Corcorus sive Melochia. 

Corydalis Fumaria kitea montana. Splith. 

Cotinus Coccygria Plinii frequens in Trident. Alpibus. 

Cyperus rotundus. Cyperus dulcis, Trasi dulce. 

Cytisus Columellae, Glaux quibusdam. Pisa et Samnitibus oritur et 
Bononiensi agro. 

Cytisus niger sive maior Pseudocytisus Cordi elegans planta est, et tota 

aestate florens topiariis idonea. 
Daucus Creticus verus in montibus Vicentinis, Baldo et monte prope 

Elaphoboscus, Florentia. 
Flammula recta. 

Galeopsis flore luteo, folio longo, rectis caulibus. 

Halicacabum sive Solanum Indicum. Florent. [a J. de Casa bona J. 

Hissopoides ad portam S. Julianae [Justinae] Patavii & intra moenia. 

Jacea pumila, seu Carduus pineus Narbae. 

Jacea Montana Narbonensis. 

Juniperus maior Italica baccis rubris. 

Libanotis cachrifera quae rotundis foliis prodit e semine cum pleraeque 

aliae umbelliferae oblongis oriantur. 
Libanotis altera semine lato, nigricante, odorato. 

Lilium non bulbosum sive Arundinaceum flore subcroceo et alterum luteo 
odorato admodum. Profert interdum germina in summitate caulis 
ubi flores sine semine deciderunt, quae terrae comissa statim radices 

Muttelina ex Arba monte Helvetiorum ; inter Carum et Meum ambigua. 
Paeonia ochranthemos flore pallescente. 
Paeonia hispanica pumila. 

Panax Heracleum in Apennino, in Alpibus Scalae dictis. non procul 

Bononia et in Samnitibus ubi Rampe d'orso ven. 
Panax Asclepias folio Ferulae tenuiore et Foeniculi crassiore. In Creta 

Seseli vulgo. Sicilia Peucedanum vocant. [f. 162 v. 

Perfoliata montana Gesneri et Lugdunensis radice perenni, [foliis quodam- 

modo Limonii seu Pyrolae fruticantis Clusii parfoliata quasi ca . . lis 

Smyrnii, floribus medio multiplicatis itemque et seminibus dense 

stipatis.] ^ 

Perfoliata crispa seu muscosa multiplici florum et foliolorum tenuissimorum 
farctum. Sterilis ut Cannabis foem. ex semine vulgari oritur. 

^ Not in Camerarius, Hort. ined. 



Polyacantha, raro in alterum annum durat. 

Pulegium Anguillarae, ex Mentastro non multum dissidens foliis rotundis 
et gratiore odore. Plurimum nascitur Patavii tani extra quam intra 
urbis moenia. 

Quamoclet planta nova ex India allata, et Ducis Florentiae horto Josepho 

de Casa bona.^ [= Ipovioea Quamodit L.] 
Rosa Hierichuntica pulchre ex semine nata. 

Sagapeni planta vulgo dicta : Costus spiirius Apuliae Matthioli. Saga- 
penum in Italia gigni. Plinius autor est sed in totum transmarino 

Saxifraga magna Matthioli ; alia ab Hyrcina [sit Pimpinella saxifiaga]. 
Saxifraga Bavarica in petris nudis musci more innascens, foliolis thymi 

sed virentioribus flosculo stellato candido quinque foliolis constante, 


Scammonea Antiochena aliquot annos apud nos durat asservata in fictilibus 
per hyemem, et aestatis initio floret, sed semen nunquam absolvit. 

Scammonea Monspeliensis maritima. Crescit etiam copiose prope 
Tripolim in maritimis ubi incolae vocant Meudheudi. 

Scordium secundum Plinii, Salvia syl. Tragi. Scorodonia Cordi. Odorem 
habet Scordii nonnihil Teucrii referens. 

Scorpioides folio Bupleuri i. Dodonaei, Thelephium Anguillarae. 

Scrophularia peregrina. 

Sena Italica apud nos fuit annua planta. Alexandrina ne quidem in Italia 
ultra annum dura ideoque pro frutice haberi nequit. Contrahit nocte 
folia sicut multa alia eius generis leguminosa. 

Sesamum verum. 

Seseli Aethiopicum alterum folia fert Aquilegiforme similia sed nmlto 
ampliora : semen aliquantulum Cinamomum representat odore et 
sapore. ex illustriss. principis Landgr. Wilhelmi Cassellano horto. 

Seseli Massiliense. Lucas Chinus ^ excellens rerum simplicium censor, circa 
viginti plantas Seseleos Massiliensis descriptioni convenientes se 
novisse affirmavit. 

Siler Creticum quo nomine ex Italia missum foliis Cicutae sed latioribus et 

paucioribus, semine incurvo, grandi, hirsuto et fusco. 
Sison interdum ex semine provenit, pro Amomo habetur in officinis. 
Solanum somniferum. 
Sphaerocephalus flore albo. 

Symphitum petraeum Neapoli missum foliis Thymi sed maioribus et 
longioribus nonnihil hirsutis aliquantum sed minus, odoratis, capitulis 
Thymi, flosculis purpurascentibus. [f. 163 

Telephium Matth. flore albicante et rubro. Radice instar aloes suspensa in 
aere crescit. 

Thalictrum i. Italicum Dodonaeo tertium. 

ii. Germanicum latifolium. Dodon. primum. 

iii. Angustifolium. 

iv. Parvum Dodonaeo quintum. 

V. Flore purpureo Dodonaeo quartum. 
vi. Flore albo. 

^ Joseph de Casa bona, Duke of Tuscany, corresponded with Camerarius. 
The Aloe spinosa sive Americana flowered in his garden in 1586, throwing up 
a spike to a height of over 12 cubits. 

^ Luca Ghini delivered botanical lectures at I^ologna which were attended by 
William Turner about 1542. 


Thora Italica, Napello congener. 

Thymelaea multis locis Italiae in Monte S. Juliani Hetruriae ct per 

Thymus verus capitatus seu Creticus in Italia circa Neapolim et in Sycilia 

qui tamen annuus fuit. 
Trifolium Halicacabum sive Vesicarium aliis cicer sylvestre, quibusdam 

etiam satis inepte Dorychnium, folia plerumque quaterna vel quina 

gerit ut Loto annumerandum videatur. 
Trifolium hepaticum sive Aureum, Hepatica nobilis^ flore rub. circa 

Corbachium ^Vestphaliae, flore albo Cadelburgi in sylvis. 
Trinciatella ex Italia. Denti leonis planta similis sed tenerior, foliis 

quoque magis crispis, laciniatis gustu dulcibus, floribus minoribus et 

elegantioribus, semine oblongo, lato, membranaceo, superiore parte 

duriusculis aliquot pilis munito, eo ipso anno quo seritur florcs et 

semen producit et si per hyemem in fictili servetur etiam in plures 

annos perdurat : alioquin radices quae dulces sunt ut universa planta 

primo frigore leduntur et intereunt. 
Valeriana Alpina multo odoratior, flores enim Citrii pomi odorem referunt 

[ex Allobrogum montibus ad me missa a C L. Medico loanne 

Antonio Saraceno |. 
Verbascum sylvestre foliis Salviae. Secundum Anguillaram in Italia 

provenit apud Marsos ad arcem quandam Pisinan dictam Suchamele 

incolae vocant. 

Violae speciem Bysantii coli Costaeus in Mesuem annotavit caetera 
Martiae similem, sed flore infinitis foliolis constructo et aequante 
Rosam Damascenam magnitudine et odore etiam nostratis superante. 
Huius recentem florem unum atque alterum prima mensa sumptum 
alvum subducere instar recentis rosae Hyeronimum Capellum 
Venetum rerum naturalium peritissimum observasse tradit. 

[MS. ff. 162-3. 

Andahisian and other Spanish Plants collected by Boelius and 
described by Goodyer. 

Guilhaume Boel in the year 1608 brought to Parkinson two 
Trefoils which he had gathered in Spain ' with about two hundred 
other sorts of seeds, besides divers other rare plants, dried and laide 
betweene papers By sowing the seeds Parkinson * saw the faces 
of a great many excellent plants, but many came not to maturitie ' 
with him and most * by unkindly years that fell afterwards perished 
The at mm, 1108. 

Aracus maior Baeticus Boelii. 
Astragalus marinus Lusitanicus Boelii. 
Cattaria tuberosa radice Baetica Boelii. 
Caucalis maior Baetica. 

Chrysanthemum Baeticum Boelii inscriptum. 

„ tenuifolium Baeticum Boelii. 

Convolvulus coeruleus minor Baeticus. 
Faba veterum serratis foliis Boelii. 
Geranium Baeticum sp. Boelii. 



Gramen cristatum Boelii. 

„ tremulum maximum. 
Hieraliiim Narbonense falcata siliqua L'Obelii. 
stellatum Boelii. 

„ medio nigrum flore maior Boelii. 

„ „ „ minore Boelii. 

lanosum {?). 
Jacea capitulis hirsutis Boelii. 
Jacea palustris Baetica Boelii. 
Lagopus trifolius maior Baeticus. 
Lathyrus aestivus Baeticus flore coeruleo Boelii. 

„ edulis Baeticus flore albo Boelii. 

„ palustris Lusitanicus Boelii. 

„ aestivus dumetorum Baeticus Boelii. 
Legumen pallidum Vlissiponense Nonii Brandonii. 
Malva flore amplo Baetica aestiva. 
Medica maioris Baeticae species prima, spinulis intortis. 

„ „ „ spinosae, species altera. 

Nigella elegans ex Hispania. 
Papaver rhoeas Baeticum. 
Phalaris minor Baetica Boelii semine nigro. 

„ „ semine albo. 

Phalaris bulbosa Boelii. 
Pisum maculatum Boelii 
Scorpioides multiflorus Boelii. 

„ siliqua crassa Boelii. 
Silibum minus flore nutante Boelii. 
Sonchus Africanus Boelii. 

Robert Tezve s List of 6() 

Glaux Diosc. Clusii 

Genuina syl. pasticha 

Aster Italorum 

Chamaerododendros mont. 

Linum marinum luteum 

Scabiosa maior satorum 

Saginae spergula 

Chamaelinum syl. flo. albo 

Eruca nasturtio cognata 

Thlaspi narbonense 

Helxine cissampelos altera attri- 

plicis effigie 
Hieratium alterum grandius 
Condrilla coerulea 
Origanum hieracleoticum 
Blattaria flo. luteo 
Cannabis syl. spuria 
Nucula terrestris 
Ranunculus tomentosus 
Scrophularia maior 
Pimpinella maior ffuchsii 

Plants from Russia ^ 1^32. 
Coniza media 

Campanula minor rotundifolia 

Anthillis leguminosa 

Gnaphalium minus montanum 

Muscus clavatus 

Muscus alter clavatus inscriptus 




Gnaphalium Anglicum et 

Cruciata minima 

Geranium batrachoides 
Veronica recta herbariorum 
Ledon foliis Rorismarini 
Gramen iunceum marit. 
Herba paris 
Lysimachia lutea 
Coniza helenitis 



Mellita incana 

Astragaloides altera herbariorum 
Hieracium Sabaudicum 
Veronica mas Matthioli 
Helleborine seu Epipactis 
Dentaria altera herbar. , 
Alabastritis altera 
Rubus Idaeus 
Cicutaria latifolia 
Coniza maior vera 
Aconitum luteum ponticum 
Carduus pratensis Tragi 

Anagallis aquatica 
Ranunculus flo. albo 
Gramen parnassi ' 
Gentiana minima 
Gentianella alpina 

Phaseolus ex phaseolis diversus 


Ranunculus min. sept. 

Sorbus syl. 

Ribes nigra 

Ribes Arabum 


& many other which I know not & are not to be found in my herball, I 
will have their efifigies drawne & will hereafter send them you with their 
leaves Russe names & vertues. 

Mosco. 12 Junii 1632 

Robert Tewe. 

150//. p. ann. \2li. lo^ a moneth. 

[MS. f. I35. 

Abstract of Adrian Spigelius' Isagoges in rem herbariavi^ 1606. 
In the hand of Parkinson. 

Pimpinalla ad radicem quadam in Polonia granula rubra gerit quibus lana 
purpureo colore inficiuntur. Isagogis Spigelii. fol. 15. 

Cachrys pilula est quae Latino caret nomina, urendi vim habens in 
medecina. banc arbores aliquot praeter proprium fructum pariunt 
hyeme durantem postquam folia cecidere ut Quercus, Abies^ Larix, 
Pinus, Tilia, Nux Juglans, Platanusque ; sed in Pino Juglande- 
que saepius quam- in aliis arboribus conspicitur. Is crescit hyeme 
deciditque, vere cum pilula aperitur. fol. 17. 

Lysimachia purpurea trifolia Patavina Spigelii. fol. 12. 

Sophonia Plinii nonnullis Blitum tricolor, fol. 24. 

Ononis non spinosa Senensis capreolos, ut Vicia odore iucundissimo. 
fol. 39. 

Hieratium flore purpureo. [fol. 41.] 

Junci odorati caulis rotundus est, foliis alternatim obsitus, in quorum alis 
floras continentur, folia Gramini similia, cuius potius est species. Et 
cur Juncum appellatur miratur cum neque caulem, neque folia 
Junci habeat. [p. 42.] 

Linum syl. fl: coeruleo, albido, rubescente et luteo. 

Osiris flores edit luteos a fronte latiusculos, clausosque, os ranae imitantes : 

Cauda angusta est et inflexa, ut Cojisolidae regalis; foliis Lini, qualia 

etiam in Esula minori conspiciuntur. [p. 43.] 
Linaria odorata et Linaria Valentina Clusii quorum folia Lino non sunt 

similia sed flores tantum Linariae. 
Vrtica foetida seu Galeopsis ideo dicta quia Galei id est mustelae faciem 

et rictum flores quodamodo referant. 
Blattaria flore rubro. 

Phlomis a foliorum hirsutie appellatur. [MS. f. 1 59 

[Continuation of MS. (68 lines) is not printed.] 


Graecorum Turcarinn et Arabiiin appellationes. 

MS. f. 155. 

[Abstracted from P. Bellonius, Observationes, translated into Latin by 
Clusius and printed with his Exotica in 1605. A Traveller's list of Native 
names, closely written by Parkinson on a folded paper measuring 7f in. x 3 in.] 

Plantartim Cretaruin indigenarttjnqiie rarimi nomina. 

[This list containing about 125 names of plants was evidently abstracted by 
Parkinson from Bellonius, Observatio?ies, loc. cit.^ pp. 23-5.] 
Acer. Cistus. Coris. Anagyris. Ferula. Ilex. Cupressus. Tithymalus 

dendroides, 2. hominem alt. Picea. Thapsea. Libanotis. Pinaster. 

Seseli. Dictamnus. Pseudodictamnus vulgo Cromido filo. Oxyce- 

drus. Ferula, Artica dicitur. 

Aristolochiae quartum genus Clematitide similis arbores scandens et 

Tria Origani diversa genera. Onitis peculiariter inter scopulos. Hera- 
cleoticum contra humentibus locis gaudet. Sylvestre neutrius naturae 
particeps circa sepes crescit. ^ 

Tragacantha non gumnifera in Candia. [MS. f. 157. 

[Fifty lines omitted. This list is followed by lisls of about 20 plants growing 
in Lemnos and 23 growing on Mount Athos. Both lists v;ere derived from 
Belon, pp. 31 and 42-3.] 

Plants of Gallipoliy Sinai, and Palestine. 

[MS. II, f. 158 V. 

[Practically a table of contents of the plants described by Belon, very 
closely and neatly written on the back of the paper with the Cretan List.] 

List of Arabian and Indian Plants, Desiderata compiled for the 
guidance of a Traveller iji the East, 
The first eight items are not in Parkinson's handwriting. 

Per Cayr et Alexandria. 

Folium indicum is a leafe of a tree & hath 3 ribbes in every leafe it 
tasteth somwhat hott like cloves or spice : the Arabians in their 
language doe call it Gadegi Indi & some doe call them Famalapatra. 
The freshest in coullour & the quickest in taste is the best but 
remember the true have ribbes onely on every leafe both on the 
backside & the lowerside, and none true have none. 
[Probably a form of Cinnaviomum Zeylatiic2iin I'reyne. ] 

Costus is a certaine whitish roote that tasteth very hott somewhatt bitter 
withall. The Arabians call it Cost or Cast & some of them Costi. 
If it be fresh it will smell very sweete. At Guzarate it is called Vylot 
& in some places Pucho. 
[Root of Aiuklandia Cosius.'] 


Amomum is a certaine fruite that is clustering together having about 7 or 
8 or 10 berryes on a stalke, every berry somewhat Hke a greate grape 
but whitish or yellowish & is skinnye on the outside & conteyneth 
divers browne seedes within them that smell very hott & are very 
sharpe biting the tongue. The Arabians call it Amana. 

[One of the many kinds of Cardamons. Clusius received Aniomiim Carda- 
inonum L., in 1605.] 

Calamus gromaticus is a certaine drogue not very well knowen to us 
& therefore can give no true description, yet we understand it is to be 
had in those East partes : we would faine see the true. The Arabians 
call it Cassabalderira. 

lAcorus calamus L., received by Clusius in Western Europe in 1574 ] 

Squinant is a certaine small rushe that tasteth hott like spice : the whole 
countrye of Arabia aboundeth as plentifully with it as other countryes 
with grasse & rushes. The Arabians call it Adhar & Adher. The 
smaller & finer the rushes are, the hotter in taste & the better : the 
greater rushes are courser. 

[Herba Schoenanthi vel S'quinanthi from Amiropogon laniger Desf.J 

Acacia is the iuyce of the fruite of a tree called Akakia growing in Egypt 
& Arabia, thickened & made into small cakes very astringent & bind- 
ing in tast. There is also a fine small white gum that is taken from 
the same tree Akakia wherof we would fayne have some. The fruite 
of the tree are certaine codds wherwath they use & dresse lether in 
Egypt. We wold faine have store of those codds which are like 
beane codds to be sent unto us also. 

•[Gum of Acacia arabica was known in 17th cent. B.C. and is mentioned by 
Theophrastus, Dioscorides, and Pliny.] 

Ameos is a small seed smaller than persly seede & tasteth somwhat hott, 
it is called Ameos I thinck every where. 

[This is doubtless the species described as Amini parvum foliis foeniculi (Park. 
Theatrum, 912) = Cartim amnioides B. & IL] 

Balsamum is a whitish oyle thin & cleere that cometh from Megha & other 
places in Arabia gathered distilling from a tree there growing which 
they call Balessan of a sweete & sharpe sent somwhat like Turpintine 
but thiner & whiter, & if a droppe be put upon water it spreadeth on 
the toppe of the water like common oyle, & wil be whitish if it be 
gathered from off the water with a little stick or other 

The berryes of the tree likewise we wold have some store they are 
brownish round berryes with a sharpe pointe or end & smell somwhat 
stronge like the oyle. 
The small sprigges & branches of the same tree Balessan likewise we 
want with smell of the oyle, if they be fresh are of a darke browne 
collour on the outside & are a little gumye & will stick to ones fingers 
espetially if they be fresh and new. 
\Balsa7n0dendr0n GileadejiseJ] 

The 7'emainder of the items were written by Parkinson hijnself. 
Gate so called of most both Indians, Arabians and Persians is a thick 
blackish substance allmost like Opium but a little harsh or astringent 
and bitter withall. The tree is full of thornes and is called by the 
Indians Hacchhic & we call it Lycium : we would faine have some 
of the beryes or fruite that growe upon this tree. 

[Perhaps the Zj'if/Mw of Dioscorides prepared from Indian species oi Berber is ^ 
Parkinson spells the worLi Hattych]. 



Sandal of the Arabians & Chandama of the Indians is that wood called 
Saunders white and yellow. 

[In 1635 the duty levied on the wood of Santalum album L. , was is. per lb. oa 
the white, and 2s. per lb. on the yellow.] 

Caxcax is the greate heade of a Poppy that will hold a pinte of liquor. 
\^Papaver so)nniferiim L.] 

Imgu & Imgara of the Indians is a kinde of Gum or iuice & is called of 
the Arabians Altiht & Antit : the plante from whence this iuice is 
taken is called Anguiden & Angeidan & in the Latine tonge Laser. 
If it were possible to gett some seede of the plante which is broade 
& flatt almost like unto a short rounde wing of a bird. 

\_FeriiIa asafoetida. Description taken from Garcias, Park. Theatrnm, 1569.] 

Calambac of the Indians of Malacca is the best Lignum Aloes : and Garro 
is the worst. The Arabians call this last, which is the worser, 
Aquilage & Haind. 

[The best Aloes wood, for use as incense, comes from Aquilaria Agallocha, Roxb. 
Garo de Malaca is A. ovata. ' Selectissimi fragmenta* of this wood were seen 
by Clusius in England in 1581 in the collections of Hugh Morgan and James 

[MS. f. 165. 

List of Indiaii and Arabian^ &c., iianies of Plants^ and Vegetable 
Products of Economic Value. 

Aloes, the Arabs & Turks call Cebar. p. 149.^ Opium. Caphura or 

Camphora. p. 160. 
Lacca called Luc Sumutri of the Indians of Pegu & Martaban that doe 

not use the Arabian wordes Luc. It is called Tree. p. 158. 
Tabaxir is a drogue unknowen to us : it is like a graye gum or blackish 

sugar, p. 164. 
Sambarane is a wood like unto Saunders, p. 174. 
Macra is the barke of the rootes of a tree. p. 264. 
Coru, Cura, & Curodapala is all but one thing. 

Pavate in Malabar, of the Portug. Arbol contra las erisipolas. p. 266. 
Cubebe be berryes. p. 184. Araca is a fruite. p. 189. 
Cocos be greate nuts as big as a childes heade. p. 191. 
There be 5 sortes of Myrobalanes called after this manner by the Indians. 
Aritiqui be those we call Citrini, some call them Arare. p. 194: 

S^Tcrminalia citrina.'\ 

Anuale we call Emblici. These 2 sortes are espetially these we gladly 
would have ayther yong trees if it were possible or els the stones of the 
fruite as fresh as maye be brought. 
S^Evtblica officinalis.'^^ 

Rezanuale are called with us Indi Gotin be Bellerici. Aratca be 

I'/'erminalia chebulica.'] 

Garcias ab Orta doth call them Canarini which inhabit those sea coasts 
of Decan and Guzarate (aunciently called Gadrosia), lib. 1. cap. 2. 
Tamarinde is a sowre pulpe of a fruite. p. 196. 

Anacardii be certaine big beanes black and fashioned somwhat like an 
harte. p. 272. 

* The page numbers refer to Clusius' Exotica^ 1605. 



Spica Nardil, p. 273. Nardus Indica. 
Costus. Ambargrise. Meske. 

Rhabarbarum, we call it Rubarbe, a purging roote. p. 274. 
Radix China the Chineses call it Lampatan. The Turkes, Persians & 
Arabians Chophehma. 
[Smt'/ax Chifta, L.] 

Curcum of the Arabians & Saroth of the Turkes is that we call heare 

\^Ciircni)ia hiiga, L.] 

Galanga is of 2 sortes, one is a small reddish roote hott in tast & is called 
of the Chineses Lavandou. The other is a farre greater roote blackish 
on the outside & white within. The Indians call it Calcharu the 
Arabians call it Calvegian. They of Java Lancuare. Park. p. 1585. 

Moringa is a tree & the fruite of the same is so called also, but the Turkes 
& Arabians call it Morian, they at Guzarate Turiaa : the roote of this 
tree is a singular remedy against poysons. Park. 1650. 

Bezoar is a stone of greate valew if it be true & naturall & not artificiall as 
a greate many are that are brought fro thence. 

Negundo is a small berrye like pepper : the Turkes, Arabians & Persians 
call it Bache. 

Jaca or Panax is a fruite as big as a pompion set with thick shorte thornes 
but not pricking. P. 1639. 

Durione or Duriaen the fruite is as big as the Jaca & hath sharpe thornes 
on the rinde of it very dangerous to touch : it hath divers stones" 
within it like unto Peache stones. P. 1640. 

Mangas is called of the Turks & Arabians Amba & is a delicate fruite. 
Another kinde herof called Mangas bravas is a most strong & violent 
poyson. P. 1 63 1. 

Ananas is a deHcate fruite like the heade of an Hartichoke the Portugals 
& Spaniards call it Pinas. 

Carcapuli is like an Orenge when the red outer side is taken awaye & the 
meate w^^iin somwhat like, but will not be separate in y* manner. 

Carambolas the fruite is of the bignes of an hens egg or bigger, yellow on 
the outside with fowre ribs on the outside : in the middle it hath 
seedes that are of a sowre or sharpe tast yet pleasant. 

Jamboli of the Indians & Tupha Indi of the Arabians & Persians, is a most 
excellent fruite well smelling & of a pleasant taste of the bignes of 
a greate peare : there are herof 2 sortes one is of a darke red collour 
allmost black & for the most parte is without kernell, the other is of 
a pale red collour & conteineth a hard white stone of the bignes 
of a peache stone. It beareth fruite divers tymes in a yeare & is 
never without flowers & fruite. 

Ambares is a fruite as big as a wallnut and of sowre yet somwhat tarte & 
pleasant when it is thorough ripe it hath within a hard gristly kernell. 

Bangue is a smaller seede then Hempeseed & of a darker collour. 

Pinones de Maluco so called of the Portugalls. 

Charameis the Arabians, Persians, & Turkes call it Ambela. They are of 

2 sortes, one is of the bignes of an haselnutt with ringing corners, 

of a pleasant sowre tast. The other is bigger. 
Brungara aradua is otherwise called the Herbe of Maluca & is an excellente 

herbe to make salves to heale any sore. We wold faine have the 

seedes of it. 



Tamalapatra be certaine leaves of greate use in Phisick wch the Arabians 
call Cadegi Indi & are like unto Pomecitron leaves but narrower 
towarde the end wth three ribs only running along the leafe & doe 
somwhat smell like cloves. [MS. fol. i6o. 

[MS. continues with several items included in the list onf. 165, printed 
above. The descriptions of the last ten items agree closely with those 
in Parkinson's Theatrmn and with those added by him to the last 

List of Plants growing in the Bermudas. 
In the handwriting of Parkinson. 
The poisoned weede is like our English Ivie, being touched causeth 
rednes itching & lastly blisters wcl» after a while passe awaye without further 
harme. toxicodejidron.'] 

The red weede a tall plant whose stalke being all over covered with 
a red rinde therupon termed the red weede, the roote wherof being 
soked in any licour or a small quantitye of the iuice druncke procureth 
a very forcible vomitt & is generally used of the people & found very 
effectuall for the paines & distemper of the stomach. 

The j)urging beane is a kinde of Woodbinde very cornonly growing by 
the seaside & rufieth upon trees twining like a Vine : the fruite somewhat 
resembleth a beane but somwhat flatter, the which anyway eaten worketh 
excellently in the nature of a purge but very vehemently yet without any 

The Costive tree is a small tree. 

Another plante like a Bramble bushe which beareth a long yellowe 
fruite whose shell is very harde & within it a hard berrye that beaten & 
taken inwardly purgeth gentlye. 

Red pepper a fruite like our Barberies whose taste is terrible hot for the 
tyme if it be chewed betweene the teeth, & therefore it is swallowed downe 
whole & is founde to be of the same operation with red pepper & thence 
borrowed the name. 

\Capsicii7n sp.] 

In the bottome of the Sea upon the Rocks there is found growing 
a large kinde of plante in the forme of a Vine leafe but farre more spreade 
with veines of a pale red colour very strangely interlaced one into another 
which they call the Feather whose vertue is altogether unknowne. 

There are since their plantation nourished white red & yellowe Potatos 
Pineapples, Papaws, Plantains, the America breade, the Cassado roote, the 
Indian Pumpion, Water Melon, Indices etc. 

Cassado a roote of a wonderfull encrease & maketh very good white 
breade but the iuice rank poison, yet boiled is better than wine. 
\_Manihot zctilissima.'] 

Pineapples neare as big as Artichokes, the most daintye tast of any 
fruite. Apples, Prickly Pears & Pease, all differing from ours. 

A Pepper groweth in a little red huske as big as a Wallnutt 4 inches long 
& small cods. 

Twoo sortes of Cotton : the silke Cotton as in the East Indies groweth 
upon a small stalke as good for beds as downe : the other upon a shrub 
& beareth a cod bigger then a Wallnutt, full of Cotton wooll. 

Locus tree, hard timber, 2 or 3 fadome about, of a greate height beareth 
a cod full of meale will make breade in necessitye. 
l^Hymenaea conrbaril.'] 


Sope berries like a Musket bullet that washe as white as sope & goode 
to eate : in the middle of the roote is a thinge like a Sedge, a very good 
fruite : we call them Pengromes. 

A Pappaw is as greate as an apple, coloured like an Orrange & good to 

[^Carica papaya.'] 

A small hard nutt like a hasell nutt groweth close to the grounde & is 
like that groweth on ye Palmetas : we call them Mucca nuts. 

A greate tree whose leaves are used to make a Mustarde. 

The Mancinell tree the fruite is poyson, it is an apple of a most pleasant 
sweate smell of the bignes of a Crab : the Swine & birds eschewe to 
eate of them. 

[ H ippomane mancinella . ] 

A tree like a Pine beareth a fruite so greate as a Muske Melon : hath 
alwayes ripe fruite flowers & greene fruite which will refresh 2 or 3 men 
very comfortably. 

Plum trees many, the fruite greate & yellowe, which but strained into 
water will in 24 houres make very good drincke. 
Wild figge trees the fruite feede the hogs etc. 

The Gwane tree beareth a fruite so bigge as a Peare, good & wholsome» 
Palmetos of 3 severall sortes. 

\_Chamaer ops glabra^ C. excelsa?^ 

Cedar trees tall & greate. 

[The Pencil Ctdox, /uniperus Bermudiana.'] 

Fustick trees the wood yellow, good for dying. 
\_Maclura tinctorial 


\_Bixa Orellana.'\ 

[MS. f. 167. 

[This list, both in the order of the plants and in the wording of the descriptions, 
so closely resembles Parkinson's list of Bermudan plants printed in 1640 at the 
end of his Theatrimi Botanicmn^ p. 167 1, that it is probable that the printed 
version was taken from this copy in an abbreviated form.] 

List of Nuts, Fruits, and Seeds, desiderata ' To have from 
Virginia, New England etcJ 

Ciprasse nuttes or young trees. 

The ripe Ackornes of their White Oake or red scarlet Oake & Black 

Black & White Walnutt & a greate one. 

Cedars the berryes & the leaves, to see of what kinde they be. 
Firre & Pine trees young & their apples. 

Grapes white & red & a smaller black Grape growing in the Islandes, 

some ripe & sweeter. 
Cherryes in clusters like grapes but not so good. 
Black & Yellowe Plumes as big as a Damson. 

White Thorne berryes are as big as English Cherryes & esteemed better 
than Cherryes. 

B b 



A white Poplar tree with greate leaves broade pointed. 
Sassafras trees young & the berryes. 

The Cassado roote or Jocka, Hiucca ?. Sarsaparilla, all the sortes. 

The Maracoc Apples. 

The Maye Apples or seedes. 

The Snake-roote freshe plantes & seede. 

Virginia Lentills. 

Divers sortes of Lillias. 


Penni marva is Silke grasse. 

Musquaspen a small roote of a fingers bignes as red as blood wherew*^ 

they dye their mattes. 
Poconas is a small roote in the mountaines which they use for swellinges 

and so painte their faces. 
A small lowe tree whose white flower is like a small hedge Honysuckle. 
Puchuming are plumes sweete like dates. 
Red flat cods of a tree whose red flowers they use for salletts. 
Arbor Judae. 

The Locus tree the cods w^b seede. 
Checinquamins are small Chesnuttes. 
A plante that beares a Scarlet flower. 
Flower de luces. Lillyes. Colombines. 

Or any other herbe or seede growing there allthough you thinck we have 

the same in England for we finde most thinges to diffarr. 
[Lentills of that countrye.] 

[MS. f. 20. 

List of Seeds imported from Virginia^ 1636. 
Virginia seeds rec^ from Mr. Morrice^ 18 March 1636. 

1. A scarlet flower requiring a moist ground. Cardinalis forte. 

2. A yellow wood called Locust long flat blackish browne pods, black 

round flatt seede kidney like. 
{Robinia pseudacacia.'] 

3. A poisonous berrye black rugged round berry with blackish seede 

straked like a tick. 

4. Arbor Judae forte thin flat browne cods with somewhat flat round 

shining browne seede. Sent for a tree whose gredeline (?) flower 
is an excellent sallat. 
\Cercis canadensis.'\ 

5. A black round rugged berry like large peper cornes with 3 square 

black shining seeds sent for a running vine y* bears no flowers. 

^ Who Mr. Morrice may have been, we do not know. A Richard Morrice 
was Master of the Barber Surgeons Company in 1634. But there was also 
a lohannes Mauritius or John Morris, a friend of Parkinson, who extolled the 
excellencies of the Theatrum Botaniciun, and the worth of its author, in three 
pages of eloges, in two languages. Two of his lines lend colour to our suggestion 
that he was interested in- Virginian plants. Morris addresses Parkinson with 
the words 

. . . neither dost thou spare 
T' insert whatsoere the other world doth beare. 
A remark which would come naturally from a poetaster who had also given 
Parkinson seeds of plants from the New World. 



6. Nux vesicaria forte brownish bladders w^-h ij round pale coloured 

shining seeds like ours but farre lesse. Found on small trees 
in the woods. 

[? Staphylea trifo/iata.'] 

7. Euonymus forte growing on a dogwood tree : a reddish great seed 

vvth huskes like it. 

8. A kind of Hawes much eaten by the Indians blackish flat kernells 

like the Pishamin : w^^in black shining thin huskes with little or 
no pulpe. 

9. Virginia silke growing in a long white thick cod : flat browne seede with 

silken dowe Periploca forte. 

10. Palma christi brought thether & thrives well. 

\_Kicinus convnunis.'] 

11. Maye Apple seede a blackish browne seede lesse than Stramonium, 

the flower white & the fruit much eaten by them. 

12. The greate Snake roote small long yellowish seed like Langdebeefe 

but scalye & downy among, being greene it hath a milke more 
bitter than aloes. 

[In the Morisonian Herbarium at Oxford is * The great Rattle Snake root of 
Virginia, a rare Cordial), Mr. Willis 1676 It is Asartiin virginicuin L.] 

13. A kinde of Persicaria but higher by much then ours, a brownish 

black . . . flattish seed in whitish skin, huskes or skins. 

14. A kinde of double Yarrowe. 

15. Found in the woods. A pale browne pointed berrye set in a fine 

long-leaved huske like Guaiacana & 3 or 4 halfe round crested 
or straked kernells or skin. 

16. The berrye of a plante whose juice is good red incke. Solanum 

Virginianum sorte. 

17. Seede of the herbe Carales, so called fro a Captain that said it was 

much eaten in East India & in a tyme of scarsitye there also : 
a small black shining seade like Amaranthus purpureus, not 
Milium nigrum. 

18. Small Snake roote seede. 7. 

19. K duskye roundish forme or solid graine as big as the heade of 

Scrophularia, with a white kernell in it : common in the woods. 

20. A long duskye gray pod small at the lower ende & bigger round 

& crooked pointed at the other opening in 2 partes with one 
rugged brownish pease there lying & the shewe of another at 
the bottome, but emptye. Found on small lowe imbracing 

2 1 . Virginia Lentills small short blackish thin cods somwhat thick on both 

edges or sides & much smaller black lentill-like seede within. 

22. Water melons flat darck graye seede like Citrulls. 

23. Red water melons flat darck graye seade like unto the other but 

a little longer pointed. 

24. Stramonium forte : it came without name. 

[MS. f. 21. 

B b 2 



Goodyer's miscellaneous papers and letters have recently been 
sorted out and bound up in one folio volume (GOODYER MS. ii). 
They include : 

1. Descriptions of new or rare plmits, mostly written on fif. 81-146, 
including many rough drafts of descriptions scribbled on the backs 
of other papers. See pages 109 to 193 of the present volume. 

2. Notes of Botanical Excursions^ 16 17-1658. 

Goodyer rarely allowed a summer to pass without an excursion to some part 
of south Hampshire, Southampton, the sea-shore at Hayling, or the New Forest. 
There is evidence of journeys to Essex in 1616, 1620, 1621 ; London, 1617, 
1628, 1654; Wiltshire, 1618, 1624; Oxford, 1622; Northamptonshire, 1625; 
Surrey, 1634 ; and Bath, 1638. 

3. Lists of Garden Plants. 

4. Lists of Exotic Plants. 

5. Lists of Medicinal Plants and Materia Medic a. 

6. Sundry Medical Prescriptions. 

7. Lists of Books. 

8. Letters addressed to GoODYER and drafts of letters written 
by him. 

1618. Nov. 7. G. at the Red Lion in Fleet Street to some person believed to 
be Coys, describing the botanical results of his excursion 
in Wiltshire, p. 29. 

On back. Addresses of Nicholas Everenden, Sedles- 
combe, Samuel Shute, Thomas Coltherste at the albus 
Lion in Deanside. 

Last poem by Sir Walter Raleigh, 'Even such is 
time . . .' p. 32. 

n. d. GOODIER to person unknown. Concerning payment for Canary 

Wine on back of a Terrier of Durford Priory, p. 9. 

1621. Nov. 9. Laurence Davis to John GooDiER at Droxford. Concern- 
ing gold weights sent by Maye the carrier, p. 48. 

1631. July 13. Griffith Hinton to John Goodyear at Maple Derham. 

Concerning the Bishop of Winchester, p. 56. 

1631. Nov. 15. Griffith Hinton to John Goodyear at the sygne of the 
Angell neer Denmark House in the Strand. Concerning 
fruit trees, p. 58. 

1631. Jan. 16. G. communicating a list of plants indigenous in France to 
a traveller, p. 39. 
„ G. to Mr. Wray enclosing the above, p. 60. 



1632. June Robert Tewe in Moscow communicating list of Russian 
plants, p. 362. 

1634. June 24. G. to Mr. Worlidge about date of Surrey Assizes, p. 73. 

9. Other letters. 

n. d. John Parkinson to the worthy gentlewoman Mrs. Geeres. 

Scribbled over and almost indecipherable, p. 266. 
n. d. [Dr. Morison] to Dr. V. How, asking for plants, of which 

he gives a list. p. 355. 
n. d. Dr. Argent to Lobel. p, 252. 
n. d. J. DE Monnel to Lobel. p. 252. 

J o. Miscellaneous Papers. 

Of the Tenth mony due at Christmas 1608 received by 
Edward Cole ajtd left with Roger Cole- 

Thomas Hull received to my Lord's use the 22 of January 1608 iiij'i 

Mr. Myers received the v'^ of January 1608 to my Ls use xxxiijli 

Thomas Hull received more upon my Lords noate 15 Feb^'y 1608 iiij^i 

Edward Cole hath payd to my Lord in money the 29 of Aprill 1609 Ixx^^ 

Sum cxj^i of Tenth 
Of the sixth payment of the subsedy due the xxvj*^ day 
of March 1909 {stc) &. by him received in Swod. 

Edward Cole hath payd to my Lord in mony Ixx^i 

[MS. f. 127. 

Summons to John Rowland, Tithing-man of Ropley. 1614. 

Theis are in his ma*y name to will and require you that ye uppon the receipt 
hereof you repaireunto me at Bishopps Waltham, or to some other of hismajties 
Justices of the peace within this Countie neare adjoyninge to take you Corporall 
oth for the dewe Execution & performance of the office of Tithingman-shippe 
for the Tithinge of Roplie, And hereof I require you not to fayle at your perrill 
dated at Newe Alresford under my hand and seale the xxiii of September 1614. 

To John Rowland of Roplie 
deliver thcis. 

[MS. f. 3. 

On back 

[Description of a tree bearing Cachryes, p. 175.] 

Terrier of Dnrford Monastery, 

Domum et Scitum omp monasterii de Durford cum ptinent, videlt duo prata, 
cont. p. estimac. quinq. acr. quorum uii vocat. le mill meade & alterum vocat. 
le kechyn meade ; duo alia prata sine clausa vocat Smithes meadowes, cont. p. 
estimac. octo acras, un. aliud pratum sine clausa vocat. le wish meade at le wash 
meade cont. p. estimac. viginti acr. ; uh clausu pasture vocat. le Brydgfield cont. 
p. estimac. duodecim acr. ; uii aliud clausii pasture vocat. le Smithfield contin. 
p. estimac. duodecim acr., uh aliud clausii pasture vocat. le Rye cont. p. estim. 
sex acr., uii aliud clausu terre pastur vocat. le Conduit field cont. p. estim. 
viginti quinq. acr., uii aliud clausu terr. vocat. le North field cont. p. estim. trigint. 
quinq. acr., tria crofta sine terre pasture vocat. le Chapell Croftes cont. p. estim. 
triginta acr., duos campos vocat. le Rydgfields cont. p. estim. trigint. acr., duo 
alia crofta terre past, vocat. Robyns fields cont. p- estimac. duodecim acr. Ac 
tota ilia terre Vastr. Bruera et rampua in Durford Hethe et Westherting Hethe, 
cont. p. estim. ducent. acr. ; uh mesuagium sive Tenementum vocat. Hethe 
Howse in Petersf. in Com. Sowtht, dcto monasterio spectaii. cont. p. estim. 
centum acras. 






Myll & Kichin 


Smith's medowes. 


Wash meade. 


Brydg field. 


Calfes lease. 


Dame Annys. 




le Rie. 


Conduit field. 








2 prata 
I " 

1 clausiim 

2 „ 

I V 

I „ 

North field 
Chapell Croftes 
Rydg fields 
Robyns fields 

Durford Hethe & West- 

herting hethe 


[MS. f. 6. 

[Dureford Abbey was a small house of Premonstratensian canons founded in the reign 
of Henry II, and suppressed in 1536. Its last days were passed in great poverty, the 
buildings were in ruins, the canons reduced in number. Layton, in a letter to Cromwell, 
describes the poverty of Dureford, 'which might better be called Dirteforde — the poorest 
abbey I have seen, as this bearer, the abbot, can tell you — far in debt and in great decay. 
This young man, for his time, has done well, and I have licensed him to repair to you for 
the liberty of himself and his brethren'.^ 

A seal of the Abbey is in the possession of Magdalen College.] 

Draft receipt for £2^0 received by W, Inkferbie & Richard Bell 
from Sir T. Bilson. 1620. hi Goodyers handivriting. 

Mem. that the xv^^ day of No: we y® within mentioned W Inkferbie & Ric 
Bell have had and receaved of y^ within-mentioned S^ Tho. Bilson Knight the 
within-mentioned some of 250^ of lawfull Eng. money at his mansion house 
called Westmapledurham in the Countie of South by virtue of y® within- 
mentioned power given us by our mother in law Philipp Bynwyn als Benwyn, 
and have delivered upp the within-mentioned deed according to y*^ said power 
within given us to the said Sir Th. Bilson Knight : In witness whereof we here 
unto sett our hands, receaved the said 250^ and d[eliver]ed in ye presence of 

\\ ch I have sent 

[11 Januarij 1620.] [MS. f. 11 v. 

[The Inkforbye family fairly invaded Magdalen College in the sixteenth century. 
Of the four children of Andrew Inkforbye, a Merchant of Ipswich, two gained Fellow- 
ships, one married a Fellow, and one married the President of the College, Lawrence 
Humphrey, by whom she became the mother of three Demies, William Inkforbie, the 
brother-in-law of the President, held several College offices, and eventually accepted 
a Winchester Rectory in 1592, which he held with that of Selborae after 1596. It is 
difficult not to believe that he or some near kinsman was the William Inkforbie mentioned 
above. Inkforbie's wife is mentioned below, p. 382.] 

1 Victoria County Hist. Sussex, ii. 91, 



Draft of Comviission to Overseers of the Poor. 1621. 

Overseers of the poore of the parish of nominated and 

appointed by us this present yere viz the daie of Aprill Anno dni 1621 

shall by vertue hereofif levie all such somes of money as by them shalbe 
asseassed for the releife of the poore within the said parish, And shall distraine 
and sell the goods of everie person that shall refuse to paie accordinge to their 
taxation rendringe the overplus to the ptie. Geoven at Southvvick under our 
hands & seales the daie and yere above written. 

[MS. f. 87 V. 

John Pitt of Chiddien in Hamelden [= Chidden, a tithing in Hambledon 
hundred] to have the peace against Elias Pelie of Hameldon [Hambledon was 
the village where 30 years later Charles II spent the night at the house of his 
guide, Col. Gunter's brother-in-law], 

[MS. f. 87. 

F. Waller's Petition to Sir Thomas Bilson. Before 19 July 1621. 

Most humbly Intreating yo^' good worship S^^' Thomas Bilson and to you & 
yo'^ man Goodyer greeting : the Cause is this, my wryting unto you S^' is 
for to request & desire yo'" worships ayd and assistance concerning the two Buls 
and the fower Heffers w^^ the sayd Ilesley was committed by yo"" worship for, 
desiring for two know whether I may not lawfully have them praysed and so for 
two sell them, and (= if) it may be possibell good yo^ worship aid me in hit, 
for the Cause is thus I must step asid and away, for beecause freeman of 
Durley or of Frogmill have forth as I understand an Execution agaynst me for 
his counter band w^^ the sayd freeman hau not bine damnified one penny, but 
onely in suing for to bring in the bands, & soe forth w**i arrested the sayd 
Ilesley's bease, and I was pledge for two bring him to his answer and could not 
paye the money being Eightenne pounds full, and tooke up the bands & went 
to the sayd freeman desiring for to have his Harmeley's band in to, and so to 
end hit, karying forthwith to hime his sayd Charges before divers witnesses, 
and hee would not for hee would hand the fantage or forfit of his counter bande 
being Six Score & Eight pounds and theireof S^* I think it mete for two acquaint 
yo^' worship with hit. Other good men, for I must be droven to put forth my 
land and so to distribute my goods for a tyme untyll I canne take som corse 
in it, I would yo^ worship should thinke that although I am forst to goe that it is 
for no misdemannors although I sayet my selfe nor for one penny or pound of 
debt but onely thus to be the cause meaning the Execution. Further mor sir 
I would request of yo^' worship for to know whether I may not send to the Sises 
some lawful! deputi, meaning some honest frend for to frame a bill of inditment 
against the said Ilesley. Requesting for two send me in two or three words in 
wryting and I would be much thankfull to yo^" Worship for hit, and so w*^ 
wepping teares I wayt theise few words wishing yo^" worships health you & yo"*^. 

Yo^" poore Oreator for to Command 
fra Waller. 

Deliver this to Sir Thomas Billson Knight. 

[MS. f. 8. 

Deposition of Arthur Hyde relating to a distraint levied on 
Weston Farm in the possession of Sir Thomas Bilson. 

Arthur Hyde of Weston in the parish of Buriton in the County of South*^ 
yeoman aged fiftie eight yeares or thereabouts, deposeth that aboute sixteene 
yeares nowe last past, this deponent being tenant unto the late most gracious 
Oueene Elizabeth of Weston farme, by reason of the recusancie of one Stephen 
Vachell Esquier deceased, duringe which tyme one of the Servants of the then 
gen'all Receivoures of y® said Queene Eliz. reaveannes, in the said County of 
Sowtht, came upon a peace of Lande of the said Weston farme, called the 



Readons. And have distrained certaine Cattell of his denonente for Arrearage 
of rent of abowte fyve pownds, supposes to be done unto the said Queen 
Elizabeth for which this deponent entered into bande in the some of [blank] 
pounds, upon condicon either to paie the money, the then next Tearme 
folowinge, or otherwise to discharge yt, whereupon the Corte beinge moved, 6c 
fy^ndinge this deponent to be Tenante unto the said Ouene Eliz. o: all Weston 
farme. under a certaine Rent, by reason of the Recuzancie of the said Vachell, 
and that the said Reasone was but a small parcell of the said \\ eston farme, 
And that this deponent, by the covenants of his Lease during the Recuzancie 
of the said Vachell, was to be discharged of all Rents & charge payinge the 
Rente reaserved in his Lease, the said Corte therupon detajmed the said 
deponents bande. & toke order for the staye of the leavyinge of the said 
Arrearage duringe the said Vachell Recuzancie. Sithence w*^^ tyme the 
said Vachell being deade. And the said Weston farm being in the possession 
of Sir Thomas Bilson Knight, And then the said \\ eston farm being discharged 
of Recuzancie, there hath been leavied by the Sherif at sundry tymes the some of 
Nyne pounds & tenne shillings by xx" shillinge on ye pound only, under coloure 
of the said deoonents bande, which was taken for the said supposed Arrearage. 
And yet none (notwithstanding so much payed, as aforesaid) theare is a newe 
seisure, diverted to the said Sherif for the leavyinge of abowte six poundes, owte 
of the said Lands called Readons, for the same Arrearage. 

And this deponent further saieth. that he hath not beane Tenante. unto the 
said Readons sihence the ende of his said Lease, which ys now about some 
tenne yeares last past, and yet being tenant unto some other part of Weston 
farme, by reason of the said bande (w^b was only taken for the said Arrearage 
of Readon) he this deponent with some other of the possessors of Weston farme, 
hath alreadie payed Xyne poundes S; tenne shillings, besides twoe shillinge at 
any sevall tvme of seisure, to the Sherif his Bailies, w^^cometh unto xviii^ more. 

[MS. f. 5. 

[Weston is a tithing in the parish of Buriton which seems to have been, to some 
extent, co-extensive with the manor of West Maplednrham. According to the authorities 
quoted in the Victoria Coimty History of Hampshire, iii, p. 90, Stephen Vachell was part 
lord of Weston in 1579. In September 1600 he forfeited two-thirds of his lands and 
possessions for recusancy, and in December 1600 the queen granted the capital messuage 
called Weston farm and lands in the parish of Buriton to Arthur Hide, for a term of 
21 years. It is doubtful, however, whether Arthur Hide ever gained possession 
of the manor, for in 1598 Vachell and others conveyed it to Nicholas Hunt and his wife, 
from whom in 1607 Thomas Bilson, Bishop of Winchester, purchased it. After the 
purchase Weston formed part of the manor of West Mapledurham.] 

Draft of a Petition from the Tithing of West07t concerning 
payments toivards repair of Red bridge. In handwriting 
of John Goo dyer. 

The names of those who were to goe to paie viij^ towards the repairinge of 
Redbridge beinge required of the Inhabitants of this Tything, after they had paid 
their proportionable hereinafter said rights as anciently they have don. 

S"" Tho: Bilson John sen. 

Hen: Bl: Tho: Wyse 

Hen: Vok Tho: Kent 

Jo. Tayler \\^\ Hall [or Hull] 

who made with one accord this answer, that the inhabitants of the Upper half 
hundred of Finchdeane have alwaies hetherto paid two parts and the Lower 
half hundred but one pte of the said impostes uppon the sd Hundred, towards 
the repations of the sd Bridge, and that they of the sd Tything of Weston have 
latelie paid [blank] being their pte of the said third parte. 

And that nowe they refuse to paie the sd 8- beinge a some imposted in them, 
apportionable with the somes imposed on the other pans of the before said 
lower half hundred, . . . the lower half hundred equall in payment with the 
Upp , which they never did. And that they pray to have their case heard 



this next mich" Sessions when they hope to obtain an order that the lower half 
hundred shall paie but a third part thereof as anciently it did. 

And this rate now imposed, being not after the ancient manner, but an 
encrease of charge to the lower half hundred by making them equall in payment 
to ye upper half hundred, whose lands are allmost twice as good, the tything of 
Weston being a small member of the lower half hundred, humbly pray they 
may be heard this Sessions what they can say with the rest of the lower half 
hundred for themsealfs. 

[MS. f. 12. 

Portion of a deed concerning lands at Bramshott and Kingsley 
in whicJi John Goodyer ivas concerned. 

This Indentnre made the 15*^ 

God of England, Scotland France and Ireland 

[Dorothy his wife of the one part and] • John Goodyer 

[pounds] * of good and lawfull money of England unto 

the ensealing and delivery of these presents 

[Release and Confirmation bearing even date] ^ 

[Sambrooke of London knight and Administrator] ^ 

[payment receipt and Satisfaction of which said] ^ 

[doth acquitt release and discharge the said John Goodyer his heirs] * 

bargained sold and confirmed and by these presents doeth grant b[argain sell and confirm 

and Parcefeild with all and singular the rights members and app 

gardens Orchards Courts Courtyards and backsides thereunto bel[onging 

Bramshott and Kingsley some or one of them in the said County [of Southampton 

quantityes of acres hereinafter menconed (that is to say) the planted 

estimacon Tenn acres three quarters of an acre and eight perches 

One quarter of an acre and six perches Great jffrith containing by e[stimacon 

acres three quarters of an acre and thirty two perches affeild 

thirty perches Garden ffeild containing by estimacon eight acres 

perches Great Waterfeild containing by estimacon Tenn acres & 

by estimacon Six acres and halfe an acre and thirty two perches Gr 

estimacon twelve acres and a quarter of an acre and sixteen perches 

two HeatJiffeilds containing by estimacon one and twenty acres and 

and Sixteen perches Upper Wassells containing by estimacon ffour 

Lower Mead containing by estimacon eight acres and two perches 

three quarters of an acre and twenty perches llie Green before th 

acres Upper Mead coxi\.2amx\g by estimacon three acres Middle Me\adcox\.K.2i\xi\ag by estimacon 

acres and an halfe of an acre and eighteen perches and also all 

and wood ground thereunto belonging and also all those severall 

called Woolmore containe together in the whole by estimacon Sixt 

Mead and one Cottage with the Land thereunto belonging scituate 

Closes and grounds are severally and respectively called or known and 

possession of the said Andrew Wall and also all that dwelling house 

and all those severall Closes or grounds severally and respectively cal[led or known and 

likewise menconed that is to say The Upper Six acres containing by e[stimacon 

thirty two perches the four acres containing by estimacon ffour acres 

Hojnefeild containing by estimacon six acres and a quarter of an 

containing by estimacon eight acres and an halfe and one and twe 

perches Hillffeild containing by estimacon ffour acres three quar 

tenn perches ( iitward Heathffeild containing by estimacon seven 

.... Green ffeild containing by estimacon seven acres three q 

[This portion of a deed, in which Goodyer's name is mentioned, was used as a wrapper 
of a document belonging to Mrs. Ruck-Keene of Swyncombe, Oxon., who, discovering it 
at the very moment of the discovery of Goodyer papers at Magdalen, has kindly per- 
mitted its publication with them. 

In the Victoria County History for Hants, ii, p. 493, are notes that Ludshott Manor 
was acquired by Andrew Wall in 1638 from the Knight family (Feet of F. Hants. Hil. 
13 Chas. I), and that in 1704 Samuel Diggle acquired the manor of John Goodyer (Feet 
of F. Hants., Mich. 2 Anne). 

A Sir Jeremiah Sambroke, Knight, Merchant, was on board the Earl of Barkley's ship 
31 Jan. 1 68 1 and died 27 Apr. 1705.] 

^ erased. 



Goodyer's note relatifig to Rents in Wiltshire, 

Chappel. Crine. 

Richard Bedelcombeof Weeke in Dounton parish, aetat. 80 vel ultra, gathered 
of Henry Davys of Chestgrove in Tisbury parish in Wilts, aetat. 72, who was 
tenant to Edward Willowby gent, yerely as a Cheif Rent vjs. viij d. He was 
gatherer as longe as M^" Barrowe was lord. Mr. Willowby never denied the 
Rent, but denyed y^ service to Mr. Estroud in y^ open Court. 

Mr. Willowby sould it to George Stable gent, whether he paid it or not, they 
know not, he byd M^" Dawley shew wherefore he should paie it. 

Mr. Staple sould it M^' Westfeild of Tilsford 7 or 8 mile beyond Warminster, 

Hester Abell widdowe in the High St. at Salesbury nere to the Close gate. 

[MS. f. 5 v. 

Draft of an Order concerning the discharge of the Watch of the 
Beacons hi Portesdown Division. In the hand of J. Goody er. 

Whereas I have receaved letters from Sir R. T. knight one of ye deputy 
liuetenens of this County of Southh. concerning the watch of the Beacons within 
this Division of Portesdowne, which Beacons must be well kept & repaired, and 
the watch of them to be presently discharged. Theis are therefore to require 
you to cause the watch of ye Beacons within your hundred (if there be any) 
presently to be discharged, and y^ rest performed according to y® contents of ye 
said letters, 

And hereof faile not as you will answer the Contrarie (?) at your peril. 
Dat. 7. 

[MS. f. 5 V. 

[The Sir R. T. would have been Sir Robert Tichborne, who was living in 161 7.] 


Goody er^s rough notes of Accounts 19 July 1621. 

James Rabson of Hamelden Carpenter 10^ due onto Katherine his wiffe, for 

wages long since due. 
Stephen Woley. 

hog rec'^ y® last year 16 ) 

rec*^ this year 96 \ 
hog spent this year 96 

reed as appeareth 16 Wheate spent i66^| 

Otes spent li. 196 

has rec^^ ye last yere I37^ V ^20^1 ^ 

bought this yere 192 ) ^ ^ 

spent this yere 275^ 
reed as appeareth 54^ 

William Browne de Hoe infra parochia de Subberton ^ gent, To paie Ixxiij^' 

the 11*^ of November next. 
Will- Hatch de Clanfeild yeoman K^^^^^j^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
Simon Hatch Blacksmith \ ^ 

To paie 11^^ the 19^^ of July 1621. 

Hatch bondeth (?) S. k: in 40^^ to store harweste. 

[MS. f. 8 V. 

[Then follows a Description of ' Ye lesser Bellflower See p. 132.] 

» [The Manor of East Hoe, Soberton, passed to \V. Browne, senior, of Hoe in 1619, 
then to W. Browne, junior, his son.] 


Note coftcerning certain inhabitmits of Sober ton c. July 1622. 

Willmus Arnold de Soberton yoman 

Willmus Perrin de Subberton husb. . . . . 

Johes Lower de Soberton husb. ..... 

That Margery Lower to keape y® peace ags^ Susan Talbott spinster. 

[MS. f. 7. 

Assessment in Goodyer^s handwriting. After 9 Nov. 16 ill. 

[Acres ?] 


Tho. [Bilson] 














Ra: Tribe 



T. Deed 



Wm. Tribe sen. 



winnowed 17 7 3 




spent 712 

John Tribe 






10 6 I 







... I gall. 

Anne the wiffe of John Ilsley of Prelingworth in 

T husb. to have the peace against Tho: Ilsley. 

[On the back of Laurence Davis' letter, dated 9 Nov. 1621.] 

[MS. f. 9. 

Note of proceediitgs at a Court held later than 9 Nov. 1621, affecting 
persons living at Swamnore and Chedden. 

Edward Collyn de Swanmor husb: 

. . . Tho: Cludlie de eadem Carp. in 8^ 

To paie 4^^ 8^ : 20 Sept. 1622 in Tho: Cludlie's house. 

Drewe of Hamelden served Thomas Pina and John Rynd and y® rest of 
y® parishioners of Chedden as their comon shepherd. 
Nic: Brittaine de Swanmore husb. . . . Jaspen in 20^. 
To paie 11^ the 20*^^ Sept. 1622 in this C[ourt] house. 

[A Botanical Fragment. Description of Thlaspi 14 July 1621,] 

[MS. f. II. 

Descriptions copied from LobeVs Adversaria of fonr plants. Perhaps 
in preparation for a botanical excursion to Portland. 

An thy His 

Sedum Portltmdiciim 
Hederacium Thlaspi 
Papaz'er Cornuticiu. 

[MS. f. 13. 

Goodyers Notes 1625. 
The 2 of May to have 100 Be ,8 foot longe & 4 foot 7 ynch lenght. 
Robt Westbrooke ^ of Steep husb. 
Hinde of Sheet 

3 teneri pr. to paie 16^ 13^ 4^^ the 22 of July next. 

& 16^1 3^ 4^^ the 21 of December 1625. 
Ewie sat about 4 a clock to take fagotts. 

[MS. f, 13 a. 

[Below : the itinerary of a botanical excursion for Sept. 1624. See p. 51.] 

1 Robert Westbrooke was a tenant of Magdalen College in the Spain Petersfield, about 
1580 (Magdalen College, Ledger G. f. lo). 



for I corslett 

Rough notes made by Goody er m November 1631. 

The names of those w* were taxed to paie the muster Master's entertaynment. 
Bilson 2 corsletts 2 musketts— at 9'* . . 6^ 
Hen. Vok 

Tho. lee \ lor i corslett . . .1 
Tho. Kent 
Jo: Trybe 
Jo: Pinke 

Hall for i corslett . . . . i 
Jo: Horwood for i muskett . . .1 
Of all those above named I have demanded the somes they were taxed at 
And they all do answer me they ought not to paie it. 

Diett at Gilford 



Otes— 2^ . 



hey .... 



greas for Coach 



gave the hosier . 


ferre at lambheath 

Coach . 

1 1*^ 

5 horses 

Supp. at Kings head 







rem. 33 11 

Edyn Haslett ? 2: 

8s II" 

7 hors at hey at 8 
coch — ib 
4 has — ib 

4 « 

5 4 

Nutts ? 

7. 2 bauhins 

8. wyne w^^ Johnson 
Diosc. . 

Bruele [?] 
14. beane there . 



3 coch harnes (?) 
I coch bridle 

I ladie sadle, 3 g , 2 snaffle 


Leo 1597. 

Scholzius Aphorismes 
Ludovicus Septalius, 1625. 
Duncanus Liddelius 
Wekeri Syntaxis 1576 
Petri Bayri Enchiridion, quae Veni 
mecu vocant. 1578 

•9sn s,9jiA\ siq ui sauioD ;s3a95Ui 
9q; '(t) 9JII 9UA\o siq Suunp 9SB9pj ji^J9U9§ s;59ujng J9q}9qAV — S}}9a 'i^i 

[MS.f. 12. 

Roll of Armour-bearers, Pio7ieers, and Spearmen of Buriton, 
(Before 1633. Not in Goodyer's hand.) 


The earmur bearers. 
Robberd Heath with a muscet. 

and Jasper Hillis with a muscet both of i\F Walkers. 
Randol Jouning for John Benet his muscet. 
Richard Searl with a muscet. 
Neckolas Greenwood with a muscet. 

ab. Thomas Linter. 
ab. John Pinssers. 

Steeven Pit. 
ab. William Barker, the elder. 

William Tayler. 
ab. Richard Cheas. 



The names of the Peionors. 
[Larence Plidger and Richard Paige] (erased). 
John Barker, hors post. 
John Pitter, foote post. 

Vitllers John Luf and Richard Plidger the younger. 
Carters Arter Cornwel, Benge Paige and Henry Burch. 

Spear Men. 
musk. James Poell. 

— Peeter Heath. 

— Umphery Biges. 

— William Parker, 
musk. John Weiet. 

ab. William Chrispe 
ab. Francis Miles, 
ab. William Hide, 
ab. Andrew Hickman. 

musk. Thomas Paterick. 
Larenc Brasier. 
ab. Larenc Pinssers. 
ab. Robberd Holt, 
ab. John Hide. 

— William Barker the younger. 

— Neckolas Bokkis. 

— James Bate. 

— Thomas Horn. [MS. f. 12 v. 

The Names of the Spare Men within Tythinge of [s^/^f':rL'] (?). 

Henry Beale. 
William Whitcher. 
Robert Whicher. 
John Stummer. 
Robert Wells. 
[William Hide] erased. 
John Inwood. 
Robert Brigger. 
Robert Betsor. 

Nicholas Polen. 
Humfrey Deane. 
Thomas Jacob. 
Arthure Tanner. 
Edward Polen. 
John Wiat. 
Thomas Yalden. 
Thomas Hunt. 

Rychard Jenman, 


[MS. f. 137 V. 

List of te7i Hampshire Women concerned in the payment of certain 
Slims of money (Pearly 17th cent.). 


Goodwife Hardinge of Hakle 
„ Gaman of Hakle 
„ Sharpe of Steepe 
„ Eames of Lesse 
„ Tyler of Leese 
„ Chilese 
„ Rose of Leese 
„ Wheatle of Leese 
„ Veryam of Hearting 
„ Bakere of Frokesfeeld 

Margerie Winnige 


of medlee 
of medlee 
of medlee 
of medlee 
of medle 

[Written on blank leaf in the binding of Goodyer's copy of Crescenfms.'] 
Goodyers Notes relating 

Edward Williamson 
Shidfield,^ husb.. 

of Lippock 

all actions. 
Seaminge lace 
Edginge lace 
Edging lace 
Lace for ij Capps 

to a shopping excursion to Winchester. 
Butcher to release to Richard Costen of 

ij yards 
I yard 
I yard \ 
j ell 


One ell of Halland for ij Capps 18^ 

Caried to Win ton 
S. money 

[Goodyer's rough draft of a description of the 
same sheet.] 

^ Shed field, South of Bishops Waltham 

58 2^ 
3s id 


Elm is on the 
[MS. f. 4. 



Goodyer's Memoranda for sJiopping for a lady, probably in Lo7idoit, 

c, 1621. 

20 yards of galome lace. 
4 doz. buttons. 

Horns (?) fustian 2 yards 3 qters. 
Canvis j ell. 

8 skeynes of sticching 1 1 ir • n -n 

8 skeynes of sowinge f ^^^^ '''^^ 
2 oyle skins. 

half a yard of Jeynes Fustian. 

Cambrick j ell & qter at 3^ 6^^ or ... ell. 

^pis Benwyn at the little Mineries neare Algate. if she wil paie to gev a 
discharge from Holman, windmil (?) and Inkforbies wife. 

The fan of a pinke color. Morgan to doe. 

8 yards of 4^^ rebon of y® same pinke color, to desire M^*^ Ison for a patterne of 
ye bredth & color. 

6 yards of 2^ rebon of y® same colour. The fans handell to be doble gilt. 

Mr. Bull was pd 5^ for 5 q*®'"^ ended y« 30*^ of Januarie 1621. 
Mr. Wilson of Barbican. 

50 needles of all sorts, none to bigge. 
a girdle of stuff 18^ pise russet color, 
a pound of Annis seed comfitts. 
half a pound of English liquerish. 
[A list of books on same page.] 

[MS. f. 46. 

Memorandum relating to Cor 71. 1631. 

Wheate in y« lobell 13^ 

of Hughes 20^ Litle lobell ^2"^ 

of Voke 14^ (?) Jemox 23^ 2<i 

Little lobell 3^ j^i 
Win 4^ 31 (?) Jmox 2 

Oct. 6 4^ Sept. 29 Mill 2 

,,17 8^ Oct. 6 Mill 2 

50^ 31 Oct. 13 Mill 3 

Oct. 20 Mill 2 — 2^ 2<» 

[MS. f. 132. 

A71 account of purchases^ probably for his zvife, in 1634. 

I yard ha. & ha. qter of white Cotton at 12*^ . i 7^ 

I skyn 11' 

3 yards of fustian Rebon 06 

10 paire of hooks & eyes o 2\ 

Canvis in the wostbud (?) & bustian . . .02 

Silk 02 

6 Buttons . . . ' 01 

3 10 

Making the hose . .12 

lengthening the other .8 i 10 

5 8 

[MS. f. 14. 


Accounts 1646-50. 

Paye 7: y: behind 4^* 13* 4'* of this 
ReC' 1646: 6» 8^ and in May 1647 
payd all but since Michaelmas 1649. 

Stocker oweth i 18 Midsommer 1650. 

besides this half i 8 

Tomlinson d 13 9 [4 lines illegible] 

i^i i8« 

ded: i^' i2« 


Knight 040 

Wayd 010 

Bold 0 13 4 

A Long (?) ded: 

This half ded: io'« 




ded: i 

Hall to ded: 2^ p. annum 












owes 4^ 2^ to Keens to 

Anthony Corper 




Paied 8*^, do a rent 3^ 



Isaak Knight 




Collins ded. 13 4 








Baker on high 




Thomas sen. 




ded 1 2 4'i 

John Pescod 




Cariage payd 




R. Rogers Life 




Rd. Eomes ded: 3^ 2^^ & 

J. Roke behind 0 yr 

4 II and 

besides this halfe 




L. Rent i« 3^^ 




Lady day 1650. 

Eomes last ded: 6^' 

till the R day 


Goodyer's views on medicine were evidently those of his senior by nine 
years, Lord Herbert of Cherbury. Lord Herbert conceived it a * fine 
study, and worthy a gentleman to be a good botanic, so that he may know 
the nature of all herbs and plants'. A gentleman should know how to 
make medicines himself. 

Tonic for a horse: a snuff: purchase of tobacco, 

880. e. Anisum 
557 g. calamintha 
702 f. n. violetts 
1 128 c. Spartium sp: broome: 

Richard Skillingeri i« Feb: 
Muscadine i pint ] pound ye sugar candy 
Sugar candy an ounce & putt in ye yolks 

Yolks of Eggs iij J with ye muse. & mak it luke vvarme & geve it your 
horse when you travell. 

Euphorbius putt into ye nose to sneese. 

Tabaco 4*^ 
Pulletts 4^ 
Alresford 4*1 

[MS. f. 4. 

1 The Skillings were a well known Hampshire family, A Richard Skilling sold the 
Manor of Lainston in 16 13 {Vict. County Hist. Hants, iii, p. 445). 



Ointment for the Spleen^ e. 1621. 

Unguentum et emplastrum per liene 
11- olei de capparibus 
de absinthio 
amygdal: am: 
aceti scillini 

Misceantiir probe, et inbregatur plen per dies 7 mane 
et vespi, dein apponatur emplastrum sequens 
1^ gummi amoniaci clari in aceto scillini solut 
piperis nigri 
olibani puri ana 5vj 
In mortario calido misceantur et applicetur parti calide. 

Put a little vinegar in a hot morter, and you putt the amoniacum and stirr it 
with a pestell and it will quickly be a plaister. 

Mr. Michaell Easton an apothecary on y® south side of y^ greate conduit 
neare Cheape Side And pray him to have the trewe Amml. 

[MS. f. 46 V. 

[ana 5vj 

List of plants. 

Beta Candida 

rough Hyssope. Hyssopus incana 
Acinos odoratissimum 
Auena nuda 

hawes of glassenbury thorne 
Astrantia nigra 
Eruca peregrina Clusii 
Cochlearia out of y® north 

Condrilla rara flore purpurante. cb.ii6 
Aster conyzoides Virginiana 
Helianthemum radice repente Vir- 

Ephemerum Virginianum 
Sumach vir. 

Slum segetum & agrorum, HonewoFt 

Cuminum Candiae 

Seseli massilense. thapsia. 

[MS. f. 46 V. 


conserv. floru fumariae et 1 

Radicum cichorei ]^^^ ^is 
pulpae cassiae 3iij 
confectionis hamech) 

ana 3 

diaprunis solut | 
pulv. subtilissimi foliorum Sennae 3iij 
tartari albi 3jfs 
pulveris electuaiij triasantali 3fs 
Misc & cu syrupo de citron compos. 

cij Rheo fiat electuarium instar opiatae. 

[Goodyer has copied out this prescription twice over.] 

[MS. f. 128. 

Hoggs grease I ^f^^j^ 
Sallett oyle 1 
Litarge of gold 

Recipe, c. 9 Feb. 1627. 



green Amoniac)^^^j^ 
Opopanax ) 

Boyled & made uppe by art into a plaister, the gummes must be clarified w^^ 
vinegar & made uppe into a true body. 

[MS. f. 129. 



Recipe : fragment of a petition : note on ailments of John Neale : 

note on local maladies of Selborne. 

20 Mar. 1662. 
Rosen that is blackish 
Fresh lard a wallnutt 
Crovvne sope a wallnutt 

Boil till it sets clere. H 

keepe stirringe. 
Som ... 

I This recipe is written in a shaky hand.] 

Mar. 22. John Neale in Lippock, the howse is called Gurmes, hadd a tliird 
Ague, & hath lost him about a moneth & nowe hath a great cough. 

The Line of Selborne Goute 

[These notes are wTitten by Goodyer on a fragment of a Petition of Glasier 
and Good of earlier date.] 

uppon all or any ye said premisse, not 
desistinge from youre Crueltyes and insolencyes, for ye entreatyes and 
lamentacong as well of yo"^ said poore subiects Richard Glasier and ye said 
Elizabeth Good, as of strangers and lookers on, intreatinge but forbearance 
untill harvest tyme was paste, for ye mowinge of ye grasse, — 

[MS. f. 16. 

Note of Localities of nortJicrn plants, perhaps supplied by Shanne : 

notes of books : method of taking Laudanum. 
Richard Shanne. 

Pyrola grovveth in shadowed woods in Craven, in a place called Craggie Close 
in Lansdale. 

Monophyllum groweth in Lancashire in Dingley Wood & in Harwood neare 
to Blackburne. [Quotation from Get^ard emac. p. 409. 

latrionices medicamentorum Simplicium liber 2 continens eo quos ad probus, 

ventrem, interanea que attinent. Otho Brunfelsii authore. 

Viaticii novu per Casparu Wolphiii 1565. 

Laudanu §fs gr. 2 to be given w. a little conserve of Roses or any other 
Conserve, and mare ale after it. 

[MS. f. 15. 

List of Chirnrgical Works. 

John Vigo w^^ certayne works published as by Tho: Gale. 
Philippe Barone works of Chirurg. v 
Ambrosius Parrius 

Tagaultius I Chirur: 

Franciscus Arcaeus I 
Jacobus Ruess de generacione hominis ) 
Variorumque Scotus or Chirurgie magnie 
Margarita Chyrurgica by S: H: student in Physicke. 
Schola Salerni. 
Banisters Chirurgerie. 
English Phlebotomy by Nicholas Guyer. 
Pathway to Health. 

Chimicall Phisicke and hermeticall Phisicke written by Josephus Luersi- 

tanus, translated by Tho: Tyme, minister. 
The secrets of Alexis of Piemount. 
The secrets of Albertus Magnus. 
Bord his brevary of Health. 

C C 



I [alls boke of Chirurgerie. 

Antidotarium speciale a Jo: Jacobo Vueckero. 

Bartholomewe Glanfeild translat per Stephen Batman, Chaplayne to the 

Erie of Oxford. 
Cochinelo ground mingled with water gumme water. 
Fernelius Judgement of Urines. 

[MS.f. 131. 



Weather record for the last part of May 16 21 (?). 


$ D 

n D 



A 5 )) 
A 7/$ i) 
A G ]) 
]) in apog. 


9 a. winds & clouds, 
full moon 
var cur. 

10 a. 

11 a. 
II a. 

[Written on a paper on which Goodyer afterwards wrote his draft description 
of the Jerusalem Artichoke on 17 Oct. 1621.] 

[MS.f. 116. 

Miscellaneous Notes. Lists of Fruit Trees and Plants. Dates of 


Rec. 9 Feb. 1627 of Christopher Potecary of Stockton 5 myle from Venny 
Sutton Clother. 

1. Burgomaster peare till Easter 

2. Kingekaterine 3 grafts lill All S. 

3. Painted peares 

4. Norwich peare 

Southt Wed. 

1. Harvey aple 

2. Ouadlinge aple 
bunch cherry 

lilli: convall: flo: rubro 
Aconitum luteum Ponticum 
Lamium Pannonicum 
Laburnum leaved trefoile 
Colutea minor 
An i sum 

Digitalis minor lutea 


Balsamita flo. alb. 

Aconitum flo. delphinii 

Geranium creticum vaiiegatum 

Paralisis flo: viridi simplici 

Sedum serratum 

Cotiledon minor 

Gelsimum luteum 

Fragaria fructu aculeato 

Geranium gratia dei batrachoides albo, 

coerul. et variegat. 
Thlaspi vaccariae folio 
Jacea Baetica 
Thlaspi Mechlinense 

„ Creticum 
Hissopus latifolia 

5 Mar. Wimbor[ne] 
Dor. lun. 10 Mar. Dorchester 

Somers. wed. 12 Mar. Chard 
Cornub. wed. 19 Mar. Lanceston 
Exon. civit. lune 24 Mar. Exon Gildhall 
Devon. Eadem die apud Cash . . . 
Wiltes martii j*^ Apr. apud Sarum 
18 Maij rem. 4^^ 5^ 4^ ob. 

[MS. f. 129. 

Salvia versicolor 
Paliurus ? 

Periclimenum rectum 
Laurus Tinus 
Xardus montana 
Gentianeila verna 
Ranunculus thalictri folio 
Polygonatum Virginianum 
Ignotum ex Virginia 
Tanacetum striatum et hissopus 
an Meum alterum 

Cicer arietinum flo. . . . et fructu albo 

Cicutaria max. 

Acanthus syl. 

Keyri max. 

Sorbus legittimus 

Jacea lutea 

Pimpinelia fl. albo 

Cirsium mont. mains 

[MS. f. 129. 


The following Alphabetical List (Index I) includes plants with 
which Goodyer was acquainted, or which happened to interest him. 
The great majority were in cultivation in English gardens or were 
those whose native habitat he had discovered. That it was not ex- 
clusively a garden-list is indicated by the presence in it of ' Quercus 
marina' and of other seaweeds, but it may have been a catalogue 
of one of his Horti sicci. There are two copies of this list in 
Goodyer's handwriting (MS. ii, fif. 47-59). The fair copy seems 
to have been written out in the winter of 161 7 and it remained 
in use for many years, for several additions dated 1618, 1625, 1^28, 
1634, &c., have been made later. A few of these added notes are 
printed below, in the form of foot-notes, but the greater number, 
being dated, have already been included among his descriptions of 
plants on page 109 ct seq. The names are mostly those used by 
Gerard and Lobel, with a few taken from Dodoens, Clusius, 
Deleschanips, and Matthiolus, a fact which points to the date of 
the compilation of the original list being anterior to the appearance 
of Bauhin's Pinax. Goodyer quotes references to pages of Lobel 
and Gerard (1597) throughout, but these, and his synonyms, have 
been omitted for the sake of economy of space. 

We interpret the letters C, P., or F. in the margin as meaning 
that the plants so marked were growing in the gardens of Coys, 
Parkinson, or Franqueville respectively. 

These two lists, written out as they were within a few months 
of one another and including additions up to the year 1634, are 
therefore of importance for tracing the spread of plants in English 
gardens. In the earlier list the number of plants marked P 
(Parkinson) is 239, in the later list 264, and the numbers of plants 
marked C (Coys) are 147 and 324 in the two lists respectively. 
Eight are marked as growing in Franqueville's garden. 

The indexes do not include the names in Tradescant's lists, 
printed on pages 331-46, which should also be consulted. 

c c 2 


Pt.ant-Names used by Goodyer. 

Names in ordinary type are printed from Goodyer MS. ii, ff. 47-59. 
Names in italics occur in Goodyer's other MSS., and are probably 
of later date than the others. 

C = grown in the garden of Coys. 

P = 
F = 

c Abies. 320 

Abrotanum mas. 
c „ foemina. 318 

Absinthium marinum album, 
Seriphium vulgare. 281 
P Absinthium folio Lavendulae. 

vulgare Ponticum. 
CP „ insipidum. 319, 353 

Acanthium album. 
C Acanthus svlvestris aculeatus. 

CP „ sativus. Brancaursina. 


C Acarna flo. rubro, like Carduus 
mariae, but higher & lesser. 145 
Acer maior. We call this a 

Sycomore tree. 
Acer ininor. 275,283 
Acetosa inaxivia. 194 
Achillea sideritis. 155 
Acinos. 120,166,280,296 
P Aconitum hyemale. 
CP ,, luteum Ponticum. 318 

CP ,, lycoctonum flore 

Delphinii. 318 
p Acorum legittimum. 177 
Adianthum album et nigrum. 263 
Adonir. 136, 319 

C Aegylops. 
CP Aethiopis. 305 
F Agnus castus. 326 

C Agrioriganum. 

Aizooii. 152 
CP Alaternus. 270,317,346,355 
CP Alcea peregrina. 
p „ vulgaris. 

,, vulgaris albo flore. in 
Alchimilla. 275, 306 

Alleluia offic. Opis alba. 275 
C „ offic. Opis lutea. 

Alliaria recentiorum. Ill 

„ ursinum latifolium. 260,27 5 
See also Index 

„ Parkinson. 
„ Franqueville. 

Allium silvestre tenuifolium. 

260, 316 


» nigra. 175, 287 

Aloe. 261 
C Alopecuros gramen. 321 

Alsine corniculata. 
CP „ repens maior baccifera. 

261, 318 

P maior 
,, minima 

,. hederacea) „• 
„ hederula [ Morsus galh. 

„ foliis trissaginis. 284 
„ my OS Otis. 129 
,, pahistris. 179 
., aquatica. 194,280 
„ floscidis coiiniventibus. 


,, serpillifolio. 275 
Althea. 287, 305, 346, 354 

C Alyssum Dioscoridis. 
C Amara dulcis. 
CP Amaranthus purpureus. 
CP Ammi vulgatius. 306, 320 

CP Amomum Plinii. 320 

Anagallis. 284 
CP ,, foemina coerulea. 287 
„ lutea. 187, 293 

,, aquatica. 

195, 282, 300 
5, aquatica tercia. 1 1 1 
IT Anagyris. 326 
P Anchusa lutea. 277 
C ,, supina lusitanica non 

Androsace. 150,281 
Androsaemum ; Climenon Italo- 
rum. 283 
P Anemone flo, pallido. I cannot 
sett downe the varieties I have 
seene. 306 
Anemone Cardinals Hatt. 

// and p. 334. 



Anemone pleno rubro. 
„ coeruleo. 
C „ nemorum albo pleno 

Acre. 318 
Anemone nemorum albo. 

„ nemorum purpurea. 
C Anelhum. 

Angelica sativa. 

silvestris. 275 


Anonis. 277,287,355 
CP Anthora. 

Anthyllis leguminosa Belgarum. 
,, montana Deles. 11 50. 
Anonymos lini folio Clus. 324 ; 
Leguminosa Belgarum Lo. O. 
87. Ger. 1060. Gerard's figure 
of Lagopus max. p. 1023 is 
likewise a trewe figure of this. 


c Anthyllis Valentina Lo. 421 ; 
Herniaria Boelii Clus. Cicr. 
post. p. 37. Ger. p. 452 hath 
a false figure. 318 
Antirrhinum album. 306 
C „ minimum. 

p „ minus. 

115, 143, 275. 292 
C „ mains Baeticum 

flore rubro. 

Aphaca. 275 
Apium hortense. 

„ crispum. 172 
C ,, Virginianum, Petrose- 

Aquifolium sive Agrifolium. 
P Aquilegia. 

I have seene of more colors 
than I can nowe remember. 

287, 347 

C „ multiplex, 

c Aracus maior Baeticus. 138 
„ minima. 193 

P Arbor vitae. 327 
C „ ^ Judae. 317, 346 

Arciiii7n montanum. 194, 2S0 
C Argemone. i55>32o 
„ capituiolongiore. 178 
AriaTheo[phrasti] Lo. o. 167. G. 
1 146. Why he calleth it a haw- 
thorne I knowe not. Deles. 
202 hath a very trewe figure of 
it. We call it quick beame. 

CP Arisarum latifolium. 319 
CP Aristolochia clematitis. 306 
P „ rotunda. 

Armeniaca malus. 
Armeria alba et rubra, & of 
scverall colours on one slalk. 
C Armeria varia. 346 
Artemisia. 284 
Arum offic. 280 
Arundo Vallatoria. 176,280 
I' Asaium. 
CP Asclepias fiore albo. 
CP flore nigro. 

Ascyron. 275, 283-4 

Asparagus sativus. 
CP „ flore coeruleo. 

Asphodeliis. 145, 319 

Asplenium. 263 
„ silvestris Tragi. 
CP Aster Italorum. 
CP „ conizoides ex Virginia. 

120, 347 

P Astragalus. 16, 347 

CP marinus. 140 

P Astrantia nigra. 347 
CP Atractylis flo. luteo. 

Atriplex marina repens. 285,300 
„ sativa alba. 
„ sativa purpurea. 
„ silvestris. 
P olida. 
Avena vesca. 
Avenaria ustilago. 
P Auricula ursi flore rubro. 
,, flore purpureo. 

P Baccharis Monspeliensium. 
C Balsamina foem. 
Balsamita mas. 
„ foem. 
C „ foem. flo. albo. Age- 


Barbarea. 320 
C ,, species. Beros ex 

Hispania. 317 
Bardana minor. 128 
Batata Virginiana. 320, 356 

,, Hispanorum at Mr. W°' 

Yaldens 21 Aug. 1637. 
Bellflower, Lesser. 132 
Bellis maior. 

,, maior silvestris. 

„ hortensis multiplex flore 


Bellis hortensis multiplex flore 

Bellis hortensis multiplex varie- 

C Bellis spinosa. 316, 318, 321 
Berberis. Holythorne. 
Beta rubra. 
„ alba. 

Sec also Index 11 and p. 334. 



Beta marina. 281, 285 

„ Cretica. 1 36 

C ,, maior Danica. 


flo. albo. 

319. 324 

., aquatica. 
Betula. 175 
Betulus. 275 
P Bistorta maior. Reddshancks 

or leggs._ 
P Bistorta minor. 347 
CP Blattaria flore luteo. 112 
C „ flore albo. 347 
purp. _ 327 

C maior lusitanica flo. 

Blitum. 320 
C sen Amaranthi species 

sem. nigro, like Amaranthus 

C Blitum spinosum Creticum. 136 

Bonus Henricus. 
C Borago hortensis. 128 
C hortensis flo. albo. 

,, semper virens, 
CP Botrys. 260 
Brassica vulgaris sativa. 
„ florida botrytis. 
„ marina monospermos. 


capitata alba. 
„ capitata rubra. 
„ prolifera. Colewort. 
Bromos sterilis. 

Bryonia alba. 262 
,, nigra. 127, 262 

Buglossa hispanica. 277 
Buglossum angustifolium. 
., echioides luteum. 
CP „ scorpioides. 131, 318 
Bugula. 280 
P Bupthalmum Dod. 327, 354- 
C primum Mathioli. 

Gerard hath the same fig. 
under the title of Buph- 
thalmum album p. 607. 

154, 318 

Bursa pastoris. 

Buio77ins. 177, 258 

Buxus. 347 

P Cachris verior. Gerard, p. 858, 
hath the figure of Seseli massi- 
liense Mathi. for it. 
Cahwiagrostis. 172, 288 

CP Calamintha montana praestan- 

Calamintha montana vulgaris. 

aquatica Belgarum. 


P Calceolus Mariae. 347 
Calendula simplici flore. 
3, prolifera. 
C ,, siivestrismediofusca 


C Calendula silvestris medio lutea 

Caltha palustris. 347 
P ,, palustris multiplex. 
CP Campanula persici-folia. flo. 
albo et caeruleo. 347 
Campanula minor rotundifolia. 
Cannabis sylvestris spuria altera. 
„ sylvestris tercia. 
„ spuria. 194 
CP Capnos altera fabacea radice. 



Caput gallinaceum Belgarum. 


Cardamine altera. Lady smocks. 


i7}2patie7is. 189 

P Cardiaca. 

Carduus acaulis septentriona- 
lium. 145 
P Carduus Mariae lacteus. 

i45> 320 

C „ flo. nu- 


CP Carduus globosus maior. 327 
CP „ globosus minor. 
„ stellatus. 
„ e7'iocephahis, see Co- 
rona fratrum. 320 
C Carduus stellatus flo. luteo 
Carduus Benedictus. 

C „ bulbosus monspel. 

I44< 3I9 

,, viarum flo. purpureo \ 
viarum flo. albo \ 

We have a kind here that 
smells like Musci. 
Carlina silvestris. 112 
C Caryophyllata maior rotundi- 

P Caryophyllata vulgaris. 

Caryophyllus marinus. 
C proliferus. 
C „ repens. 

multiplex. I have 
seen more varieties of them 
than 1 can set downe. 

Sec also htde?: II n>id p. 33. 













Carum. C 

Castanea. 174,346 c 


Cataputia minor. 

Cnttaria tuber osa . 161,318 

Caucalis maior Lusit. 128 c 

,, vulgaris albis floribus. 

„ nodoso echinato se- 
mine. 114 
Caucalis alterum script. c 

„ puinila. 195 P 

Cauda muris. 

Centaurium floribus luteis. 

maius. 275, 305-6 
,, parvum. 

maius flore luteo. c 

Cepa alba. 
„ rubra. 

Cerasus nigra. P 
„ Virginianus. 321 
„ vulgaris. 

vulgaris duplici flore. 
Cerefolium vulgare. 263 
Cerinthe flore luteo. 128, 180 
„ flore rubro. 128, 320 
Ceterach. 230 
Chamaecerasus. 326 
Chamaecyparissus. G. 952, p 
which is the figure of Muscus 
terrestris clavatus alter Mathi. cP 
p. 120. Most authors take this c 
plant to be Abrotanum foem. c 
1 knowe not where there is c 
a trewe figure of our Lavender c 
Cotton. C 
Chamaedrys. CP 
„ sylvestris. 
„ laciniatisfoliis. 
Chamaefilix marina. 
Chamelaea tricoccos. 

„ albo duple flore. 


nudum odora- 
tum. 281 
Chamaemespilus Gesneri. 

Chamaenerium Gesneri. iii 
Chamaepytis mas. 275 P 

„ vermiailata. 179 C 

Characias monsp. 

„ amygdaloides, our 
Chelidonium maius. 357 C 

„ minus. 1 1 5, 359 CP 
Chondrilla semine deciduo p 

Chondrilla coeruleo flore. 326 
Christophoriana. 288, 329 





Chrysanthemum creticum. 134 
„ spinosum Boe- 


Chrysanthemum segetum. G. 
605 a false figure. 135 

Chrysanthemum Boeticum non 
scriptum. 135 

Chrysanthemum tenuifol. Boe- 
ticum. 135 

Cicer rubrum velarietinum. 306 

Cicercula Clus: 236, it is like to 
Lathyrus. 354 sativum coeruleum. 


„ silvestre. 
„ flo. rubro. 
J, verrucaticm. 151 

Cicutaria latifolia foetidissima. 
„ palustris. 
„ tenuifolia. G. 905. It 
is ye fig. of Myrrhis Math, 
p. 814. Turner 2 pt. fol. 60 
calls it Mock Chervell, but 
what C^sshes there mentioned 
should be, 1 knowe not. 
Circaea lutetiana. 
Cirsium anj^licum. 

„ maius. 
Cistus mas. 




annuus semine albo. 
Clematis peregrina flo. rubro. 
,, daphnoides maior. 348 
„ daphn. minor flore 

Clematis daphn. minor flore 

Clematis daphn. minor flore 

purpureo pleno. 
Clematis coerulea Pannonica. 


flo. purpureo. 
Cnicus flore coeruleo. 
Cochlearia Batava. 
„ Britanica. 
„ rotundifolia maior. 
„ rotundifolia minor. 


Colchicum flo, albo et purpurea. 

no, 300 

Colus Jovis. 319, 320 

Colutea Theophrasti. 

„ scorpioides. 
Coniza media. 


aquatica laciniaia. 193 


Sec also Index II and p. 354. 



Coniza cojrulea. 162 
G Consiligo Ruellii. 
p Consolida regalis. 281 
„ regalis florepurpureo. 
regalis albo. 
regalis rubro. 
,, regia segetum. 
Convohniliis minor. 

coe7-uIeiis viinof' 
Baeticus. 129 
Convolvulus coeruletcs Bryoniae 
folio. 153 
C Coriandrum. 
c Cornu cerviiim ex Italia, 
p Cornus mas. 305, 346 

„ foemina. 346 
CP Corona fratrum. 109, 127, 146 

„ repens Ruellii. 261 
P Cortusa Mathioli. 

Corylus persimilis Aeno. Nux 

Corylus sylvestris. 
Cotonea mala. Quince tree. 
Cotula foetida. We call it 
Margin. * 135^ 3oo 

Cotyledon aquaticum. 
C J, maior Hispanica. 319 
Crateogonon rubrum. 118 
Crista galli offic. 261 
Crithmum. 193, 357 

Cruciata minor. 352 
C Cucumis asininus. 347 

„ sativus. 
P Cupressus. 306, 337 

Cuscuta. 112, 163 

P Cyanus maior. 

„ vulgaris flo. coeruleo. 


C ,, varius. 
CP Cyclamen folio Hederae. 

284, 319 

CP Romanum orbiculato 

folio. 319 
C Cymbalaria Italica. 163, 317 
Cynara maxima. 

maxima alba. 
C „ sylvestris. 

Cynocrambe. G. 263 hath ye 
fig. of Phyllon Achenogonon 
for it. 275 
Cynoglossum maximum. 

147, 284 


C Daucus Cretensis. 284,318,359 
„ Hispaniacs. 327 
Dens leonis vulgaris. 115, 319 
P Dentaria bulbifera. 123,186 
P Digitalis ferruginea. 186,327 
P „ flo. pallido luteo. 327 
„ purpurea. 262 
C alba minor. 

Dipsacus sativus. 
„ silvestris. 
PC Doronicum Romanum. 347 
Draco herba. 
Dracontia anguina. 
Dryopteris. 183, 189,275, 302 

p Ebulus. 

Echium vulgare. 
c ,, flo. rubro. 
c angustifolio. 



C ,, omnium maximum Lusi- 
tanicum flo. carneo. 317 
Elatine Dioscorid : Veronica 
foemina Fuchsii altera. 163 
Enula campana. 
E pier ion. 275 
p Epimedium. 

Equisetum. 282, 284 

Erica. I have not observed the 
differences. 280, 288 

C Eruca maior flo. albo. 320 
„ palustris mijior. 292 

„ silvestris. 
p Ervila. 16, 141 

CP Eryngium coeruleum Alpinum. 
c „ Alpinum flo. albo. 


CP „ luteum Monspel. 
,, Mediterraneum. 

marinum. 1 10 

Erysime similis. 
CP Erysimum Italicum & Mathioli. 
„ Diosc. 
„ Theo. 

„ ii Tab. 191, 293 
P Esula maior. 263 



Boeticum Buglossi 

Cyperus longus. English Galin- 

Cyperus g ramineus. 175 
CP Cytisus maior sempervirens. 317 

.Sec also Index II and p. 334. 

Euonimus Theophrasti. 346 
Eupatorium cannabinum foem. 

„ mas. 275 
Euphrasia. 283 
„ 2^ Dodonaei. 117 
„ 2 Dod. flo. albo. 150 

Faba maior recent. 
CP ,, silvestrisGraecorum. Faba 
veterum. 140 



C Faba veterum serratis foliis. 140 
Fagus. 188, 189 

Ferrum equinum Germanicum 
siliquis in sunimitate. 187 
CP Ferula. 
p „ Indica. 
P Filipendula. 

Filix mas. 1 8 1-3 

„ foem. 

spinosa. 230 
„ palustris. 230 
P Flammula Jovis subrecta. 359 
CP Flos Adonis flo. rubro. 136, 319 
P Africanus. 
P solis. 166 

P „ solis Peruvianus. 167 
Foeniculum vulgare. 296 
„ dulce. 
C silvestre Lusitani- 

cum. 318 
CP F'oenugraecum. 

Fontilapathum pusillum. 

„ maior subalba. 
,, sterilis. 
CP Fraxinella. 

Fraxinus. 114 
Frumentum Turcicum. We call 

it Virginian wljeate. 
Fumaria. 263, 359 

,, claviculisdonatis. 151 
Fungi. 196,278,283,353 


306, 327 


C „ flo. albo. 
c Galeopsis Clus. legittimo. 

317, 359 

C ,, Pannonica flo. rubro. 
flo. albo lusit. 
„ flo. rubro elegantis- 
simo Boetico. 317 
Galium luteum. 113 
„ album. 192 
CP Genista Hispanica. 353 
„ Scoparia vulgi. 
„ Scorpius primus Clusii. 

Genista spinosa min or. 189,282 
„ „ 7najor. 190 

Genistae rapum. 
Genistella infectoria. 

aculeata. We call this 
CP Gentiana maior. 284 
CP concava. 
P ,, minor sive Cruciata. 

„ minima. 287 
P Geranium flore coeruleo. 
P „ malvoides. 

Geranium Columbinum. 

191, 281, 293, 301 
„ Robertianum. 281 
CP „ Haematodes. 319 



„ moschatum inodoruni. 
,, sanguinar. 
c Creticum. 147 

c „ Boeticum species. 146 
,, saxatile. 185 
„ Roma7iiun. 327 
Gladiolus palustris. 258 
Glastum sativum. 
Glaux vulgaris. 140 
„ ixiguamarittima. Atrewe 
figure in Delesc. p. 487. 352 
Glycirrhiza. 275, 283 

Gnaphaiium Americanum. 148 
„ vulgare. 
„ inarinum. 148 
Gramen iunceum. 282 
„ fluviatile. 

,, exile hirsutum. We call 
this Hares here. 285 
Gramen marinum spicatum. 
„ aquaticum Cyperoides. 


„ caninum. 257 
„ caninum nodosum. 
„ tomentarium. 
„ leucanthemum. 
„ cristatum. 157 
„ bufonhwi. 275 
„ treinulum. 158, 285, 289 
„ pa7iiceum. 195 
Gramen sp. 

249, 257, 282, 285-6, 289 
c • „ lupuli glumis. 158,347 
c „ striatum. 
CP „ plumosum. 289, 318 
„ Alopecuroides. 282 
,, ak^KTpvovvpo^. 10 Feb. 
1622. 171 
Gramen parnassi. 180 
CP Gratiola. 305, 317 

„ latifolia. 301 
P Guaiacum Patavinum. 

Halicacabus. 2j^, 359 

P Halymus vulgaris. G. 420. No 

good figure. 
C Halymus surrectus Clusii. 320 
Hedera corymbosa communis. 
„ terrestris. 
CP Hedysarum clypeatum. 147, 3 18 
P „ sine securidaca.305 

C „ securidaca maior 


See also Index J I and p. 334. 



C Heliotropium Indicum vel Vir- 
ginianiim. Yow had lately 
planted it when I was at your 
howse 25 Martii 161 7. 

109, 166, 317 

CP Helleborastrum. 
P Helleborine. 275, 292 

P Helleborus albus. 337 
FP albus flo. atroru- 

bente. 326 
CP Helleborus niger varus. 327, 347 
Helxine. 237 
C Hepatica trifolia coeruleo pleno 
flore. 319 
P Hepatica exalbido flore. 

C „ maius. 155,319 

Herba aqtcatica 7'ubescens. 187 
CP Herba Doria. 119,319 
CP „ altera serrato folio. 


P Herba Paris. 110,275,307 
P Herniaria. 327 
Hieratium alterum grand ius. 284 
„ longius radicatum. 
„ aphacoides. Succorie 
hawk weed. I have seen an- 
other Hieratium of 4 or 5 foot 
high having a round smoothe 
stalk. 283 
C Hieracium falcatum maius. 149 
C ,, falcatum minus. 

C ,, medio nigrum flore 

majore. 149 
C Hieracium medio nigrum ilore 
minore. 149 
Hieracium stellatum. 149 
,, intybaceuin, 149 
,, latiosnm. 150 
CP Hippoglossum bonifacia. 
P Hippolapathum rotundifolium. 

„ sativum latifo- 


Hipposelinum. 347 
C ,, marittimum 

Ouicki. 318 
Holostewn. 193, 280, 293 

Bone wort. 123 
Hop. 114 
Hordeum spurium. 

distichon. Lo. 29. 
Ger. calls this Polystichum, 
p. 64, which is false or els his 
fig. is misplaced. 
C Hordeum nudum. 

Hordei distichi ustilago. 
Horminum sylvestre sive oculus 
Christi. 289 
P Horminum sylvestre Pannoni- 
cum. 156 

C Horminum flore coeruleo. 
Hydrolapathum magnum. 
CP Hyosciamus albus. 

„ niger. 
C „ luteus. 

c ,, albus lutescens 

medio purpureus. 
C Hypecoum Clusii. 129, 306, 309 
P Hypericum. 302 
„ Syriacum. 
„ exiguum Tragi. 

„ tomentosum. 
Hyssopus ofRc. flo. coeruleo. 115 
C „ flo. albo. 319 

Jacea maior. 165 
C paiustris lusitanica non 

script. 164, 317 

C Jacea repens luteo flore. 317 
C „ albo flore. 110,317 
C „ capitulis hirsutis. 164, 317 
P marina. 317 

P ,, marina Baetica. 
C ,, Baetica aestiva. 

Jacobaea marina. 284 
,, Pimnonica. 194, 289 

„ Americanum. 
C Ignotum ex Virginea flo. Chry- 
santhemi parvo radice repenti, 
like to Lysimachia lutea. 
P Ilex glandifera. 

P Imperatoria. 284 
Iris alba. 
„ paiustris lutea. 177 

C Isatis silvestris vaccaria. 261 
Juncus laevis. 

„ aquaticus maximus. 
Juniperus. 123, 195 

Kali geniculatum. 
„ minus. 


CP Laburnum. 320 
Lactuca sativa. ' 

p agnina. 133, 284 

P „ agrestis. 1 59 

„ capitata. 

C Virginiana. 319 
C crispa. 

„ sylvestris. ill, 158 

Lagopus. 144 
CP „ flore ruberrimo. 284 
Lamium album. 

„ rubrum. 281 

„ luteum. 281, 317 

P „ Pannonicum. G. 568, 

a false figure. 156 

See also Index II and p. 334. 



C Lamium Pannonicum. 2 Clusii. 
Lampsana. Hastie Roger, for 
cutts. 149 
Lapathiim sanguineum. 
„ acuium. 

folio minus acuto. 
Lappa maior. Bardana maior. 
Lathyrus sylvestris fioribus 

Lathyrus latiore folio 137 
C palustris Lusit. 137 

C „ Creticus belli. 

,, perenni radice. 
C ,, Orobeus Boeticus. 
C Dumetorum Baetic. 138 

„ aestivtis Baetiais. \yj 
„ viajor ang. 195 
FP Laurocerasus. 326 
Laurus mas. 

Legumen pallidum. 139 
C Lens minor. 

„ palustris. 
Lens mhior. 1 1 1 

Lepidium Aeginetae. 
Leucojum luteum duplici flore. 
C „ luteum simplici flore. 

Wall-flower & Hartesease. 
lone Grant : Turner calls 
it so. 
Leucojum album. 

„ purpureum. 
P „ Patavinum marinum. 

„ melancholicu7n. 327 
P Levisticum. Lo. 703. G. 855 
hath ye fig. of Siler montanum 
for it ; and hath put the figure 
of Levisticum mathi. p. 853 
for Laserpitium. 
c Levisticum verum Gerardi. 319 
Lichen. 230 

„ marinus. 
P Lilium Convallium. 

„ Convallium rubro flore. 
Limonium. 285 
Linaria. 118, 324 

C aestiva minor. 143 

Linum sativum. 

Lintim catharticuin. IC9, 112 
P Lithospermum maius. 

„ minus. 
Lolium album. 
F Lotus arbor. 326, 339, 346 
CP ,, siliquosus. Pisum quad- 
ratum. 139 
Lunaria minor. no, 263, 264 
CP Lupinus sativus flo. luteo. 
P „ „ flo. coeruleo. 

Lupinus coeruleo maior. 

ex coeruleo albo. 
„ Indicus flo. coeruleo 
medio purpureo. 
Lupulus salictainus. 

„ sylvestris. 
Luteola. 134 
Lycl.nis sylvestris albus multi- 

Lychnis sylvestris cauliculis stri- 

atis albo flore. 
Lychnis sylvestris rubello flore. 


„ „ fl. carneo, 

flo. albo. 
,, „ flo. mi- 

niato et carneo. 
Lychnis coronaria alba. 

coronaria rubra. 
„ coronaria flo. suaveru- 

LychnismarinaAnglica. 282,318 
Lysimachia lutea. 275 
flore Delphinii. 
coerulea. 320 
purpurea spicata. 



siliquosa ex Boria- 
libus Virginiae. 159 
Lysimachia forte. Wiltshere. 


Majorana nostras. 120 

„ silvestris. Crabbe tree, 
vvildinge tree. 
Malva rosea fruticosa. 
C rosea multiplex 

(albo ] 
j rubro \ flore. 
( purpureo] 
Malva silvestris repens pumila. 
silvestris precocior vulgaris, 

„ vesicaria. Vide Alcea 
Malva aestiva flo. ampio Baet. 


CP Mandragoras mas. 339 
P „ foem. 

P Maracoc Virginiana. 165, 320 
Marrubium album. 

„ aquaticum vulgi. 
„ nigrum. 287 
Marum, herbe Mastick. 
Matricaria nostras. 


See also Index 71 nnd p. 334. 



C Matricaria grato odore. 

Medica spinosa. 142 
anghca. 141 
„ pericarpio piano. 143 
C minor elegans. 

C „ marina spinosa. 
c vulgaris. 

M elampirum. 1 1 8 

c Melilotus Italica. 126, 317 

CP „ Germanica flo. albo. 


„ coronata. 
„ Indiae. 126 
C Melissa Turcica. 

Melo. Muske Melon. 165 
P Mentha Cattaria. 
C „ Cattaria media. 

„ Cattaria minima. 

Muscus marinus sive corallina. 
Myagrum monospermon. 


thlaspi facie. 

Cattaria tuberosa. 


C Romana ofific. 319 

sativa rubra. 
,, Sisymbria aquatica. 
F Danica. 326 

C „ montanum. 

Ill, 318 

CP Mercurialis mas. 327 
CP „ foemina. 

c species forte ex Vir- 

CP Meum. 348 
P Mezereon Germanorum. 
CP Millefolium odoratum sive no- 
bile. 319 
P Millefolium luteum. 

„ terrestre purpureis 
Millefolium terrestre vulgare. 
„ flore & semine Ra- 

Millegrana minima. 275 
Mill mountaine. 109,112 
CP Mirabilia Peruviana. 
Moly serpentinum. 

Morsus Diaboli. 

,, Ranae. 
Morus Candida. 

celsa offic. 
Muscatella Cordi. 126, 291 
CP Muscipula. 348 
Muscus terrestris vulgaris, 
„ ramosus floridus. 
„ pyxidatus. 230 
„ peltatiis. 230 
„ clavatus. 
,, scoparius. 

CP Myrrhis. 

Myrtus Brabantica. 


Napellus verus coeruleus. 348 
C minor serotinus. 

Napus sive Bunias. 

„ silvestris. 290 
P Nasturtium Indicum. 
C „ hortorum crispum. 

„ hortense. 
„ aquaticum. The 
fig. is misplaced in Ger. p. 200. 
Sion cratervae Erucae folium 
Lo. 209. 

Nepeta media. 162 
P Nerium. Oleander. 

Nidus avis. 126, 195, 290 

C Nigella Delphinium elatius var. 

C Nigella trigonum Lusitanicum. 
CP Romana flo. albo. 

152, 348 

„ vniltiplex. 152 
„ €lega7is. 153 
Nummularia. 261 
Nux Juglans. 112,174 
Nymphaea alba. 

„ lutea. 262, 281 

Ocymoides semper virens, Clus. 


C Oenanthe cicute facie. 319 
C „ fiiipendula aquatica. 


115, 143, I95> 327 
C stellata. 
Olea silvestris. 
Ornithopodium perpusillum. 
Orobanche. 1 26 

C Orobus ex Venetiis. 
P ,, recept herbariorum. 
Osmunda. 275 
CP Oxalis franca. 319 
,, tenuifolia sinuata verve- 

Oxis, vide Alleluia. 
Oxyacantha. Hawthorne. 

286, 292 

CP Paeonia mas. I heard of one 

with doble flowers. 
CP Paeonia foemina. 

foemina multiplex rubro 


Palma. 1 84 

Sec also Index II and p. 334. 



C ,, selino Italorum, 

Panax coloni. Lamium ut puto. 
CP heracleum alteram re- 

C Panicum vulgare. 

„ sylvest?-e. 1 20 

P Papaver spiimen. 

„ album sativum. 
C ,, album multiflorum. 

corniculatum flore lu- 


Papaver cornutum flo. rubro. 

283, 290 

„ rhaeas. 155 
CP „ spinosum, Clus. 320 
Parietaria. 118 
Paronychia alsine folia. 290 

„ rutaceo folio. 
Pastinaca domestica vulgi. 

sativa atro rubens. 
latifolia sylvestris. 
„ sativa Diosc. 

silvestris tenuifolia. • 
„ aquatica mi?tor. 116 
„ latifolia. 1^6 

„ maxima.i'j6 
Pedicularis. 263, 290 

P Pentaphyllon maius. Quinque- 

P Pentaphyllon minimum alpinum 
Pentaphyllon supinum Tor- 
mentillae facie. 275 
Pentaphyllon vulgare. 
Pepo oblongus. 
„ rotundus. 
CP Perfoliatum vulgatius. 261, 281 
CP Periclymenum rectum. 

281, 301, 320, 346 
„ perfoliatum. 

non perfoliatum. 
P Periplocarepens folio angustiore. 


,, recta latifolia Virgini- 

Persica malus. 131, 321 

,, malacatone. 
Persicaria Hydropip